Ultra Low Emission VehicleFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaAn ultra low emission vehicle is a vehicle that emits extremely low levels of air pollutants comparedto other vehicles. The term may be used in a general sense, but in some jurisdictions it is definedin law; low and ultra low emission vehicles may be given tax or other advantages, while high emissionvehicles may suffer restrictions or additional taxation.In CaliforniaA ULEV or Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle is a vehicle that has been verified by the Air ResourcesBoard of California, USA to emit 50% lesspolluting emissions than the average for new cars releasedin that model year. The ULEV is one of a number of designations given by the CARB to signify thelevel of emissions that car-buyers can expect their new vehicle to produce and forms part of a wholerange of designations, listed here in order of decreasing emissions:TLEV: Transitional Low Emission Vehicle. This is the least stringent emissions standard in California.TLEVs are phased out as of 2004.LEV: Low Emission Vehicle. All new cars sold in California starting in 2004 have at least a LEVemissions rating.SULEV: Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle. SULEVs are 90% cleaner than the average new modelyear car.PZEV: Partial Zero Emission Vehicle.PZEVs meet SULEV tailpipe emission standards, have zero evaporative emissions and a 15 year /150,000 mile warranty on its emission control components. No evaporative emissions means nounburned fuel escapes from the fueling system.AT PZEV: Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle.AT PZEVs meet the PZEV requirements and have additional "ZEV-like" characteristics. Adedicated compressed natural gas vehicle, or ahybrid vehicle with engine emissions that meet thePZEV standards would be an AT PZEV.ZEV: Zero Emission Vehicle.ZEVs have zero tailpipe emissions and are 98% cleaner than the average new model year vehicle.These include battery electric vehiclesand hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
Zero-emissions vehicleFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe GEM xLXD Neighborhood Electric Vehicle is a zero-emissions vehicle,Washington, D.C.A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV, is a vehicle that emits no tailpipe pollutants from the onboardsource of power. Harmful pollutants to the health and the environmentincludeparticulates (soot), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides ofnitrogen. Although not considered emission pollutants by the original California Air ResourcesBoard(CARB) or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) definitions, the most recent commonuse of the term also includes volatile organic compounds, several air toxics, and global pollutants suchas carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Examples of zero emission vehicles include muscle-powered vehicles such as bicycles; battery electric vehicles, which typically shift emissions to thelocation where the electricity is generated; and fuel cell vehicles powered by hydrogen, which typicallyshift emissions to the location where the hydrogen is generated.edit]Well-to-wheel emissionsThe term zero-emissions or ZEV, as originally coined by the California Air Resources Board(CARB),refers only to tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power. Therefore CARBs definition isaccounting only for pollutants emitted at the point of the vehicle operation, and the clean air benefitsare usually local because depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, airpollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the electricity generation plants. In a similar manner, a zero-emissions vehicle does not emit greenhouse gases from the onboardsource of power at the point of operation, but a well-to-wheel assessment takes into account thecarbondioxide and other emissions produced during electricity generation, and therefore, the extent of thereal benefit depends on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation. From the perspective of
