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  • 1. 1• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringSixth EditionCHAPTER0Construction Planning, Equipment,and MethodsByDr. Ibrahim AssakkafENCE 420 – Construction Equipment and MethodsSpring 2003Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Maryland, College ParkCONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT ANDMETHODSCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 1Course SyllabusUNIVERSITY OF MARYLANDDepartment of Civil and Environmental EngineeringCollege Park CampusSpring Semester 2003ENCE 420 – Construction Equipment and Methods (3 credit)MW 2:00 pm – 3:15 pm, CHM 0119INSTRUCTOR:Name: Dr. Ibrahim A. AssakkafOffice Hours: MW 11:00 am - 12:00 pm and 1:00 pm - 2:00 pmF 12:00 noon -1:00 pm, and by appointmentRoom 0305, Engineering Classroom Building (EGR)Center for Technology and Systems Management (CTSM)Telephone: (W) 301-405-3279Email: assakkaf@eng.umd.eduURL: http://ctsm.umd.edu/assakkaf
  • 2. 2CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 2Course SyllabusTA & GRADER:Name: to be added and revisedOffice Hours: M 2:00 pm – 3:15 pmRoom EGR 1107Telephone: (123) 123-4567Email: TA@domain.comCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 3Course SyllabusTEXTBOOK: “Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods,”by Peurifoy, R., and Schexnayder, C., 2002.REFERENCES:1. “Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods,” by Peurifoy,R., Ledbetter, W., and Schexnayder, C., 1996.2. “Modern Construction & Ground Engineering Equipment &Methods,” by Harris, F., 1994. Also, Instructor’s Notes andHandouts.GRADING: HW (20%), Midterm Exam (25%), Final Exam (30%),Project (20%), andQuizzes ( 5% ).
  • 3. 3CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 4Course SyllabusPREREQUISITES:•ENCE 320, Permission of Department•Senior StandingCOURSE WEBSITE:https://www.ajconline.umd.edu/ ENCE 420: Construction Equipment andMethods – Spring, 2003.GENERAL COURSE DESCRIPTION (UM SCHEDULE OF CLASSES):ENCE420 Construction Equipment and Methods; (3 credits) Grade Method:REG/P-F/AUD. Prerequisite: ENCE 320 and permission of department. Seniorstanding. Evaluation and selection of equipment and methods for construction ofprojects, including earthmoving, paving, steel and concrete construction, formwork,trenching, cofferdams, rock excavation, tunneling, site preparation and organization.Design of formwork, trench supports, and cofferdams.CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 5Course SyllabusCOURSE OUTLINE & SCHEDULE:Chapter 4Chapter 5Compaction and Stabilization (cont’d)Machine PowerM, Feb. 24W, Feb. 265Chapter 4Chapter 4Geotechnical Materials (cont’d)Compaction and StabilizationM, Feb. 17W, Feb. 194Chapter 3Chapter 4Equipment Cost (cont’d)Geotechnical MaterialsM, Feb. 10W, Feb. 123Chapter 1Chapter 3IntroductionEquipment CostM, Feb. 3W, Feb. 52Chapter 1Introduction to Course (General Overview)W, Jan. 291SourceTopic of DiscussionDateWeek
  • 4. 4CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 6Course SyllabusChapter 10Chapter 11Trucks and Hauling EquipmentCompressed AirM, Mar. 31W, Apr. 29**** S P R N G B R E AK (NO CLASSES) ****Mar. 24-30Chapter 10Trucks and Hauling EquipmentMIDTERM EXAMM, Mar. 17W, Mar. 198Chapter 8Chapter 9ExcavatorsFinishing EquipmentM, Mar. 10W, Mar. 127Chapter 6Chapter 7DozersScrapersM, Mar. 3W, Mar. 56SourceTopic of DiscussionDateWeekCOURSE OUTLINE & SCHEDULE (cont’d):CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 7Course SyllabusChapter 18Chapter 19Draglines and ClamshellsPiles and pile-Driving EquipmentM, Apr. 28W, Apr. 3013Chapter 14Chapter 17Aggregate ProductionCranesM, Apr. 21W, Apr. 2312Chapter 12Chapter 13Drilling Rock and EarthBlasting RockM, Apr. 14W, Apr. 1611Chapter 11Chapter 12Compressed AirDrilling Rock and EarthM, Apr. 7W, Apr. 910SourceTopic of DiscussionDateWeekCOURSE OUTLINE & SCHEDULE (cont’d):
