ELECTRONIC CRUISE CONTROLCruise control is an invaluable feature on American cars. Without cruise control, long roadtrips would be more tiring, for the driver at least, and those of us suffering from lead-footsyndrome would probably get a lot more speeding tickets.Cruise control is far more common on American cars than European cars, because the roadsin America are generally bigger and straighter, and destinations are farther apart. With trafficcontinually increasing, basic cruise control is becoming less useful, but instead of becomingobsolete, cruise control systems are adapting to this new reality -- soon, cars will be equippedwith adaptive cruise control, which will allow your car to follow the car in front of it whilecontinually adjusting speed to maintain a safe distance.In this article, well learn how a conventional cruise control system works, and then well takea look at adaptive cruise control systems that are under developmentThe cruise control system actually has a lot of functions other than controlling the speed ofyour car. For instance, the cruise control pictured below can accelerate or decelerate the carby 1 mph with the tap of a button. Hit the button five times to go 5 mph faster. There are alsoseveral important safety features -- the cruise control will disengage as soon as you hit thebrake pedal, and it wont engage at speeds less than 25 mph (40 kph).The system pictured below has five buttons: On, Off, Set/Accel, Resume and Coast. It alsohas a sixth control -- the brake pedal, and if your car has a manual transmission the clutchpedal is also hooked up to the cruise control. The on and off buttons dont actually do much. Hitting the on button does not do anything except tell the car that you might be hitting another button soon. The off button turns the cruise control off even if it is engaged. Some cruise controls dont have these buttons; instead, they turn off when the driver hits the brakes, and turn on when the driver hits the set button. The set/accel button tells the car to maintain the speed you are currently driving. If you hit the set button at 45 mph, the car will maintain your speed at 45 mph. Holding
down the set/accel button will make the car accelerate; and on this car, tapping it once will make the car go 1 mph faster. If you recently disengaged the cruise control by hitting the brake pedal, hitting the resume button will command the car to accelerate back to the most recent speed setting. Holding down the coast button will cause the car to decelerate, just as if you took your foot completely off the gas. On this car, tapping the coast button once will cause the car to slow down by 1 mph. The brake pedal and clutch pedal each have a switch that disengages the cruise control as soon as the pedal is pressed, so you can shut off the cruise control with a light tap on the brake or clutch.The cruise control system controls the speed of your car the same way you do -- by adjustingthe throttle position. But cruise control actuates the throttle valve by a cable connected to anactuator, instead of by pressing a pedal. The throttle valve controls the power and speed ofthe engine by limiting how much air the engine takes in (see How Fuel Injection SystemsWork for more details).
One of the cables is connected to the gas pedal, the other to the vacuum actuator.In the picture above, you can see two cables connected to a pivot that moves the throttlevalve. One cable comes from the accelerator pedal, and one from the actuator. When thecruise control is engaged, the actuator moves the cable connected to the pivot, which adjuststhe throttle; but it also pulls on the cable that is connected to the gas pedal -- this is why yourpedal moves up and down when the cruise control is engaged. The electronically-controlled vacuum actuator that controls the throttleMany cars use actuators powered by engine vacuum to open and close the throttle. Thesesystems use a small, electronically-controlled valve to regulate the vacuum in a diaphragm.This works in a similar way to the brake booster, which provides power to your brake system.Adaptive Cruise ControlTwo companies are developing a more advanced cruise control that can automatically adjusta cars speed to maintain a safe following distance. This new technology, called adaptivecruise control, uses forward-looking radar, installed behind the grill of a vehicle, to detectthe speed and distance of the vehicle ahead of it.Adaptive cruise control is similar to conventional cruise control in that it maintains thevehicles pre-set speed. However, unlike conventional cruise control, this new system canautomatically adjust speed in order to maintain a proper distance between vehicles in thesame lane. This is achieved through a radar headway sensor, digital signal processor andlongitudinal controller. If the lead vehicle slows down, or if another object is detected, thesystem sends a signal to the engine or braking system to decelerate. Then, when the road isclear, the system will re-accelerate the vehicle back to the set speed.The 77-GHz Autocruise radar system made by TRW has a forward-looking range of up to492 feet (150 meters), and operates at vehicle speeds ranging from 18.6 miles per hour (30kph) to 111 mph (180 kph). Delphis 76-GHz system can also detect objects as far away as492 feet, and operates at speeds as low as 20 mph (32 kph).Adaptive cruise control is just a preview of the technology being developed by bothcompanies. These systems are being enhanced to include collision warning capabilities thatwill warn drivers through visual and/or audio signals that a collision is imminent and thatbraking or evasive steering is needed
Cruise control has been used by a number of authors to illustrate software designmethodologies. This problem statement is derived from the one Booch used to describeobject-oriented programming and the one Birch enough and Cameron later used to compareJSD to OOD:A cruise-control system exists to maintain the speed of a car, even over varying terrain, whenturned on by the driver. When the brake is applied, the system must relinquish speed controluntil told to resume. The system must also steadily increase or decrease speed to reach a new maintenance speed when directed to do so by the driver. This is the block diagram of the hardware for such a system. There are several inputs: System on/off: If on, denotes that the cruise-control system should maintain the car speed. Engine on/off: If on, denotes that the car engine is turned on; the cruise-control system is only active if the engine is on. Pulses from wheel: A pulse is sent for every revolution of the wheel. Accelerator: Indication of how far the accelerator has been pressed. Brake: On when the brake is pressed; the cruise-control system temporarily reverts to manual control if the brake is pressed. Increase/Decrease Speed: Increase or decrease the maintained speed; only applicable if the cruise-control system is on. Resume: Resume the last maintained speed; only applicable if the cruise-control system is on. Clock: Timing pulse every millisecond.There is one output from the system: Throttle: Digital value for the engineer throttle setting.
