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Iim calcutta indian social structure - land acquisition and rehabilitation

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  • 1. Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 2. Categories of displaced people ABRUPT2. Refugees and repatriates3. Displaced due to natural disasters (Floods, earthquakes, drought, famine etc.)----------------------------------------------------------- PLANNED3. Displaced due to Developmental Projects (Construction of dams, railways, new ports, towns, urban infrastructure, inception mining and industrialisation, power generation etc.), THE MOST WIDESPREAD EFFECT OF INVOLUNTARY DISPLACEMENT IS THE IMPOVERISHMENT OF CONSIDERABLE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE. Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 3. INCOME( Rs) MONTH Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 4. The essence of thedisplacement/resettlement nexus is• The development-induced IMPOVERISHMENT of some population segments [“If you are to suffer, you should suffer in the interest of the country…” Jawaharlal Nehru, speaking to villagers who were to be displaced by the Hirakud dam,1948]• The efforts to PREVENT AND OVERCOME IT4. HOW DOES IMPOVERISHMENT THROUGH DISPLACEMENT OCCUR?5. HOW CAN IT BE PREVENTED? Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 5. HOW DOES IMPOVERISHMENT OCCUR? The most important sub-processes that converge in impoverishment due to displacement• Landlessness• Joblessness• Homelessness• Increased morbidity• Food insecurity• Loss of access to common property• Social disarticulation. Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 6. HOW TO PREVENT IMPOVERISHMENT? Reverse the model on its head : model for the positive re-establishment of displacedLandlessness : Land-based resettlementJoblessness : Employment creationHomelessness : Shelter programmmesIncreased morbidity : Improved health careFood insecurity : Adequate nutritionLoss of access : Reconstruction of community assetsSocial disarticulation: Purposive community reconstruction THE BASIC POLICY MESSAGE- The intrinsic socio-economic risks must be bought under control through appropriate strategy. Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 7. A rehabilitation package for the displaced : Modification suggested with the help of IRR Model Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 8. Cause of Rehabilitation package Measuresimpoverishment suggested 1. Compensation for land 1. Guidance for acquired investmentLANDLESSNESS 2. Guidance for improved cultivation in the land that will be left with them after acquisition 1. 1/10th of an acre of land for homestead purpose 2. House of 250 sq ft in the rehabilitation colony with necessary infrastructure or compensation for the lost house. 3. Rs 500 per month per familyHOMELESSNESS for 1 yr. if land is vacated by a given date. 4. Rs 300 for construction of temporary shed at new site. OR : A grant of Rs 30,000 Copyright Kalyan Mandal 5. Rs 15,000 for encroachers.
  • 9. 4. MARGINALISATION - - Provision for5.INCREASED - 1. Community health care MORBIDITY 2. Drainage and sanitation 3. Protected water supply6. FOOD INSECURITY 1. Provision for Public - Distribution System7. LOSS OF ACESS TO 1. Providing grazingCOMMON PROPERTY - land, ponds etc. 1. Rehabilitation site to - be divided in displaced village wise sectors and8. SOCIAL villagers to be resettledDISARTICULATION village wise. 2. Ethnic group wise resettlement in the new site. Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 10. Common causes of failure of rehabilitation• Policy :Compensation and not on income re-establishment• Finances : Financial resources fall short• Methodology : Externalize costs rather than internalize• Weak institutions : Lack a policy mandate, organizational capacity• Authoritarianism : Non participatory Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 11. Approaches to Resettlement•Monetary compensation approach•Employment oriented approach•Administrative approach•Purchasing of land approach•Developmental approach•Participatory approachFormulation of rehabilitation plan and its implementation should be done through participatory method. Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 12. Some areas of concern• 75% of the displaced people have not been ‘rehabilitated’• Majority of the displaced people belong to marginasied section of the society• Land Bank• Infrastructure and land acquisition• The new act. Copyright Kalyan Mandal
  • 13. • Impoverishment risk can be successfully attacked• Livelihood reconstruction, however difficult, is feasible• The body of replicable positive experiences are growing continuously. *** Copyright Kalyan Mandal

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