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    Auto evolution Auto evolution Document Transcript

    • EUROPA REFERENCE BOOKS for Automotive TechnologyModernAutomotive TechnologyFundamentals, service, diagnostics1st English editionThe German edition was written by technical instructors, engineers and techniciansEditorial office (German edition): R. Gscheidle, Studiendirektor, Winnenden – StuttgartVERLAG EUROPA-LEHRMITTEL · Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KGDüsselberger Strasse 23 · 42781 Haan-Gruiten · GermanyEuropa No.: 23018
    • Original title: Fachkunde Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, 28th edition 2004Authors:Fischer, Richard Oberstudienrat Polling – MünchenGscheidle, Rolf Studiendirektor Winnenden – StuttgartHeider, Uwe Kfz-Elektriker-Meister, Trainer Audi AG Neckarsulm – OedheimHohmann, Berthold Oberstudienrat Eversberg – MeschedeKeil, Wolfgang Studiendirektor MünchenMann, Jochen Dipl.-Gwl., Studienrat Schorndorf – StuttgartPichler, Wolfram Ing. (grad.), Studiendirektor Pullach – MünchenSchlögl, Bernd Dipl.-Gwl., Studienrat Rastatt – GaggenauSiegmayer, Paul Dipl.-Ing., Studiendirektor Langenalb – PforzheimWimmer, Alois Oberstudienrat StuttgartWormer, Günter Dipl.-Ingenieur KarlsruheHead of working group and editorial office:Rolf Gscheidle, Studiendirektor, Winnenden – StuttgartIllustrations:Drawing office of Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Leinfelden-EchterdingenAll information given in this book corresponds to the state of the art. All testing, measuring and repairwork on a specific vehicle must be carried out in accordance with the manufacturers specifications. Thework described is performed at the users own risk. Warranty claims against the authors or the pub-lisher are excluded.English edition: Modern Automotive Technology - Fundamentals, service, diagnostics1st edition 2006Impression 5 4 3 2 1All impressions of the same edition can be used in parallel, as they do not differ from each other except with regardto the correction of printing errors.ISBN 3-8085-2301-8All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. Any commercial use beyond the legally specified usesrequires written approval from the publisher.Cover design and illustration using photographs and illustrations provided by Audi AG Ingolstadt – Neckarsulm,Bayerische Motorenwerke AG Munich, Neoman Bus GmbH Stuttgart, DaimlerChrysler AG Stuttgart, Volkswagen AGWolfsburg.© 2006 by Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KG, 42781 Haan-Gruiten, Germanyhttp://www.europa-lehrmittel.deTranslation: STAR Deutschland GmbH, Member of the STAR GroupTypesetting: STAR Deutschland GmbH, Member of the STAR GroupPrint: Media Print Informationstechnologie, D-33100 Paderborn, Germany
    • Foreword 3 Foreword 1"Modern Automotive Technology" is a standard work covering the subject of automotive technology. Thisfirst English edition is based on the 28th German edition of the title "Fachkunde Kraftfahrzeugtechnik".It has for many years proven to be a highly popular textbook used for training and further education. Itprovides apprentices, trainees, teachers and all those interested in this subject with the necessarytheoretical knowledge in order to gain a firm grasp of the practical and technical skills involved.Fundamental, technical connections between individual systems are presented in a clear and compre-hensible way.The book is intended to be used as a reference work by employees in the automotive industry and inmotor-vehicle service outlets, by teachers, apprentices, trainees and automotive-technology students tohelp them look up information and supplement their technical knowledge. The work is intended to beused by all those interested in automotive technology as a means of extending their technical knowledgethrough private study.The 22 chapters are logically arranged by subject and in their objectives are geared towards the changesin content that have occurred in the field of automotive technology. The book is particularly suitable forpractically orientated training in all matters pertaining to motor vehicles.This work covers the latest developments in automotive technology, such as, for example, service andmaintenance of vehicle systems, management, communication, FSI engines, supercharging technology,common-rail systems, twin-clutch gearboxes, electronic transmission control, electronic brake systems,compressed-air monitoring systems, adaptive cornering lights, high-frequency technology, electromag-netic compatibility and comfort and convenience systems such as adaptive cruise control, parking assis-tance and navigation. A large chapter is devoted to the subject of electrical engineering. Here, thedetailed coverage of the fundamentals of electrical engineering forms the basis for all the crucial issuesand topics pertaining to automotive electrics, up to and including data transmission in motor vehicles.A separate chapter is devoted to the increasing importance in engineering of comfort and conveniencetechnology.Reference is made to German and European standards in the chapters on environmental protection andoccupational safety, emissions-control engineering, braking technology and motorcycle engineering.However, the standards applicable in the respective individual countries are binding.The work features numerous coloured pictures, drawings and system diagrams as well as particularlyclearly and comprehensibly laid-out tables. These will help the reader to digest and comprehend thecomplex subject matter.The work has been written and compiled – in close co-operation with the automotive trade and industry –by a team of educationally experienced vocational-school teachers, engineers and master tradesmen.The authors and the publishers will be grateful for any suggestions and constructive comments.We would like to thank all the companies and organisations who have kindly contributed pictures andtechnical documents.The Authors of the Automotive Technology Team Summer 2006
    • 4 Abbreviations A/C Air conditioning CPU Central processing unit EMS Electronic engine A/F Air/fuel (mixture) CR Common rail management system ABC Active body control CS Crankshaft Eo Exhaust valve opens ABS Antilock braking system CSR Conti support ring EOBD European on board ABV Automatic braking-force CV Commercial vehicle diagnosis distribution CV Check valve EP Exhaust passage (German: Automatische CVlft Check valve left EPHS Electrically powered Bremskraftverteilung ) hydraulic steering CVrt Check valve right AC Alternating current EPS Electro-pneumatic control CVT Continuous variable ACC Adaptive cruise control system transmission ACEA Association des ESP Electronic stability Constructeurs Européens program DA Drive axle de lautomobile ETC Electronic throttle control DC Direct current ACS Automatic clutch system ETN European type number DI Direct injection AD Analogue-digital EV Exhaust valve (converter) DME Digital motor electronics FA Front axle ADSL Asymmetrical digital DOHC Double overhead FB Function button subscriber line camshaft FDI Fuel direct injection AGM Absorbing glas mat DOT Department of Transport FF Freeform (reflector) ALDBFR Automatic load- DSC Dynamic stability control DSG Direct-shift gearbox FH Flat hump dependent brake-force DSP Dynamic shift-program FL Front left regulator selection FOC Fibre-optic cable ALSD Automatic limited-slip differential DSST Dunlop self-supporting FOT Fibre-optical transceiver AM Amplitude modulation technology FR Front right API American Petroleum FSI Fuel stratified injection Institute EBS Electronic braking system FWD Four wheel drive ASC Anti-stability control Ec Exhaust valve closes