ANTI LOCK BRAKESAn anti-lock braking system (ABS) (translated from German, Antiblockiersystem) is asystem on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. An anti-locking braking system allows the driver to maintain steering control under heavy braking bypreventing a skid and allowing the wheel to continue to forward roll and create lateralcontrol, as directed by driver steering inputs. Most commonly, braking distances areshortened (again, by allowing the driver to press the brake fully without skidding or loss ofcontrol). Disadvantages of the system include increased braking distances under rather rarecircumstances and the creation of a "false sense of security" among drivers who do notunderstand the operation and limitations of ABS. Since it came into widespread use inproduction cars (with "version 2" in 1978), ABS has made considerable progress. Recentversions not only handle the ABS function itself (i.e. preventing wheel locking) but alsotraction control, brake assist, and electronic stability control, amongst others. Not only that,but its version 8.0 system now weighs less than 1.5 kilograms, compared with the 6.3 kgversion 2.0 in 1978 Anti-Lock Brakes Image Gallery Showing: 1 of 198The theory behind anti-lock brakes is simple. A skidding wheel (where the tire contact patchis sliding relative to the road) has less traction than a non-skidding wheel. If you have beenstuck on ice, you know that if your wheels are spinning you have no traction. This is because
the contact patch is sliding relative to the ice (see Brakes: How Friction Works for more). Bykeeping the wheels from skidding while you slow down, anti-lock brakes benefit you in twoways: Youll stop faster, and youll be able to steer while you stop.There are four main components to an ABS system: Speed sensors Pump Valves ControllerSpeed SensorsThe anti-lock braking system needs some way of knowing when a wheel is about to lock up.The speed sensors, which are located at each wheel, or in some cases in the differential,provide this information.ValvesThere is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the ABS. On some systems, thevalve has three positions: In position one, the valve is open; pressure from the master cylinder is passed right through to the brake. In position two, the valve blocks the line, isolating that brake from the master cylinder. This prevents the pressure from rising further should the driver push the brake pedal harder. In position three, the valve releases some of the pressure from the brake.PumpSince the valve is able to release pressure from the brakes, there has to be some way to putthat pressure back. That is what the pump does; when a valve reduces the pressure in a line,the pump is there to get the pressure back up.ControllerThe controller is a computer in the car. It watches the speed sensors and controls the valves.ABS at WorkThere are many different variations and control algorithms for ABS systems. We will discusshow one of the simpler systems works.The controller monitors the speed sensors at all times. It is looking for decelerations in thewheel that are out of the ordinary. Right before a wheel locks up, it will experience a rapiddeceleration. If left unchecked, the wheel would stop much more quickly than any car could.It might take a car five seconds to stop from 60 mph (96.6 kph) under ideal conditions, but awheel that locks up could stop spinning in less than a second.The ABS controller knows that such a rapid deceleration is impossible, so it reduces thepressure to that brake until it sees an acceleration, then it increases the pressure until it seesthe deceleration again. It can do this very quickly, before the tire can actually significantlychange speed. The result is that the tire slows down at the same rate as the car, with thebrakes keeping the tires very near the point at which they will start to lock up. This gives thesystem maximum braking power.When the ABS system is in operation you will feel a pulsing in the brake pedal; this comesfrom the rapid opening and closing of the valves. Some ABS systems can cycle up to 15times per second.