  • 5. 5CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 8Course SyllabusFINAL EXAM (Tuesday, 1:30 pm – 3:30 pm,CHM (0119)Tu, May 2016Project Presentations (Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4)Project Presentations (Groups 5, 6, and 7)M, May 12W, May 1415Chapter20HandoutEquipment for Pumping WaterBelt-Conveyer Systems + ReviewM, May. 5W, May 714SourceTopic of DiscussionDateWeekCOURSE OUTLINE & SCHEDULE (cont’d):CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 9Course SyllabusHOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS:Professional presentation of homework assignments is required. Professionalpresentation consists of neat and organized solution of problems on one side of8.5"x11" papers. Any homework not complying with professional standards willnot be graded and will be assigned zero credit. The homework assignments aredue one week after they are assigned. Homework will be assigned as thematerial is covered and will be collected every Monday at the beginning of thelecture period. Assignments turned in late will be docked 10% for each day it islate past the original due date. Solutions will be available from the TAs and onthe class website after the problems are returned. No assignment will beaccepted after the answers have been posted. Students are encouraged to discussand formulate solutions to the problems by working in teams. However,assignments must be completed and submitted individually. Simply copying theanswers from another student or from a solutions manual is not acceptable andwill not be tolerated.
  • 6. 6CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 10Course SyllabusHOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS (cont’d):Guidelines for homework are given below:1. Use good quality paper, such as engineering graph paper or college-ruled paper,any color, with no spiral edges.2. Write on only one side of the paper.3. Either pen or pencil is acceptable.4. Include your name, section, and page number (e.g. 1/3 means 1 of 3) on eachsheet.5. Staple all pages together in the upper left corner.6. Neatly box all answers, and include appropriate units for numerical answers.7. Show all work (e.g. no work means no credit will be given).CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 11Course SyllabusEXAMS:All students must take all exams including the final exam. Only extenuatingcircumstances will be accepted as excuse for missing an exam. Health relatedexcuses require medical reports and the signature of a physician that providedtreatment.PROJECT (Term Paper): To be announced and discussed.
  • 7. 7CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 12“Learn how to apply engineeringfundamentals and analyses tothe planning, selection, andutilization of constructionequipment.”ObjectivesCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 13This course uses concepts from variousengineering disciplines :• Engineering Economics• Geotechnical Engineering (Soil Mechanics)• Mechanical Engineering (Construction Equipment)• Structural Engineering• Environmental Engineering•OthersEngineering Concepts
  • 8. 8CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 14Construction of engineeredfacilities requires the utilizationof construction equipment.Underlying ConceptsCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 15Purpose of the CourseLearn to apply engineering fundamentals and analyses to theplanning, selection, and utilization of construction equipment.Through understanding of:(1) The total construction process, from inspection of the idea throughconstruction and start up, and(2) How construction equipment should be selected and used to producethe intended quality in the most cost-effective manner.