ASTM American Society for ECE Economic Commission GDI Gasoline direct injection Testing and Materials for Europe GFRP Glass-fibre-reinforced ATF Automatic transmission ECM Electronic clutch plastic fluid management GI General inspection ATS Adaptive transmission ECS Electronic clutch system GMR Automatic regulation of control (system) ECU Electronic control unit yaw moment (German: EDC Electronic diesel control Giermomentregelung) BAS Brake assistant EDP Electronic data GPS Global positioning system BDC Bottom dead centre processing GVWR Gross vehicle weight EDTC Engine-drag torque rating CA Crankshaft angle control CS Camshaft EEPROM Electrically erasable HF High frequency CAN Controller area network programmable read-only HFM Hot-film air-mass meter memory CBS Combined brake system HGV Heavy goods vehicle EGR Exhaust gas recirculation CC Cruise control HNS Homogeneous EGS Electronic gearbox numerically calculated CDI Capacitive discharge control unit (German: surface ignition Elektronisches CFPP Cold filter plugging point HS High-solid (paints) Getriebesteuergerät) CFRP Carbon-fibre-reinforced HTHS High temperature, EH Extended hump plastic high shear EHB Electro-hydraulic braking CH Combination hump HV Hybrid vehicle system CIH Camshaft in head EI Emissions inspection CIP Continuous improvement IC Integrated circuit ELSD Electronic limited-slip process differential Ic Inlet valve closes CN Cetane number EMC Electro-magnetic IC Individual control CNG Compressed natural gas compatibility IDI Indirect injection
    • 5 AbbreviationsIHPF Internal high-pressure OBD On board diagnosis SBC Sensotronic brake control forming OD Outside diameter SC Signal conditioningIo Inlet valve opens OHC Overhead camshaft SCR Selective catalyticIP Inlet passage OHV Overhead valves reductionIPO Input/Processing/Output ON Octane number SCV Solenoid control valve (principle) OV Outlet valve SDC Semi-drop centreIS Input shaft OVlft Outlet valve left SE SensorISAD Integrated starter SI Safety inspection alternator damper SLC Select-low control PBC Parking-brake circuitIV Inlet valve SoC State of charge PC Planet carriersIVlft Inlet valve left SPI Single-point injection PCU Pump control unitIvrt Inlet valve right SRR Short-range radar PDA Personal digital assistant PEM Proton exchange SRS Safety restraint systemsLA Lifting axle membran SSlft Speed sensor leftLD Low density PES Poly ellipsoid system SSR Self-supporting run-flatLDR Light depending resistor (reflector) tyresLED Light emitting diode PIN Personal identification SSrt Speed sensor rightLEV Low-emission vehicle number SV Solenoid valveLF Low frequency PM Particulate matter SV Side valveLI Load index POF Plastic optical fibre SW Short waveLIN Local interconnect POT Plastic optical transceiver SWR Stationary wave ratio network PR Ply ratingLNG Liquefied natural gas PTC Positive temperature Tc Transfer passage closesLS Limited slip coefficient TCS Traction control systemLSG Laminated safety glass PWM Pulse width modulation TDC Top dead centreLU Logical unit TIG Tungsten-inert gasLW Long wave QA Quality assurance TL Tubeless QM Quality management To Transfer passage opensMAF Mass air flow TP Transfer passageMAG Metal-active-gas RA Rear axle TPC Tyre-pressure check (welding) RDS Radio data system TSG Toughened safety glassMC Microcomputer RHD Right-hand driver TWI Treadwear indicatorMC Main cylinder RL Rear leftME Motor electronics RLFS Return-less-fuel system UIS Unit injector systemMED Motor electronics direct RON Research-octane number UPS Unit pump system injection ROP Roll-over protectionMG Motor generator ROV Rotating high voltage VDC Vehicle dynamicsMIG Metal-inert-gas (welding) distribution controllerMIL Malfunction indicator (German: Rotierende VDR Voltage-dependent lamp Hochspannungs- resistor verteilung)MON Motor-octane number VF Variable focus (reflector) RR Rear rightMOST Media-oriented system VHF Very high frequency transport RRC Radio remote control VT Viscosity temperatureMPI Multi-point injection RUV Static high voltage VTec Variable valve timing and distributionMS Medium-solid (paints) lift electronic control (German: RuhendeMW Medium wave Hochspannungs- VTG Variable turbine geometry verteilung)NF Non-ferrous WIG Wolfram-inert-gas SAC Self-adjusting clutch (welding)NLGI National Lubrication Grease Institute SAE Society of AutomotiveNLS Needle lift sensor EngineersNTC Negative temperature SAM Signal acquisition and coefficient actuation module
    • 6 Contributing companies We wish to thank the companies listed below for providing technical advice, information, photographs and illustrations. Alfa-Romeo-Automobile HAMEG GmbH, Frankfurt/Main Peugeot Deutschland GmbH Mailand/Italien Saarbrücken Hella KG, Hueck & Co, Lippstadt Aprilia Motorrad-Vertrieb Pierburg GmbH, Neuss Hengst Filterwerke, Nienkamp Düsseldorf Fritz Hintermayr, Bing-Vergaser-Fabrik Pirelli AG, Höchst im Odenwald Aral AG, Bochum Nürnberg Audatex Deutschland, Minden Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG HITACHI Sales Europa GmbH Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen Audi AG, Ingolstadt – Neckarsulm Düsseldorf Renault Nissan Deutschland AG Autokabel, Hausen HONDA DEUTSCHLAND GMBH Brühl Autoliv, Oberschleißheim Offenbach/Main Hunger Maschinenfabrik GmbH Samsung Electronics GmbH, Köln G. Auwärter GmbH & Co (Neoplan) Stuttgart München und Kaufering SATA Farbspritztechnik GmbH & Co IBM Deutschland, Böblingen Kornwestheim BBS Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, Schiltach BEHR GmbH & Co, Stuttgart IVECO-Magirus AG, Neu-Ulm SCANIA Deutschland GmbH ITT Automotive (ATE, VDO, Koblenz Beissbarth GmbH Automobil Servicegeräte München MOTO-METER, SWF KONI, Kienzle) , SEKURIT SAINT-GOBAIN Frankfurt/Main Deutschland GmbH, Aachen BERU, Ludwigsburg IXION Maschinenfabrik Aug. Bilstein GmbH & Co KG Otto Häfner GmbH & Co Siemens AG, München Ennepetal Hamburg-Wandsbeck SKF Kugellagerfabriken GmbH Boge GmbH, Eitdorf/Sieg Jurid-Werke, Essen Schweinfurt Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart Kawasaki-Motoren GmbH, Friedrichsdorf SOLO Kleinmotoren GmbH Bostik GmbH, Oberursel/Taunus Knecht Filterwerke GmbH, Stuttgart Maichingen BLACK HAWK, Kehl Knorr-Bremse GmbH, München Stahlwille E. Wille Wuppertal BMW Bayerische Motoren-Werke AG Kolbenschmidt AG, Neckarsulm München/Berlin Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG KS Gleitlager GmbH, St. Leon-Rot CAR-OLINER, Kungsör, Schweden Graz/Österreich KTM Sportmotorcycles AG CAR BENCH INTERNATIONAL.S.P.A. Mattighofen/Österreich Subaru Deutschland GmbH Massa/Italien Friedberg Kühnle, Kopp und Kausch AG Continental Teves AG & Co, OHG, Frankfurt Frankenthal/Pfalz SUN Elektrik Deutschland Celette GmbH, Kehl Mettmann Lemmerz-Werke, Königswinter Citroen Deutschland AG, Köln LuK GmbH, Bühl/Baden Suzuki GmbH Oberschleißheim/Heppenheim DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart MAHLE GmbH, Stuttgart Dataliner Richtsysteme, Ahlerstedt Technolit GmbH, Großlüder Mannesmann Sachs AG, Schweinfurt Deutsche BP AG, Hamburg Mann und Hummel, Filterwerke Telma Retarder Deutschland GmbH Ludwigsburg Ludwigsburg DUNLOP GmbH & Co KG, Hanau/Main ESSO AG, Hamburg MAN Maschinenfabrik Temic Elektronik, Nürnberg Augsburg-Nürnberg AG FAG Kugelfischer Georg Schäfer KG aA München TOYOTA Deutschland GmbH, Köln Ebern Mazda Motors Deutschland GmbH VARTA Autobatterien GmbH J. Eberspächer, Esslingen Leverkusen Hannover EMM Motoren Service, Lindau MCC – Mikro Compact Car GmbH Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co KG Ford-Werke AG, Köln Böblingen Stuttgart Carl Freudenberg Messer-Griesheim GmbH ViewSonic Central Europe, Willich Weinheim/Bergstraße Frankfurt/Main Metzeler Reifen GmbH Voith GmbH & Co KG, Heidenheim GKN Löbro, Offenbach / Main München Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg Getrag Getriebe- und Zahnradfarbrik Ludwigsburg Michelin Reifenwerke KGaA Karlsruhe Volvo Deutschland GmbH, Brühl Girling-Bremsen GmbH, Koblenz Microsoft GmbH, Unterschleißheim Wabco Westinghouse GmbH Glasurit GmbH, Münster/Westfalen Hannover Mitsubishi Electric Europe B.V. Globaljig, Deutschland GmbH Ratingen Webasto GmbH, Stockdorf Cloppenburg Mitsubishi MMC, Trebur Yamaha Motor Deutschland GmbH Glyco-Metall-Werke B.V. & Co KG Wiesbaden/Schierstein MOBIL OIL AG, Hamburg Neuss Goetze AG, Burscheid NGK/NTK, Ratingen ZF Getriebe GmbH, Saarbrücken Grau-Bremse, Heidelberg Adam Opel AG, Rüsselsheim ZF Sachs AG, Schweinfurt Gutmann Messtechnik GmbH, Ihringen OSRAM AG, München ZF Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen AG Hazet-Werk, Hermann Zerver, Remscheid OMV AG, Wien Friedrichshafen/Schwäbisch Gmünd