Anti-Lock Brake TypesAnti-lock braking systems use different schemes depending on the type of brakes in use. Wewill refer to them by the number of channels -- that is, how many valves that are individuallycontrolled -- and the number of speed sensors. Four-channel, four-sensor ABS - This is the best scheme. There is a speed sensor on all four wheels and a separate valve for all four wheels. With this setup, the controller monitors each wheel individually to make sure it is achieving maximum braking force. Three-channel, three-sensor ABS - This scheme, commonly found on pickup trucks with four-wheel ABS, has a speed sensor and a valve for each of the front wheels, with one valve and one sensor for both rear wheels. The speed sensor for the rear wheels is located in the rear axle. This system provides individual control of the front wheels, so they can both achieve maximum braking force. The rear wheels, however, are monitored together; they both have to start to lock up before the ABS will activate on the rear. With this system, it is possible that one of the rear wheels will lock during a stop, reducing brake effectiveness. One-channel, one-sensor ABS - This system is commonly found on pickup trucks with rear-wheel ABS. It has one valve, which controls both rear wheels, and one speed sensor, located in the rear axle. This system operates the same as the rear end of a three-channel system. The rear wheels are monitored together and they both have to start to lock up before the ABS kicks in. In this system it is also possible that one of the rear wheels will lock, reducing brake effectiveness. This system is easy to identify. Usually there will be one brake line going through a T-fitting to both rear wheels. You can locate the speed sensor by looking for an electrical connection near the differential on the rear-axle housing. Head-up displaysHead-up displays were originally created as a modified gun-sight for military fighter aircraft.It took information such as speed and direction and showed the pilot where the bullets of theirgun would land if fired. This greatly increased the accuracy pilots could achieve in air to airbattles. In Great Britain, it was soon noticed that the pilots who had these new gun-sightswere also becoming better at piloting their aircraft. It was at this point that the HUDexpanded its use into a piloting tool. In the 1960s, Gilbert Klopfstein created a centralizedsystem of symbols for HUDs so that pilots would only have to learn one system and be able
to transition between aircraft without re-learning the entire HUD. 1975 saw the developmentof the HUD to be used in instrument landings.Head-up displays were pioneered in fighter jets and military helicopters to minimizeinformation overload by centralizing critical flight data within the pilots field of vision. Inthe 1970s, this innovation was introduced to commercial aviation. These early HUDs featureddata such as airspeed, altitude, and localizer readings, which had previously been accessibleon head-down primary flight displays.Currently, a typical HUD in a commercial aircraft will display airspeed, altitude, a horizonline, a compass, turn/bank and slip/skid indicators. These instruments are the minimumrequired by.In 1988, the Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme became the first production car with a head-updisplay. Until a few years ago, the Embraer 190 and Boeing 737 New Generation Aircraft(737-600,700,800, and 900 series) were the only commercial passenger aircraft to come withan optional HUD. Now, however, the technology is becoming more common with aircraftsuch as the Canadair RJ, Airbus A318 and several Business Jets featuring the device.Furthermore, the Airbus A320, A330, A340 and A380 families are currently the certificationprocess for a HUD.TypesThere are two types of HUD. Fixed HUDs require the user to look through a display elementattached to the airframe or vehicle chassis. The system determines the image to be presenteddepending solely on the orientation of the vehicle. Commercial aircraft and automobilesusually incorporate a fixed HUD system. Helmet-mounted or head-mounted HUDs feature asecurely-attached display element that moves with the orientation of the users head. Suchsystems are often monocular, and are used in the AH-64 Apache and in some versions of theF-16 Fighting Falcon. The fixed HUD is actually being phased out in favor of the HelmetMounted Display. The F-22 Raptor was the last military fighter to have the fixed HUD. Thenew F-35 fighters all have Helmet Mounted Displays. ComponentsA typical HUD in civil aircraft contains three primary components: A Combiner, theOverhead Projector Unit (OPU), and the computer.[CombinerThe combiner is the part of the unit which is located directly in front of the pilot. It is thesurface onto which all the information is projected so that the pilot can view and use it. Thecombiner is concave in shape and has a special coating that reflects the monochromatic lightprojected onto it from the OPU while allowing all other wavelengths of light to pass through.