a full life cycle analysis, the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated fromrenewable or clean sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric , or nuclear powerfor ZEVs to havealmost none or zero well-to-wheel emissions. On the other hand, when ZEVs are recharged fromelectricity exclusively generated by coal-fired plants, they produce approximately the samegreenhouse gas emissions as internal combustion engine vehicles.Other countries have a different definition of ZEV, noteworthy the more recent inclusion ofgreenhousegases, as many European rules now regulate carbon dioxide CO2 emissions. CARB role in regulatinggreenhouse gases began in 2004 based on the 2002 Pavley Act (AB 1493), but blocked by lawsuitsand by EPA in 2007, by rejecting the required waiver. Additional responsibilities were granted to CARBby Californias Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), which includes the mandate to set low-carbon fuel standards.As a result of alleged false "zero-emissions" claims, the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) in theUK ruled in March 2010 to ban an advertisement from Renault UK regarding its "zero-emissionsvehicles" because the ad breached CAP (Broadcast) TV Code rules 5.1.1, 5.1.2 (Misleadingadvertising) and 5.2.1 (Misleading advertising- Evidence) and 5.2.6 (Misleading advertising-Environmental claims.)Considering the current U.S. energy mix, a ZEV would produce a 30% reduction in carbondioxide emissions. Given the current energy mixes in other countries, it has been predicted thatsuch emissions would decrease by 40% in the U.K., 19% inChina, and just 1% in GermanyZero-emissons AGV (Automated Guided Vehicle)Technological development by TTS Port Equipment in Gothenburg, Sweden and with researchpartners in Lausanne, Switzerland have adapted a ground-based contactless energy transfertechnology that is referred to as inductive energy. The use of the inductive energy technology hasenable the company to develop an energy chain, which achieves zero emissions. This contactless energy transfer technology contains ground-based and vehicle-based components.The power electronics element and the "coils" enable an AGV to receive energy from the coils that areground based. The vehicle employs super capacitors to store the energy, which is then consumed byelectric motors located in the wheels. The vehicle is developed for terminals, such as containerterminals. Currently, the Z-AGV is tested in a site in Lausanne, Switzerland with future plans to beemployed in automated container terminals, such as those found in Rotterdam and Hamburg.The Z-AGVs have a load capacity of 61 tonnes, and can carry cassettes with double-stacked 40-footcontainers or two 20-foot containers in a single tier. Due to the use of electric motors themaneuverability have been made by incorporating individual electrically driven and steered bogie axles
which enable the Z-AGVs to be moved in any direction and turn through 360 degrees. The C-AGV canbe steered conventionally or „crab‟ diagonally, or it can move completely transversally. The cassettedesigns enable the C-AGV to enter and exit both transversally and longitudinally, which allowsdecoupling at the quayside.Types of zero-emission vehiclesThe Nissan Leaf electric car is a zero emission vehicle (ZEV) that was launched in the market at the end of 2010.Ordinary bicycles, recumbent bicycles, and other derivatives as velomobiles, cabin cycles andfreightbicycles are probably the most well known zero-emissions transport surface vehicles.Besides these human-powered vehicles, animal powered vehicles and battery electric vehicles(whichbesides cars also feature aircraft, electric boats, ...) also do not emit any of the above pollutants, norany CO2 gases during use. Of course, this is a particularly important quality in densely populatedareas, where the health of residents can be severely affected. However, the production of the fuelsthat power ZEVs, such as the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels, may produce more emissionsper mile than the emissions produced from a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. A well-to-wheel life cycle assessment is necessary to understand the emissions implications associated withoperating a ZEV.Other zero emission vehicle technologies include plug-in hybrids (eg ICE/electric battery) when inelectric mode, some plug-in hybrids in both recharging and electric mode (eg fuel cell/electricbattery], compressed air engine/electric battery), liquid nitrogen vehicles, hydrogenvehicles (utilizing fuel cells or converted internal combustion engines), and compressed airvehicles typically recharged by slow (home) or fast (road station) electric compressors, flywheel energystorage vehicles, solar powered cars, and tribrids.Segway Personal Transporters are two-wheeled, self-balancing, battery-powered machines that areeleven times more energy-efficient than the average American car. Operating on two lithium-ionbatteries, the Segway PT produces zero emissions during operation, and utilizes a negligible amountof electricity while charging via a standard wall outlet.Finally, especially for boats (although ground vessels operating on wind exist) andother watercraft, regular and special sails (as rotorsails,wing sails, turbo sails, skysails exist that canpropel it emissionless. Also, for larger ships (as tankers, container vessels, ...), nuclear power is alsoused (though not commonly).