    • Table of contents 7Table of contents 3.2.3 Customer complaints and remedial action claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3 Personnel leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Abbreviations 4, 5 3.4 Staff conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.5 Teamwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Contributing companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.6 Order processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.7 Data processing in a car dealership . . . . . 561 Motor vehicle 11 3.8 Quality management in automotive1.1 Evolution of the motor vehicle . . . . . . . . . 11 service operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591.2 Motor vehicle classifications . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3 Design of the motor vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 Basics of information technology 631.4 The motor vehicle as technical system . . 131.4.1 Technical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1 Hardware and software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631.4.2 Motor vehicle system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2 IPO concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631.4.3 Subsystems in the motor vehicle . . . . . . . 15 4.3 Internal data representation1.4.4 Classifications of technical systems within the computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 and subsystems by processing mode . . . 16 4.4 Numeric systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641.4.5 Using technical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.5 Structure of the computer system . . . . . . 651.5 Service and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.6 Data communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661.6 Filter, body and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.6.1 Data transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671.6.1 Air filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.6.2 Remote data transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681.6.2 Fuel filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.7 Data integrity assurance1.6.3 Oil filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 and data protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691.6.4 Hydraulic filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.6.5 Interior filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5 Open- and closed-loop1.6.6 Service and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 control technology 701.7 Fluids and lubricants, auxiliary materials 23 5.1 Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701.7.1 Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.1.1 Open-loop control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701.7.2 Fuels for spark-ignition engines . . . . . . . . 25 5.1.2 Closed-loop control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711.7.3 Diesel fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.2 Structure and components of the1.7.4 Oils and lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 open-loop control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731.7.5 Antifreeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.2.1 Signalling devices, signal types and1.7.6 Refrigerant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 signal conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731.7.7 Brake fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5.2.2 Control elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 5.2.3 Actuators and drive elements . . . . . . . . . . 762 Environmental protection, 5.3 Control types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 occupational safety 34 5.3.1 Mechanical control systems . . . . . . . . . . . 77 5.3.2 Pneumatic and hydraulic2.1 Environmental protection in control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 automotive service operations . . . . . . . . . 34 5.3.3 Electric control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832.1.1 Environmental pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.3.4 Gate-logic control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 852.1.2 Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.3.5 Process-sequence control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862.1.3 End-of-life vehicle disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . 372.1.4 Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382.2 Occupational safety and 6 Test technology 87 accident prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6.1 Basics of linear test technology . . . . . . . . 872.2.1 Safety signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6.2 Measuring instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892.2.2 Accident causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 6.3 Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942.2.3 Safety measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 6.4 Tolerances and fits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 952.2.4 Safe handling of hazardous 6.5 Scribing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7 Production engineering 993 Business organisation, communications 43 7.1 Categorisation of manufacturing3.1 Basics of business organisation . . . . . . . . 43 processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993.1.1 Organisation of a car dealership . . . . . . . . 43 7.2 Creative forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013.1.2 Aspects of the business organisation . . . 44 7.3 Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043.2 Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 7.3.1 Forming under bending conditions . . . . 1053.2.1 Basics of communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 7.3.2 Forming under combination of tensile3.2.2 Consultations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 and compressive conditions . . . . . . . . . . 106