It is easily removable and also easily broken in case of a sudden stop by the aircraft thatwould cause the pilots head to crash into it. This also allows for pilots who prefer not to usethe unit to simply remove the combiner and fly the aircraft normally.Overhead Projection UnitThe Overhead Projection Unit, or OPU, is located above the pilots head in the cockpit. Intactical military aircraft, it is actually incorporated into the combiner in front of the pilot. Thepurpose of the OPU is to properly project the correct information onto the combiner for thepilot to view. In the early days of HUDs, this was done through refraction. Reflection is thecurrent method that is used. The OPU uses a Cathode Ray Tube to project the image. In orderto increase efficiency, the image is actually refreshed using a bi-direction scan. This causesthe image to be updated twice as fast as normal. The OPU is also easily removed for repairsor replacements. This is possible because the brackets that hold both the OPU and combinerhave been attached to the aircrafts structure using a process called boresighting. Since theHUD displays information regarding the orientation of the aircraft, it needs to be veryprecisely aligned with the aircrafts three axises. This is done during the very early part of theaircrafts building process. Once the brackets are permanently connected to the frame of theaircraft, the components of the HUD are line-replaceable. Recently, micro-display imagingtechnologies are being introduced. Currently, micro-display technologies that have beendemonstrated include liquid crystal display (LCD), liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), digitalmicro-mirrors (DMD), and organic light-emitting diode (OLED). HUD systems that projectinformation directly onto the wearer’s retina with a low-powered laser (virtual retinal display)are also in experimentation.ComputerThe computer usually is located with the other avionics equipment and provides the interfacebetween the HUD (i.e. the combiner and OPU) and the aircraft systems to be displayed. Thecomputer is a dual independent redundant system. This means that is receives its inputdirectly from the sensors aboard the aircraft and does its own computations rather thanreceive already computed data from the flight computers. The computer is very easilyincorporated into an aircrafts system and allows connectivity onto several different databuses such as the ARINC 429, ARINC 629, and MIL STD 1553. The computer itself also hasredundancy. It receives the data input into two separate partitions, and independentlyperforms the calculations. It then compares the results within itself. If there is no error, thedata is then converted into a form that can be used by the OPU to display. To check forerrors, the HUD computer also sends its computed data to the main flight computers to becompared with their calculations. If there are errors, then the HUD unit can be shut down.Another error check that the computer performs is to check that the correct data is beingdisplayed. This is accomplished because when the OPU projects the image onto the
combiner, there is some reflection back to the OPU. The OPU then sends this data back to theHUD computer and compared to what should have been shown. This ensures that not onlythe data is correct, but that it is being shown correctly.FactorsThere are several factors that come into consideration when discussing the operation of aHUD. Most of these factors have to do with optics.Field of VisionThe first concern has to do with field of vision. Since a person’s eyes are at two differentpoints, they see two different images. To prevent a person’s eyes from having to changefocus between the outside world and the display of the HUD, the display is focused at pointinfinity. In automobiles the display is generally focused around the distance to the bumper.EyeboxAnother feature of the HUD is that the display is projected in such a way so that it can onlybe viewed while the pilot’s eyes are within a 3-dimensional area in the cockpit called theHead Motion Box or “Eyebox”. Modern HUD Eyeboxes are usually 5 by 3 by 6 inches. Thisallows the pilot freedom of head movement. It also allows the pilot the ability to view theentire display as long as one of his eyes is inside the Eyebox. This is achieved through theconcavity of the Combiner.Luminance/ContrastDisplay luminance and contrast is also a concern for HUDs. The display can be brightened ordimmed to account for all foreseeable circumstances, whether it be a climb directly into theglare of a bright white cloud or a night approach to a desert airport where there is very littlelighting. Display AccuracyHUDs are calibrated to have a display accuracy of +/- 7.0 milliradians. This allows thedisplay to show the pilot exactly where the artificial horizon is, as well as the aircraft’sprojected path with great accuracy.Military aircraft applicationsThe use of HUDs was pioneered mainly for use in military aircraft platforms. The mainadvantage would be to allow the pilot to keep his attention on what was going on around himand not having to look down at his instruments for flight critical information very often. V/STOL approaches and landingsDuring the 1980s, the military was testing the use of head-up displays for the use in aircraftthat are capable of vertical take off and landings (VTOL) and short take off and landing
(STOL). A head-up display (HUD) format was developed at NASA Ames Research Center toprovide pilots of V/STOL aircraft with complete flight guidance and control information forCategory-IIIC terminal-area flight operations. These flight operations cover a large spectrum,from STOL operations on land-based runways to VTOL operations on small ships in highseas. The principal features of this display format are the integration of the flightpath andpursuit guidance information into a narrow field of view, easily assimilated by the pilot witha single glance, and the superposition of vertical and horizontal situation information. Thedisplay is a derivative of a successful design developed for conventional transport aircraft.Civil aircraft applicationsThe use of head-up displays allows commercial aircraft substantial flexibility in theiroperations. Systems have been approved which allow reduced-visibility takeoffs andlandings, as well as full Category IIIc