Factors That Affect the Price of Electric Car ConversionsArticle Source: http://EzineArticles.com/1620009How much you pay for your electric car conversion will depend on so many factors.Primarily, the kind of car you are conversion will determine what components to buy.If you are using a heavy truck for your conversion, you may need to buycorresponding parts that cost more. If you are using a light truck or sedan, youwould buy lowly priced components.Aside the car, the kind of motor you want to use would affect your overall cost of theconversion. The DC conversion is cheaper to buy and easier to install. The cost ismuch lower because it cannot carry heavy load and acceleration is very poor. The DCsystem would also not last long. In contrast the AC system is more durable and suitslarger vehicles. It provides better acceleration and would last long. It however comeswith higher pricing.The kit used for the conversion would also affect its price. The components vary inquality and in number. Though all kits would give you a full conversion may comewith extra luxuries that will enhance your driving experience or make yourconversion easier. These extra components would require a higher riving.The one doing the conversion would also impact on its price. A garage would chargehigher than an individual and a company would also charge higher than a garage.Whether the garage or company uses a kit or individual parts would also affect howmuch you eventually pay for the conversion.Lastly, the transmission of the old vehicle would affect how much you spend on yourconversion. Manual transmissions are known to be easier for conversions thanautomatic ones.I hope you found the article informative. Are you interested in converting your car toelectric? For more information about how to convert a gas car to electric, visitgas2electric.net for an easy to follow electric car conversion guide. Finally ridyourself of polluting gasoline and drive a clean efficient electric car!Alkaline fuel cellFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see AFC (disambiguation).
Diagram of an Alkaline Fuel Cell. 1: Hydrogen 2:Electron flow 3:Load 4:Oxygen 5:Cathode 6:Electrolyte 7:Anode8:Water 9:Hydroxyl IonsThe alkaline fuel cell (AFC), also known as the Bacon fuel cell after its British inventor, is one of themost developed fuel cell technologies and is the cell that flew Man to theMoon. NASA has usedalkaline fuel cells since the mid-1960s, in Apollo-series missions and on the Space Shuttle. AFCsconsume hydrogen and pure oxygen producing potable water, heat, and electricity. They are amongthe most efficient fuel cells, having the potential to reach 70%.ChemistryThe fuel cell produces power through a redox reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. At the anode,hydrogen is oxidized according to the reaction:producing water and releasing two electrons. The electrons flow through an external circuit and returnto the cathode, reducing oxygen in the reaction:producing hydroxide ions. The net reaction consumes one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms inthe production of one water molecule. Electricity and heat are formed as by-products of this reaction.ElectrolyteThe two electrodes are separated by a porous matrix saturated with an aqueous alkaline solution, suchas potassium hydroxide (KOH). Aqueous alkaline solutions do not reject carbon dioxide (CO2) so thefuel cell can become "poisoned" through the conversion of KOH to potassium carbonate (K 2CO3).Because of this, alkaline fuel cells typically operate on pure oxygen, or at least purified air and wouldincorporate a scrubber into the design to clean out as much of the carbon dioxide as is possible.
Because the generation and storage requirements of oxygen make pure-oxygen AFCs expensive,there are few companies engaged in active development of the technology. There is, however, somedebate in the research community over whether the poisoning is permanent or reversible. The mainmechanisms of poisoning are blocking of the pores in the cathode with K 2CO3, which is not reversible,and reduction in the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, which may be reversible by returning the KOHto its original concentration. An alternate method involves simply replacing the KOH which returns thecell back to its original output.Basic DesignsBecause of this poisoning effect, two main variants of AFCs exist: static electrolyte and flowingelectrolyte. Static, or immobilized, electrolyte cells of the type used in the Apollo space craft and theSpace Shuttle typically use an asbestos separator saturated in potassium hydroxide. Water productionis managed by evaporation out the anode, as pictured above, which produces pure water that may bereclaimed for other uses. These fuel cells typically use platinum catalysts to achieve maximumvolumetric and specific efficiencies.Flowing electrolyte designs use a more open matrix that allows the electrolyte to flow either betweenthe electrodes (parallel to the electrodes) or through the electrodes in a transverse direction (the ASK-type or EloFlux fuel cell). In parallel-flow electrolyte designs, the water produced is retained in theelectrolyte, and old electrolyte may be exchanged for fresh, in a manner analogous to an oil change ina car . In the case of "parallel flow" designs, greater space is required between electrodes to enablethis flow, and this translates into an increase in cell resistance, decreasing power output compared toimmobilized electrolyte designs. A further challenge for the technology is that it is not clear how severeis the problem of permanent blocking of the cathode by K2CO3, however, some published reportsindicate thousands of hours of operation on air. These designs have used both platinum and non-noble metal catalysts, resulting in increased volumetric and specific efficiencies and increased cost.The EloFlux design, with its transverse flow of electrolyte, has the advantage of low-cost constructionand replaceable electrolyte, but so far has only been demonstrated using oxygen.Further variations on the alkaline fuel cell include the metal hydride fuel cell and the direct borohydridefuel cell.Commercial ProspectsAFCs are the cheapest of fuel cells to manufacture. The catalyst required for the electrodes can beany of a number of different chemicals that are inexpensive compared to those required for other typesof fuel cells.