    • 8 Table of contents 7.3.3 Forming under compressive conditions 107 10.5 Timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 7.3.4 Straightening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 10.6 Cylinder numbering, firing orders . . . 192 7.3.5 Sheet-metal working processes . . . . . . . 109 10.7 Engine-performance curves . . . . . . . . 194 7.4 Separating by cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 10.8 Stroke-to-bore ratio, power output 7.4.1 Basics of cutting-shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 per litre, weight-to-power ratio . . . . . . 195 7.4.2 Cutting-shaping by hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 7.4.3 Basics of cutting-shaping with machine tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 11 Mechanical engine components 196 7.5 Separating by dividing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 11.1 Cylinder, cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 7.5.1 Cropping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 11.1.1 Functions, stresses and strains . . . . . . 196 7.5.2 Wedge-action cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 11.1.2 Cylinder types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 7.6 Joining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 11.1.3 Cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 7.6.1 Categorisation of connections . . . . . . . . 131 11.1.4 Cylinder-head gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 7.6.2 Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 11.1.5 Crankcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 7.6.3 Screwed joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 11.1.6 Engine suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 7.6.4 Pin connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 11.2 Engine-cooling systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 7.6.5 Riveted joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 11.2.1 Types of cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 7.6.6 Clinching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 11.2.2 Air cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 7.6.7 Shaft-hub connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 11.2.3 Liquid cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 7.6.8 Press-fit joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 11.2.4 Pump-cooling components . . . . . . . . . 206 7.6.9 Snap-in connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 11.2.5 Map-controlled cooling systems . . . . . 211 7.6.10 Soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 11.2.6 Map-cooling components . . . . . . . . . . 211 7.6.11 Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 11.3 Crankshaft drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 7.6.12 Gluing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 11.4 Dual-mass flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 7.7 Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 11.5 Engine lubricating systems . . . . . . . . . 226 11.6 Engine timing gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 8 Material science 154 11.7 Charge optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 8.1 Properties of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 8.2 Categorisation of materials . . . . . . . . . . 158 8.3 Structure of metallic materials . . . . . . . . 159 12 Mixture formation 247 8.4 Ferrous products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 12.1 Fuel-supply systems in 8.4.1 Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 spark-ignition engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247 8.4.2 Cast-iron materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 12.2 Mixture formation in spark-ignition 8.4.3 Influence of additives on engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 ferrous products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 12.3 Carburettor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 8.4.4 Designation of ferrous products . . . . . . 163 12.4 Petrol injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 8.4.5 Categorisation and application 12.4.1 Basic principles of petrol injection . . . 257 of steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 12.4.2 Design and function of 8.4.6 Commercial forms of steel . . . . . . . . . . . 167 electronic petrol injection . . . . . . . . . . 259 8.4.7 Heat treatment of 12.4.3 Operating-data acquisition . . . . . . . . . 260 ferrous products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 12.4.4 Single-point injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 8.5 Non-ferrous metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 12.4.5 LH-Motronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 8.6 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 12.4.6 ME-Motronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 8.7 Composite materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 12.4.7 MED-Motronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 12.4.8 KE-Jetronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 9 Friction, lubrication, bearings, seals 177 12.5 Mixture formation in diesel engines . 288 9.1 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 12.5.1 Combustion sequence in a 9.2 Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 diesel engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 9.3 Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 12.5.2 Failures in combustion sequence . . . . 288 9.4 Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 12.5.3 Comparison of injection processes . . . 289 12.5.4 Inlet-passage control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 12.5.5 Start-assist systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 10 Design and operating principle 12.5.6 Nozzle-holder assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 of a four-stroke engine 183 12.5.7 Injection systems for 10.1 Spark-ignition engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 passenger-car diesel engines . . . . . . . 294 10.2 Diesel engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 12.5.7 Axial-piston distributor pump .1 10.3 General physical and with mechanical control . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 chemical principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 12.5.7 Electronic diesel control (EDC) . . . . . . 298 .2 10.4 Pressure-volume diagram 12.5.7 Electronically controlled axial-piston .3 (p -V diagram) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 distributor injection pump (VE-EDC) . 299
    • Table of contents 912.5.7 Radial-piston distributor .4 16.5.5 Continuously variable automatic injection pump (VP44) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 transmission with pushbelt or12.5.7 Unit-injector system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 .5 link chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37412.5.7 Common-rail system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 .6 16.6 Propeller shafts, drive shafts, joints . 376 16.7 Final drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 16.8 Differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38213 Pollutant reduction 309 16.9 Differential locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 16.10 All-wheel drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38713.1 Exhaust system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30913.2 Pollutant reduction in a spark-ignition engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 17 Vehicle body 39013.2.1 Exhaust-gas composition . . . . . . . . . . 312 17.1 Vehicle body/bodywork . . . . . . . . . . . 39013.2.2 Procedures for reducing pollutants . . 314 17.1.1 Separate construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39013.2.3 Diagnosis and maintenance (EI) . . . . . 319 17.1.2 Partially self-supporting construction 39013.2.4 European On-Board Diagnosis 17.1.3 Self-supporting construction . . . . . . . 390 (EOBD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 17.1.4 Materials in body making . . . . . . . . . . 39113.3 Pollutant reduction in a 17.1.5 Safety in vehicle manufacturing . . . . 393 diesel engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 17.1.6 Damage assessment and13.3.1 Exhaust-gas composition . . . . . . . . . . 