landings. Studies have shown that the use of aHUD during landings decreases the lateral deviation from centerline in all landing conditionsalthough the touchdown point along the centerline is not changed. The cockpit of NASAs Gulfstream GV with a synthetic vision system display.The image to the right, of a HUD in a NASA Gulfstream GV, shows several different HUDelements, including the combiner in front of the pilot. The green glare in the lower rightcorner is a result of the backscatter of off-axis light from the OPU, as well as from reflectionof the available light in the flight deck off the "only does green" coating on the combiner.Because the combiner has a pronounced vertical and horizontal curve to help focus theimage, compensation is applied to the display symbols so they appear flat when projectedonto the curved surface. When not in use, most combiners swing up and lock in a stowedposition.The Overhead Projector Unit in the Gulfstream GV image would be directly above the pilotshead. In smaller aircraft the design of the OPU can present interesting spacing and placementissues, as room has to be left for the pilot not only when normally seated but duringturbulence and when getting in and out of the seat.Symbology
In recent years, several new symbols have been added to the flight deck by HUD designers. Aboresight symbol is fixed on the display and shows where the nose of the aircraft is actuallypointing. A flight path vector (FPV) symbol shows where the aircraft is actually going, thesum of all energies acting on the aircraft. For example, if the aircraft is pitched up but islosing energy, then the FPV symbol will be below the horizon even though the boresightsymbol is above the horizon. During approach and landing, a pilot can fly the approach bykeeping the FPV symbol at the desired touchdown point on the runway.An "acceleration indicator" symbol has also been added to HUD designs. This symbol,typically to the left of the FPV symbol, will be above the symbol if the aircraft isaccelerating, and below the FPV symbol if decelerating.Since being introduced on HUDs, both the FPV and acceleration symbols are becomingstandard on head-down displays (HDD). The actual form of the FPV symbol on an HDD isnot standardized but is usually a simple aircraft drawing, such as a circle with two shortangled lines, (180 ± 30 degrees) and "wings" on the ends of the descending line. Aligning oneof these angle lines on the horizon allows the pilot to easily fly a coordinated 30 degree turnwhile maintaining altitude.For approach and landing guidance, the flight guidance system can provide head-up visualcues based on navigation aids such as an Instrument Landing System or augmented GlobalPositioning System such as the Wide Area Augmentation System. Typically this is a circlewhich fits inside the flight path vector symbol. By "flying to" the guidance cue, the pilot fliesthe aircraft along the correct flight path. Keeping the pilot "in the loop" in this way is aneconomical alternative to an autolanding system, where the flight guidance system andautopilot system are given the control of the aircraft and the pilot simply provides amonitoring function.InstallationDuring the installation of a HUD in a commercial aircraft, the combiner is boresighted to theaircrafts centerline so that its displayed data corresponds to reality. For example, the line onthe HUD used to depict the horizon must be conformal to the actual horizon (at loweraltitudes, due the curvature of the earth the display horizon line will be above the visualhorizon at higher altitudes.)Enhanced Flight Vision Systems, EFVSIn more advanced systems, such as the FAA-labeled Enhanced Flight Vision System, areal-world visual image can be overlaid onto the combiner. Typically an infrared camera(either single or multi-band) is installed in the nose of the aircraft to display a conformedimage to the pilot. In one EVS  installation, the camera is actually installed at the top of thevertical stabilizer rather than "as close as practical to the pilots eye position." When used with
a HUD however, the camera must be mounted as close as possible to the pilots eye point asthe image is expected to "overlay" the real world as the pilot looks through the combiner."Registration" or the accurate overlay of the EVS image with the real world image is onefeature closely examined by the authorities prior to approval of a HUD based EVS. When thepilot is coming in for a landing and "sees" the runway and runway lights through the EVSdisplay, it is really a good thing when they come out under the clouds and the real worldrunway is right where the camera said it was as the pilot has a very short period of time to (a)take in the reality of "what is displayed is not what is real" (b) decide that action needs to betaken (c) take action and (d) allow the airplane some time to respond. During the design ofsuch a system, the supplier would perform a safety analysis to determine the consequences of"EFVS Image not aligned with real world at or below decision height." Using regulatoryguidance (FAA Advisory Circular 25.1309-1A for example) this would be initiallyevaluated as a Major hazard  where if it does occur the design community anticipates thatthe flight crew will be able to take the appropriate action. The pilot may choose to initiate amissed approach (climb immediately and then figure out what to do because altitude andspeed are your friend when trying to deal with "unexpected events") or perhaps toimmediately blank the HUD/EVS display (typically there is a thumb switch on the controlcolumn for exactly this circumstance) and continue the landing using what can be seenthrough the window.While the EVS display can greatly help, the FAA has only "relaxed" operating regulations where an aircraft with EVS operating can perform a CATEGORY I approach toCATEGORY II minimums. In all other cases the flight crew must comply with all "unaided"visual restrictions. (For example if the runway visibility is restricted because of fog, eventhough EVS may provide a clear visual image it is not appropriate (or actually legal) tomaneuver the aircraft using only the EVS below 100 agl.) Synthetic Vision Systems, SVSHUD systems are also being designed to utilize a synthetic vision system (SVS), which useterrain databases to create a realistic and intuitive view of the outside world.