The commercial prospects for AFCs lie largely with the recently developed bi-polar plate version of thistechnology, considerably superior in performance to earlier mono-plate versions.The worlds first Fuel Cell Ship HYDRA used an AFC system with 6.5 kW net output.Another very interesting recent development (though not necessarily for high power applications) is thesolid-state alkaline fuel cell, utilizingalkali anion exchange membranes rather than a liquid.Fuel processing for low-temperature and high-temperature fuel cells: Challenges, and opportunities forsustainable development in the 21st centuryPurchase$ 39.95 ,Chunshan SongClean Fuels and Catalysis Program, The Energy Institute, and Department of Energy & Geo-EnvironmentalEngineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 209 Academic Projects Building, University Park, PA16802, USAAvailable online 9 November 2002.AbstractThis review paper first discusses the needs for fundamental changes in the energy system for majorefficiency improvements in terms of global resource limitation and sustainable development. Majorimprovement in energy efficiency of electric power plants and transportation vehicles is needed to enablethe world to meet the energy demands at lower rate of energy consumption with corresponding reduction inpollutant and CO2 emissions. A brief overview will then be given on principle and advantages of differenttypes of low-temperature and high-temperature fuel cells. Fuel cells are intrinsically much more energy-efficient, and could achieve as high as 70–80% system efficiency (including heat utilization) in electricpower plants using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC, versus the current efficiency of 30–37% via combustion),and 40–50% efficiency for transportation using proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solidoxide fuel cells (versus the current efficiency of 20–35% with internal combustion (IC) engines). Thetechnical discussions will focus on fuel processing for fuel cell applications in the 21st century. Thestrategies and options of fuel processors depend on the type of fuel cells and applications. Among the low-temperature fuel cells, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells require H2 as the fuel and thus nearly CO-freeand sulfur-free gas feed must be produced from fuel processor. High-temperature fuel cells such as solidoxide fuel cells can use both CO and H2 as fuel, and thus fuel processing can be achieved in less steps.Hydrocarbon fuels and alcohol fuels can both be used as fuels for reforming on-site or on-board. Alcoholfuels have the advantages of being ultra-clean and sulfur-free and can be reformed at lower temperatures,
but hydrocarbon fuels have the advantages of existing infrastructure of production and distribution andhigher energy density. Further research and development on fuel processing are necessary for improvedenergy efficiency and reduced size of fuel processor. More effective ways for on-site or on-board deepremoval of sulfur before and after fuel reforming, and more energy-efficient and stable catalysts andprocesses for reforming hydrocarbon fuels are necessary for both high-temperature and low-temperaturefuel cells. In addition, more active and robust (non-pyrophoric) catalysts for water–gas-shift (WGS)reactions, more selective and active catalysts for preferential CO oxidation at lower temperature, more CO-tolerant anode catalysts would contribute significantly to development and implementation of low-temperature fuel cells, particularly proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In addition, more work is requiredin the area of electrode catalysis and high-temperature membrane development related to fuel processingincluding tolerance to certain components in reformate, especially CO and sulfur species.Author Keywords: Fuel processing; Reforming; Sulfur removal; Water–gas-shift; H2; Fuel cell; Catalyst;Catalysis; Energy efficiency; Sustainable developmentFuel processing, where carbon-based fuels are efficiently reformed to produce hydrogen,provides one route to a more extensive utilisation of fuel cell technology. This multi-stagedprocess requires catalysis for each step. Rhodium is often used as a reforming catalyst,platinum for carbon monoxide clean-up and platinum/palladium for combustion. Base metalssuch as copper and zinc also find widespread application.Gunther Kolb, in “Fuel Processing: for Fuel Cells”, sets out to understand the current state ofthe fragmented effort to solve the problems of fuel processing for niche applications. Hisbook offers a timely and welcome overview of the expanding body of work in which fuelprocessing technology is finding application in fuel cell power (from watt to kilowatt scale).The author is a well-known expert in this field and Head of Energy