324 measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40013.3.2 Procedures for reducing pollutants . . 324 17.1.7 Accident repairs to self- supporting bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 17.2 Corrosion protection on14 Two-stroke spark-ignition engine, motor vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 rotary engine 326 17.3 Vehicle paintwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41014.1 Two-stroke engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32614.2 Rotary engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 18 Chassis 414 18.1 Driving dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 18.2 Basic principles of steering . . . . . . . . . 41615 Alternative drive concepts 335 18.3 Wheel adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 18.4 Computerised axle alignment . . . . . . . 42015.1 Alternative sources of energy . . . . . . . 335 18.5 Steering gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42115.2 Natural-gas drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 18.6 Steering systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42115.3 Hybrid drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 18.6.1 Hydraulic rack-and-pinion steering . . 42115.4 Drives with fuel cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 18.6.2 Electro-hydraulic power steering15.5 Internal-combustion engines with Servotronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 hydrogen mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 18.6.3 Electric power steering15.6 Internal-combustion engines with Servolectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 vegetable-oil mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 18.6.4 Active steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 18.7 Wheel suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42416 Drivetrain 340 18.8 Suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 18.8.1 Function of the suspension . . . . . . . . 42816.1 Types of drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 18.8.2 Operating principle of the suspension 42816.2 Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 18.8.3 Types of springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43016.2.1 Friction clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 18.8.4 Vibration dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43416.2.2 Double-plate clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 18.8.5 Active Body Control (ABC) . . . . . . . . . 43816.2.3 Twin clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 18.9 Wheels and tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44116.2.4 Multi-plate clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 18.9.1 Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44116.2.5 Magnetic-particle clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 18.9.2 Tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44216.2.6 Automatic clutch system (ACS) . . . . . . 350 18.9.3 Run-flat systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44816.2.7 Function checks on friction 18.9.4 Compressed-air monitoring systems 449 clutches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 18.10 Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45116.3 Variable-speed gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 18.10.1 Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45316.4 Manual variable-speed gearbox . . . . . 353 18.10.2 Hydraulic brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45316.5 Automatic gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 18.10.3 Brake-circuit configuration . . . . . . . . . 45416.5.1 Automated manual gearbox . . . . . . . . 358 18.10.4 Master cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45416.5.2 Stepped automatic gearbox 18.10.5 Drum brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 with hydrodynamic converter . . . . . . . 360 18.10.6 Disc brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45816.5.3 Electrohydraulic transmission 18.10.7 Brake pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 18.10.8 Diagnosis and maintenance of the16.5.4 Adaptive transmission control . . . . . . 373 hydraulic brake system . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
    • 10 Table of contents 18.10.9 Power-assisted brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 20.2.3 Alarm system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 18.10.10 Braking-force distribution . . . . . . . . . . 464 20.3 Comfort and convenience systems . . . 609 18.10.11 Mechanically operated brake . . . . . . . 465 20.3.1 Electric power windows . . . . . . . . . . . . 609 18.10.12 Basics of the electronic chassis 20.3.2 Convertible roof actuation . . . . . . . . . . . 611 control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 20.3.3 Electric power seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612 18.10.13 Antilock-braking system (ABS) . . . . . 467 20.3.4 Electronic windscreen wiper . . . . . . . . 612 18.10.14 Brake assistant (BAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 20.3.5 Electric adjustable exterior mirrors . . 613 18.10.15 Traction-Control System (TCS) . . . . . 471 20.4 Driver assistance systems . . . . . . . . . . 614 18.10.16 Vehicle Dynamics Control 20.4.1 Cruise control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 ESP DSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 473 20.4.2 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) . . . . . . 614 18.10.17 Sensotronic Brake Control (SBC) . . . . 474 20.4.3 Parking assistance system . . . . . . . . . . 615 20.5 Infotainment system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 20.5.1 Operating and travel data display . . . . 615 19 Electrical engineering 476 20.5.2 Navigation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 19.1 General of the electrical engineering 476 20.5.3 Mobile phones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617 19.1.1 Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 19.1.2 Electrical current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 21 Motorcycle technology 618 19.1.3 Electrical resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 19.1.4 Ohms law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 21.1 Types of motorcycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618 19.1.5 Power, work, efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 21.2 Motorcycle engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621 19.1.6 Resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 21.3 Exhaust system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621 19.1.7 Measurements in electrical 21.4 Mixture formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622 circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 21.5 Engine cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 19.1.8 Properties of electrical current . . . . . . 491 21.6 Engine lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 19.1.9 Protection against the hazards of 21.7 Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 electrical current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 21.8 Drive train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 19.1.10 Voltage generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 21.9 Electrical system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 19.1.11 Alternating voltage and 21.10 Dynamics of vehicular operation . . . . 