A synthetic vision system display. In SVS image to the right, immediately visible indicatorsinclude the airspeed tape on the left, altitude tape on the right, and turn/bank/slip/skiddisplays at the top center. The bore sight symbol (-/-) is in the center and directly below thatis the Flight Path Vector symbol (the circle with short wings and a vertical stabilizer). Thehorizon line is visible going across the display with a break at the center, and directly to theleft are the numbers at ±10 degrees with a short line at ±5 degrees (The +5 degree line iseasier to see) which, along with the horizon line, show the pitch of the aircraft.The aircraft in the image is wings level (i.e. the flight path vector symbol is relative to thehorizon line and there is zero roll on the turn/bank indicator). Airspeed is 140 knots, altitudeis 9450 feet, heading is 343 degrees (the number below the turn/bank indicator). Closeinspection of image shows a small purple circle which is displaced from the Flight PathVector slightly to the lower right. This is the guidance cue coming from the Flight GuidanceSystem. When stabilized on the approach, this purple symbol should be centered within theFPV.The terrain is entirely computer generated from a high resolution terrain database.In some systems, the SVS will calculate the aircrafts current flight path, or possible flightpath (based on an aircraft performance model, the aircrafts current energy, and surroundingterrain) and then turn any obstructions red to alert the flight crew. Such a system could haveprevented the crash of American Airlines Flight 965 in 1995.On the left side of the display is an SVS-unique symbol, which looks like a purple, dimishingsideways ladder, and which continues on the right of the display. The two together define a"tunnel in the sky." This symbol defines the desired trajectory of the aircraft in threedimensions. For example, if the pilot had selected an airport to the left, then this symbolwould curve off to the left and down. The pilot keeps the flight path vector alongside thetrajectory symbol and so will fly the optimum path. This path would be based on informationstored in the Flight Management Systems data base and would show the FAA-approvedapproach for that airport.The Tunnel In The Sky can also greatly assist the pilot when more precise four dimensionalflying is required, such as the decreased vertical or horizontal clearance requirements ofRNP. Under such conditions the pilot is given a graphical depiction of where the aircraftshould be and where it should be going rather than the pilot having to mentally integratealtitude, airspeed, heading, energy AND longitude and latitude to correctly fly the aircraft.Automotive applicationsHead-up displays are becoming increasingly available in production cars, and usually offerspeedometer, tachometer, and navigation system displays. BMW, Citroën, GM, and Nissan
currently offer some form of HUD system. Motorcycle helmet HUDs are also commerciallyavailable.HUD in a Pontiac Bonneville showing a speed of 47 mphAdd-on HUD systems also exist, projecting the display onto a glass combiner mounted on thewindshield. These systems have been marketed to police agencies for use with in-vehiclecomputers.Experimental usesHUDs have been proposed or are being experimentally developed for a number of otherapplications. In the military, a HUD can be used to overlay tactical information such as theoutput of a laser rangefinder or squadmate locations to infantrymen. A surgical HUD couldalso display overlaid x-rays or other medical data or imagery onto the surgeons view of apatient undergoing surgery, allowing the surgical team to "see" structures that are normallyinvisible. A prototype HUD has also been developed that displays information on the insideof a swimmers goggles