  • 9. 9CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 16• Construction Contracts• Lump-sum contract• Unit-price contract• Cost-plus-fee contract•Performance Guarantee• Contractor is to furnish a performance bond for a project•The Time Value of Money• Money has a time value.• One dollar today is worth more than $1 tomorrow.• Failure to pay the bills results in additional charge.Introduction (Chapter 1)Course Outline & TopicsCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 17• Discounted Present Worth Analysis• Rate of Return Analysis• Equipment Planning and EstimatingCourse Outline & Topics
  • 10. 10CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 18Course Outline & TopicsEquipment Cost (Chapter 3)• Equipment cost rank second to labor. Machines andequipment can be:• Purchased• Leased• Rented (short time)• The Cost of Construction Equipment• Ownership Cost• Depreciation• Operating Cost (maintenance, repairs, fuel, etc..)• Economic Life of Engineering EquipmentCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 19Course Outline & TopicsThe Planning Process for Equipment andMethods• Planning process for equipment and methods is necessaryboth prior to and during the actual construction of a project• The planning is required for:• Production• Achievement• Cost Control• Coordination of the project and the parties involved in the project
  • 11. 11CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 20Course Outline & Topics• Formal Planning involves the following steps:• Analysis of a Project (Time, Money, Location, etc..)• Identification Project Activities• Estimate of cost, time, resources to perform each activity• Development of Plan Network• Application of Realistic Limitations to activitiesCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 21Geotechnical Materials, Compaction, andStabilization (Chapter 4)Course Outline & Topics“Persons in a construction industry, includingconstructors (contractors) and engineers, shouldunderstand the affects of which the selection ofequipment and method have on the cost of handlingthese materials”
  • 12. 12CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 22Course Outline & Topics• Material Properties:• The actual construction process of any project is really amaterial-handling problem.• On heavy construction projects the major portion of the workconsists of handling and processing bulk materials.• Excavation• Common Excavation• Rock Excavation(drilling and blasting)• Muck Excavation (soft organic material)• Unclassified excavation (materials that cannot be defined assoil or rock)CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 23Course Outline & TopicsWaterAIRSoilWeightair = 0Weightwater = WwTotalweight WWeightsoil solidsWsVolumeairVaVolumesoil solidsVsVolumewaterVwVolumevoidsVvTotalvolumeVSoil mass weight and volume relationships
  • 13. 13CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 24Course Outline & TopicsUnit weight (γ) = total weight of soil/total soil volume = W/VDry unit weight (γd) = weight of soil solids/total soil volume = Ws/VWater content (ω) = weight of water in soil/weight of soil solids = WW/WsVoid ratio (e) = volume of voids/volume of soil solids = Vv/VsPorosity (n) = volume of voids/total soil volume = Vv/VSpecific gravity (Gs) = weight of soil solids/volume of solids/unit weight of water= Ws/Vs/ γwTotal soil volume (V) = volume voids (Vv) + volume solids (Vs)Weight of solids (Ws) = weight of soil (W)/(1+water content (ω))orγd = γ/(1+ ω)Soil mass weight and volume relationshipsCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 25Course Outline & TopicsCompaction and Soil Stabilization• Soils are the principal component of many construction projects.• Soils are used to support:– structures - static load– pavements for highways and airport runways - dynamic loads– dams and levees, as impoundment - to resist the passage of water.• Some soils may be suitable for use in their natural state, whereasother, must be excavated, processed, and compacted in order toserve their purposes.• Knowledge of the properties, characteristics, and behavior ofdifferent soil types is important to those persons who are associatedwith the design or construction of projects involving the use of soils.• R. R. Proctor initiated a scientific study to determine the density-moisture relationship of soils.
  • 14. 14CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 26Course Outline & TopicsMachine Power (Chapter 5)CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 27Course Outline & Topics•Rimpull– The usable power at the point of contactbetween the tire and the ground for awheel machine.•Drawbar Pull– The available usable power (pull) whicha crawler tractor can exert on a load thatis being towed.vEFw××=fwhp000,33
  • 15. 15CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 28Course Outline & TopicsDozers and Tractors(Chapter 6)• Tractors are self-contained units that are designed to providetractive power for drawbar work.• Consistent with their purpose as a unit for drawbar work, they arelow center of gravity machines. This is a prerequisite of a goodmachine.• The larger the difference between the line-of-force transmissionfrom the machine and the line of resisting force the less effective theutilization of developed power.• Typical project applications are land clearing, bulldozing, ripping,and towing other pieces of construction equipment.CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 29Course Outline & Topics
  • 16. 16CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 30Course Outline & TopicsScrapers (Chapter 7)• Tractor-pulled scrapers are designed to load, haul, and dumploose materials.• The advantage of tractor-scraper combinations is their versatility.• They can be used in a wide range of material types (includingshot rock) and are economical over a wide range of haul lengthsand haul conditions.CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 31Course Outline & Topics
  • 17. 17CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 32Course Outline & TopicsExcavators (Chapter 8)• Excavating equipment is used to excavate earth and rock inconstruction operations.• The equipment includes the following machines:1. Draglines2. Clamshells3. Hydraulic excavatorsa. Front shovelsb. Hoes4. Loadersa. Wheelb. Track5. Trenching machinesCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 33Course Outline & TopicsFinishing Equipment (Chapter 9)Rollers
  • 18. 18CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 34Course Outline & TopicsTrucks and Hauling Equipment (Chapter 10)• Trucks may be classified according to a number of factorsincluding:1. The size and type of engine-gasoline, diesel, butane, propane2. The number of gears3. The kind of drive-two-wheel, four-wheel, six-wheel, etc.4. The number of wheels and axles and arrangement of drivingwheels5. The method of dumping the load-rear-clump, side-dump6. The class of material hauled-earth, rock, coal, ore, etc.7. The capacity, in tons or cubic yardsCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 35Course Outline & TopicsCompressed Air (Chapter 11)• Compressed air is used extensively on construction projects for:• Drilling rock• Loosening earth• Operating air motors• Hand tools• Pile drivers• Pumps• Mucking equipment• Cleaning.