630 alternating current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 21.11 Motorcycle frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 19.1.12 Three-phase AC voltage and 21.12 Wheel location, suspension and three-phase current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 19.1.13 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 21.13 Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 19.1.14 Self-induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 21.14 Wheels, tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 19.1.15 Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 19.1.16 Electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 19.1.17 Electronic components . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 22 Commercial vehicle technology 639 19.2 Applications of electrical engineering 512 22.1 Categorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 19.2.1 Circuit diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 22.2 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 19.2.2 Signal transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 22.3 Injection systems for 19.2.3 Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 CV diesel engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 19.2.4 Lighting in the motor vehicle . . . . . . . 525 22.3.1 Injection system with inline injection 19.2.5 Power supply and pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 vehicle electrical system . . . . . . . . . . . 532 22.3.2 Control sleeve inline fuel-injection 19.2.6 Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 19.2.7 Electric motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 22.3.3 Unit pump systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 19.2.8 Ignition systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 22.3.4 Auxiliary starting assistance systems 648 19.2.9 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 22.3.5 Reduction of harmful emissions 19.2.10 High-frequency technology . . . . . . . . 575 on CV- diesel engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649 19.2.11 Electromagnetic compatibility . . . . . . 580 22.4 Drive train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 19.2.12 Data transmission in motor vehicles 582 22.5 Chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654 19.2.13 Measuring, testing, diagnosis . . . . . . 592 22.5.1 Suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654 22.5.2 Wheels and tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657 20 Comfort and convenience technology 596 22.5.3 Air-brake system (brake system with external power source) . . . . . . . . 658 20.1 Ventilation, heating, surrounding air, 22.6 Starting systems for commercial air conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 20.2 Antitheft systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 20.2.1 Central locking system . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 23 Keyword index 674 20.2.2 Vehicle immobiliser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
    • 11 1 Motor vehicle 11.1 Evolution of the motor vehicle1860 The Frenchman Lenoir constructs the first fully operational internal-combustion engine; this powerplant relies on city gas as its fuel source. Thermal efficiency is in the 3 % range.1867 Otto and Langen display an improved internal- combustion engine at the Paris International Exhibition. Its thermal efficiency is approxi- mately 9 %. Fig. 3: Ford Model T and VW Beetle 1897 First Electromobile from Lohner-Porsche (Fig. 2). 1899 Fiat Automobile Factory founded in Turin. 1913 Ford introduces the production line to automo- tive manufacturing. Production of the Tin Lizzy (Model T, Fig. 3). By 1925, 9,109 were leaving the production line each day. 1916 The Bavarian Motor Works are founded.Fig. 1: Daimler motorcycle and Benz motor carriage 1923 First motor lorry powered by a diesel engine1876 Otto builds the first gas-powered engine to produced by Benz-MAN (Fig. 4). utilise the four-stroke compression cycle. At vir- 1936 Daimler-Benz inaugurates series-production of tually the same time Clerk constructs the first passenger cars propelled by diesel engines. gas-powered two-stroke engine in England. 1938 The VW Works are founded in Wolfsburg.1883 Daimler and Maybach develop the first high- 1949 First low-profile tyre and first steel-belted radial speed four-cycle petrol engine using a hot-tube tyre produced by Michelin. ignition system. 1950 First gas-turbine propulsion unit for automo-1885 The first self-propelled motorcycle from tive application makes its debut at Rover in Daimler. First self-propelled three-wheeler from England. Benz (patented in 1886) (Fig. 1). 1954 NSU-Wankel constructs the rotary engine1886 First four-wheeled motor carriage with petrol (Fig. 4). engine from Daimler (Fig. 2).1887 Bosch invents the magneto ignition.1889 Dunlop in England produces the first pneu- matic tyres. NSU Spider with Wankel1893 Maybach invents the spray-nozzle carburettor. Benz-MAN lorry, 5 K 3 engine, 1963, 500 cc, 1st diesel lorry, 1923 37 kW at 6,000 rpm, 153 km/h1893 Diesel patents his design for a heavy oil-burn- Fig. 4: Diesel-engined lorry ing powerplant employing the self-ignition Passenger car with Wankel rotary engine concept. 1966 Electronic fuel injection (D-Jetronic) for stan-1897 MAN presents the first workable diesel engine. dard production vehicles produced by Bosch. 1970 Seatbelts for driver and front passengers. 1978 Initial application of the ABS Antilock Braking System in passenger cars. 1984 Debut of the airbag and seatbelt tensioning system. 1985 Advent of a catalytic converter designed for op- eration in conjunction with closed-loop mixture control, intended for use with unleaded fuel.Fig. 2: Daimler motor carriage and the first Electromobile 1997 Electronic suspension control systems.
    • 12 1 Motor vehicle 1.2 Motor vehicle classifications ● Commercial vehicles. These are designed to trans-1 port people and cargo and for pulling trailers. Pas- senger cars are not classified as commercial vehi- Roadgoing or highway vehicles is a category com- cles. prising all vehicles designed for road use, as op- posed to operation on tracks or rails (Fig. 1). Single-track vehicles Motorcycles are single-track vehicles with 2 wheels. A The basic division is into two classes, motor vehicles sidecar may be attached to the motorcycle, which re- and trailers. Motor vehicles always possess an integral mains classified as such provided that the tare weight mechanical propulsion system. of the combination does not exceed 400 kg. A motor- cycle can also be employed to pull a trailer. Single-track Roadgoing vehicles vehicles include Motor vehicles Trailer vehicles ● Motorcycles. These are equipped with permanent, fixed-location components (fuel tank, engine) locat- Vehicle combination ed adjacent to the knees as well as footrests. ● Motor scooters. Because the operators feet rest on Motor vehicles Semitrailers a floor panel, there are no fixed components at knee Passenger cars level on these vehicles. Drawbar trailers ● Bicycles with auxiliary power plants.These vehicles Commercial vehicles exhibit the same salient features as bicycles, such as Centre-axle pedals (mopeds, motor bicycle, etc.). Motor buses trailers Trucks 1.3 Design of the motor vehicle Tractors The motor vehicle consists of component assem- Motorcycles blies and their individual components. Fig. 1: Overview of roadgoing vehicles The layout of the individual assemblies and their rela- tive positions is not governed by invariable standards. Dual-track vehicles Thus, for example, the engine may be designed as an Motor vehicles with more than two wheels can be found independent assembly, or it may be integrated as a sub- in dual-track and multiple-track versions. These