Technology and Catalysisat IMM, Germany. While the text is written to be instructive towards the beginner, it is clearlydirected at those who wish to understand the current issues in some detail. Kolb collates andsummarises current information on the development of fuel processing technology in variousareas, and highlights the achievements that have been made to date. Throughout the book,he capitalises on his understanding of both the science and the engineering involved in thiscomplex interdisciplinary field. The early chapters serve as an excellent introduction to thesubject, outlining the basic chemistry and engineering concepts associated with pre-reforming, partial oxidation, steam and autothermal reforming, as well as shift reactions andother methods of cleaning up the reformed fuel.After introducing the components, the author encourages the reader to see the system asmore than the sum of its parts, emphasising that a fairly comprehensive awareness of allaspects of the chemistry involved is required for the selection of appropriate operatingconditions. The best choice of steam:fuel and oxygen:fuel ratios and flow rates are critical togain optimum efficiency, but consideration of the physical chemistry involved is alsoimportant when designing a system for efficiency, selectivity and durability. Engineeringconsiderations are also critical, and performance constraints require difficult decisions to bemade, for example in the choice of reactor bed type (monolith, fixed bed, membrane etc.).The later chapters detail the specifics of engineering, design concepts and different types offuel processor.Where the book occasionally fails is in its illustrations – some figures are difficult to read andlack sufficient annotation. Although the author outlines the considerable contribution thatcomputer modelling continues to make towards our understanding, a lack of distinctionbetween real-world and simulated results may cause confusion. Further, the authors stronginterest in microchannel technology emerges in Chapter 10, which deals with cost andproduction issues; however, in the context of the volume as a whole, this seems acceptable.
By mid-volume, the reader cannot be in any doubt as to the complexity of the task facingthose who design and improve fuel processors. Kolb also warns against common yet unsafeassumptions, such as the idea that the engineering technology of large systems can bescaled down to smaller systems. This kind of assumption can lead to years of misdirecteddevelopment work. Kolb advocates that each situation should be considered on its ownmerits, and should balance the technical requirements with the economic requirements overits entire lifetime. The inclusion of a decision tree to map out and exemplify the types ofdecision that are required would have been very helpful to the reader. This could haveshown that, despite the higher initial cost of precious metal catalysts, their higher activity,better catalyst utilisation and greater resistance to poisoning mean that they are the mostappropriate option under some circumstances.One of the challenges of the book was to deal with the difficult issue of intellectual property.Any book such as this that describes state-of-the-art technology will find it difficult to becompletely current, as there is much knowledge that is held outside the public domain.However, Kolb outlines the basic science and engineering behind the work being done, andsupports it with evidence from the literature. This provides sufficient detail for the educatedreader to form an opinion, and sufficient referencing to help the more curious to investigatefurther. This will make the later chapters particularly useful to the growing numbers ofscientists and engineers who are turning their attention and applying their skills to thetechnical and commercial challenges of fuel processing.For the general reader, this can mean that much of the text is more detailed than theyrequire, although the author rewards the dedicated reader with occasional gems of insight.Throughout the book, the author offers a balanced approach as he deals with differenttheories and experimental and engineering approaches. However, he does occasionallypoint out incorrect assumptions or misguided endeavours. At these points the text comesalive, as the author adopts a cautionary tone to underline his key message.The books key message throughout is that technological progress is being made, albeit in afragmented fashion, by experts in various disciplines applying their knowledge and skills tothe complex science and engineering involved. The examples of wasted effort may be asymptom of the fragmentation of the work, but Kolbs book may well inspire a morecoordinated approach, emphasising that much can be achieved when materials scientists,chemists and engineers work together.