  • 19. 19CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 36Course Outline & TopicsCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 37Course Outline & TopicsDrilling Rock and Earth (Chapter 12)• Drilling equipment and methods are used by theconstruction and mining industries to drill holes inboth rock and earth.• Purposes for which drilling are performed vary a greatdeal from general to highly specialized applications.• It is desirable to select the equipment and methods thatare best suited to the specific service:
  • 20. 20CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 38Course Outline & TopicsBlasting Rock (Chapter 13)• Blasting" is performed to break rock so that it may be quarriedfor processing in an aggregate production operation, or toexcavate a right-of-way.• Blasting is accomplished by discharging an explosive that haseither been placed in an unconfined manner, such as mud cappingboulders, or is confined as in a borehole.CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 39Course Outline & TopicsThe Production of Crushed-Stones Aggregates(Chapter 14)• The production of crushed-stone aggregate involves:• Drilling,• Blasting,• Loading,• Transporting,• Crushing,• Screening, and• Product handling and storage.
  • 21. 21CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 40Course Outline & TopicsCranes (Chapter 17)CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 41Course Outline & Topics• Cranes are a broad class of construction equipment used to hoist andplace loads.• Each type of crane is designed and manufactured to work economicallyin a specific site situation.• The most common types are:1. Crawler2. Hydraulic truck3. Lattice-boom truck4. Rough-terrain5. All-terrain6. Heavy lift7. Modified cranes for heavy lift8. Tower
  • 22. 22CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 42Course Outline & TopicsHydraulic Truck CraneCrawler CraneCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 43Course Outline & TopicsDraglines and Clamshells (Chapter 18)• Excavating equipment is used to excavate earth and rock inconstruction operations.• The equipment includes the following machines:1. Draglines2. Clamshells3. Hydraulic excavatorsa. Front shovelsb. Hoes4. Loadersa. Wheelb. Track5. Trenching machines
  • 23. 23CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 44Course Outline & TopicsCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 45Course Outline & TopicsPiles and Pile-Driving Equipment(Chapter 19)• Load-bearing piles, are used primarily totransmit structural loads, through soilformations with poor supporting properties,into or onto soil strata that are capable ofsupporting the loads.
  • 24. 24CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 46Course Outline & TopicsEquipment for Pumping Water (Chapter 20)Pumps are used extensively on construction projects for:1. Removing water from pits, tunnels. and other excavations.2. Dewatering cofferdams.3. Furnishing water for jetting and sluicing.4. Furnishing water for many types of utility services.5. Lowering the water table for excavations.6. Foundation grouting.CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 47Belt-Conveyor Systems (Handout)Course Outline & Topics• Belt-conveyor systems are used extensively in the field ofconstruction.• Belt-conveyor systems frequently provide the most satisfactory andeconomical method of handling and transporting materials, such asearth, sand, gravel, crushed stone, mine ores, cement, concrete,etc.• Because of the continuous flow of materials at relatively highspeeds, belt conveyors have high capacities.Note: During the construction of the Channel Tunnel (betweenEngland and France) conveyors were used to move up to2,400 tons of spoil per hour from the tunnel headings.
  • 25. 25CHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 48Course Outline & TopicsCHAPTER 0. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODSENCE 420 ©AssakkafSlide No. 49Ruhrkohle,GermanyNewman,WesternAustraliaCourse Outline & Topics

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