include: assembly within a larger powertrain unit. ● Passenger cars. These are primarily intended for use One of the options described in this book is to divide the in transporting people, as well as their luggage and vehicle into 5 main assembly groups: engine, drivetrain, other small cargo. They can also be used to pull trail- chassis, vehicle body and electrical system. ers. The number of seats, including that of the dri- The relationships between the assemblies and their ver, is restricted to nine. constituent components are illustrated in Fig. 2. Motor vehicle Engine Drivetrain Vehicle Suspension Electrical body system Internal-combustion engine Electric motor Clutch Wheel Frame suspension Power Reciprocating- Stator Variable-ratio generators Rotary engine gearbox piston engine, Body Suspension Wankel engine petrol/diesel engine Rotor Damping Electrical Hydrodynamic loads/ Cylinders Housing Control torque Steering consumers electronics converter Crankshaft drive Rotor Brakes Power Automatic Engine management Eccentric shaft supply gearbox Wheels Tyres Mixture preparation Propeller shaft Cooling Final-drive unit Lubrication Differential Exhaust system Fig. 2: Design of the motor vehicle
    • 1 Motor vehicle 131.4 The motor vehicle as technical system 1 Safety equipment: e.g. airbag; seat-belt tensioner Support and bearing unit: e.g. body Open and closed-loop control units: e.g. antilock braking system Transmission unit: e.g. suspension Transmission unit: e.g. drivetrain Drive unit: Transmission unit: engine e.g. suspensionFig. 1:The motor vehicle as a system with operational units1.4.1 Technical systems The rectangle symbolises the system limit (hypotheti- cal boundary) that delineates the border separatingEvery machine forms a complete technical system. each individual technical system from other systems and/or the surrounding environment. Characteristics of technical systems: • Defined system borders delineate their limits The distinctive, defining features of the individual relative to the surrounding environment. system include: • They possess input and output channels. • Input (input variables or parameters) entering • The salient factor defining system operation is from beyond the system limits the total function, and not the individual func- • Processing within the system limits tion, which is discharged internally, within the • Output (output variables or parameters) issued system. and relayed to destinations lying outside the limits of the system (IPO concept)A rectangle is employed in graphic portrayals of techni-cal systems (Fig. 2). Kinetic 1.4.2 Motor vehicle system Motor vehicle Air energy The motor vehicle is a complex technical system in Exhaust gas which various subsystems operate in harmony to dis- charge a defined function. Fuel Heat The function of the passenger car is to transport System limit people, while the function of the motor lorry, or truck, is to carry cargo.Fig. 2: Basic system portrait using a motor vehicle as an Operational units within the motor vehicle example Systems designed to support operational processesInput and output variables are represented by arrows. are combined in operational units (Fig. 1). FamiliarityThe number of arrows varies according to the number with the processes performed in operational units suchof input and output variables. as the engine, drivetrain, etc. can enhance our under-
    • 14 1 Motor vehicle standing of the complete system represented by the1 Operational unit: Vehicle structure as support motor vehicle in its implications for maintenance, diag- structure, exemplified by body nosis and repair. The concept is suitable for application with any techni- cal system. Among the operational units that comprise the motor vehicle are the: ● Power unit ● Power-transfer assembly ● Support and load-bearing structure ● Electro-hydraulic systems (open and closed-loop systems, etc.) ● Electrical and electronic systems (such as safety devices) Each operational unit acts as a subsystem by assuming a specific function. Subfunction: Support function, support for all subsystems Operational unit: Power unit – engine Operational unit: Electro-hydraulic systems (open and closed-loop control systems, such as ABS, ESP etc.) , Steering-wheel- 2 pressure sensors on Yaw-rate sensor Wheel-speed angle sensor tandem master cylinder sensor GMR ESP ABS Hydraulic control unit with integrated controller Engine V management AB T C Lateral-acceleration S sensor E S P ABS: Antilock Braking System + ABV: Automatic regulation of braking-force distribution + TCS: Traction Control System + GMR: Automatic regulation of yaw moment Subfunction: Provides energy for propulsion = ESP: Electronic Stability Program purposes Subfunction: Active occupant protection, improve- ments in dynamic response Operational unit: Power-transfer assembly, such as drivetrain Operational unit: Electr., electron. systems (safety and security devices, such as airbags, seatbelt tensioners) Seat belt Driver side airbag ECU for Seat with integrated Crash sensor, airbag side airbag driver side airbag Subfunction: Relays mechanical energy from the power unit to the drive wheels Subfunction: Passive protection for vehicle occupants
    • 1 Motor vehicle 15 1 Complete system, motor vehicle Operational units Power-transfer Support and load- Power unit: Electrical assembly: Suspension bearing structure: engine system drivetrain vehicle body Subsystems e.g.: e.g.: e.g.: e.g.: e.g.: • Engine • Clutch system • Suspension • Body • Lights management • Gearbox • Brakes • Side-impact • Ignition • Crankshaft protection assembly • Propeller shafts • Wheels • Data- • Final-drive unit • Tyres • Frame transmission • Engine lubrication systems • Engine cooling • Comfort and • Exhaust system convenience • Air systems systemsFig. 1:The motor vehicle as composite systemVarious subsystems must operate together for the mo- 1.4.3 Subsystems in the motor vehicletor vehicle to discharge its primary functions (Fig. 1).Reducing the scale of the systems limits shifts the Each subsystem is subject to the IPO concept (Fig. 3).focus to progressively smaller subsystems, ultimately System limitleading to the level of the individual component.The motor vehicle as a complete systemDefining the limits of the system to coincide with thoseof the overall vehicle produces boundaries in which the Engine Axle Drivesystems limits border on environmental entities such Clutch Gearbox Propeller shaft drive wheelsas air and the road surface. On the input side, air and • Engine speed • Output speedfuel are the only factors entering from beyond the sys- • Engine torque Gearbox • Output torquetems limits, while exhaust gas joins kinetic and ther- • Engine power • Output powermal energy outside this boundary on the output side(Fig. 2, Fig. 3). Input Processing Output Fig. 3: Subsystem: Gearbox Input Output Input. The factors operating on the input side of the gearbox are engine speed, engine torque and engine System limit power. Processing. The crankshafts rotation speed and the Processing torque it transfers undergo a transformation process Exhaust within the gearbox. Air gas + + Output. The elements exiting the subsystem on the Motor vehicle Fuel system Travelling output side include output-shaft speed, output torque motion and output power as well as heat. (chemically (mechanical combined energy) Efficiency level. The efficiency of the drivetrain is re- energy) duced by energy losses sustained within the gearbox. Environment (air, road) The "gearbox" subsystem is connected to the drive wheels via other subsystems, such as the propellerFig. 2: System: Motor vehicle shaft, final-drive unit, and half shafts.
    • 16 1 Motor vehicle 1.4.4 Classifications of technical systems Examples of material-processing systems within the1 motor vehicle: and subsystems by processing mode ● Lubrication system, in which the oil pump provides Technical systems (Fig. 1) are classified according to the motive power for material propulsion. the type of processing within overall systems: ● Cooling system, in which the water pump transports ● Material-processing systems such as the fuel-supply a medium to support thermal transfer. system ● Energy-processing systems such as the internal- Energy-processing systems combustion engine Energy-processing systems transform energy from ● Information-processing systems such as the on- an external source from one form into another. board computer, the steering system, etc. This class embraces all manner of power-generation machines, including internal-combustion engines and electric motors, steam engines and gas power plants, as well as energy units such as heat pumps, photovoltaic systems and fuel cells. In the realm of energy conver- sion the operative distinction is between: ● Heat engines, such as spark-ignition and diesel en- gines, and gas turbines ● Hydraulically powered machines, such as water tur- bines ● Wind-energy devices, such as wind-powered genera- Information Material Energy tors processing processing processing ● Solar-energy converters, such as photovoltaic sys- tems Fig. 1: Systems classified according to processing mode ● Fuel cells Material-processing systems Within the internal-combustion engine, the fuels chemical energy is initially converted into thermal energy before undergoing a second transformation to Material-processing systems modify materials in emerge as kinetic energy (Fig. 2). their geometrical configuration (reshaping) or transport them from one position to another (repo- Fuel/air mixture Chemical sitioning). energy Transport media and basic machinery are employed to Combustion convey substances and materials. Machine tools as- Thermal energy sume responsibility for shaping materials. To cite an ex- Conrod force ample: in the material-transport process, a pump in- duces motion in a static fluid (gasoline in the fuel tank) in order to transport it to the fuel-injection system. A Torque at Mechanical crankshaft energy precondition for this processing operation is provision of electrical energy to the operational machinery, such Fig. 2: Energy processing in the spark-ignition engine as a fuel pump, that is responsible for the process. This process can generate additional substances and in- Overview of material-processing systems: formation. Because these are of secondary significance Machines for reshaping include machine tools such as in the operation of the energy-processing machine, they drills, mills and lathes as well as the equipment found are not usually primary objects of attention. in foundries and stamping works such as metal press- The flow of substances and materials (entry of fuel and es. emission of exhaust gases) and the flow of information Machines for repositioning include all conveyors, (fuel-air mixture, engine-speed control, steering, etc.) all transporters and machines employed in the transport assume the role of secondary functions. of solid materials (conveyor belts, fork lift trucks, Energy-processing system.The primary focus is on con- trucks, passenger cars), liquids (pumps) and gases verting chemical energy contained in fuel into kinetic (fans, turbines). energy to propel the vehicle, with the internal-combus- tion engine serving as the energy-processing system.
    • 1 Motor vehicle 17Information-processing systems ● Technical data ● Emergency service addresses 1 They monitor, process and relay information and data and support communications. Operation. Motor vehicles and machines should be operated by qualified and duly-authorised personsInformation-processing and relay systems, such as only.electronic control units (ECU), CAN bus controllers anddiagnostic equipment (testers) assume vital signifi- Among the applicable stipulations …cance in the maintenance of modern vehicles. ● … the driver of a passenger car operating on public roads must be in possession of the requiredInformation. Knowledge concerning conditions and Class B driving licence.processes. Examples from within the vehicle includeinformation on engine temperature, driving speed, ● … lift platforms and hydraulic hoists in automotiveload factor, etc. required to support vehicle operation. service facilities are to be operated exclusively byThis information can be relayed from one electronic individuals over 18 years of age who have alsocontrol unit to another. The data are registered in the received corresponding instruction in and autho-form of signals. risation for its use. ● … the driver of a truck equipped with a crane must beSignals. Signals are data portrayed in physical form. in possession of a crane operators licence.Within the motor vehicle, sensors generate signals torepresent parameters such as rotational speed, temper- This stipulation is intended to ensure that drivers ofature and throttle-valve position. crane-equipped trucks have received the required train- ing for operating lifts and hoisting equipment, and willExamples of information-processing systems in motor provide the vehicle with the correct supplementaryvehicles: support (Fig. 1) whilst simultaneously observing all ap- plicable accident-prevention regulations and operating● Engine control unit. The engine-management ECU the crane in a professional manner. registers and processes an entire array of relevant data in order to adapt engine performance to provide 0 2 4 6 8 10 m 12 ideal operation under any given conditions. 14● On-board computer. Among its functions are to 5,950 kg m 58.4 kN 12 furnish the driver with information on average and current fuel consumption, estimated cruising range, 10 average speed and outside temperature. 6,600 kg 64.7 kN 8 61.4.5 Using technical systems 4Extensive familiarity with technical systems is essentialfor the operation and maintenance of motor vehicles. 2The manufacturer provides operating instructions 7,400 kg 3,860 kg 2,180 kg(owners manual) to help ensure that its vehicles oper- 5,830 kg 2,820 kg 1,750 kgate with optimal safety, security and reliability, whilealso observing the interests of the natural environment. Fig. 1: Correct load distribution on a crane hoistOperating instructions contain, among other informa-tion: REVIEW QUESTIONS● System descriptions 1 What are the parameters that define a technical sys- tem?● Explanations of functions and operation 2 What is the IPO concept?● System descriptions 3 What are the names of the operational units in the● Operating diagrams motor vehicle?● Instructions on correct operation and use of the 4 Name three subsystems in the motor vehicle, and de- controls scribe the corresponding input and output variables.● Maintenance and service inspection schedules 5 What is the primary function of an energy-processing system?● Instructions for responding to malfunctions 6 What information is available in the operating instruc-● Information on approved fluids, lubricants and tions (vehicle owners manual)? service materials, such as engine oils
    • 18 1 Motor vehicle 1.5 Service and maintenance Flexible service intervals1 Modern engine-management systems have allowed Professional-quality service and maintenance, per- the advent of a new service concept characterised by formed in accordance with the manufacturers in- adaptive scheduling. This concept reflects each individ- structions (by the factory service organisation, etc.) ual vehicles requirements based on its actual operat- are vital elements in ensuring continued vehicle ing conditions. In addition to mileage, the system safety and in maintaining the validity of the manu- records and evaluates a variety of other factors (influ- facturers warranty. encing variables) for inclusion in its calculations. A dis- play then provides the driver with prompt notice as the The manufacturer issues service and maintenance inspection date approaches (Fig. 1). The process culmi- schedules, spare part catalogues and repair instruc- nates with execution of the prescribed operations at tions to guide and support these activities. This docu- the service facility in accordance with the service in- mentation is available in many forms, including repair spection schedule (Fig. 1, Page 19). manuals, microfiche files and menu-guided computer programs designed to run on personal computers Oil change intervals. Two methods are available for (PCs). defining oil change intervals: Service and maintenance. Service procedures include: ● A virtual database, derived from such factors as mileage, overall fuel consumption and oil tempera- ● Inspections, such as test procedures ture curves, provides an index indicating how much ● General maintenance, comprising oil changes, the oil ages over a given period. lubrication and cleaning ● The actual condition of the oil, meaning the quality ● Remedial action, such as repairs and component and level of the oil as determined via the oil level replacement sensor, in combination with the mileage and the reg- Aftersales service. Vehicle manufacturers and automo- istered engine load factors. tive repair operations offer professional service to their customers. Among the services offered by these facili- Brake pad wear. Brake pad wear is monitored electrical- ties is to perform the prescribed preparations on new ly. When the brake pad reaches its wear limit a contact vehicles prior to delivery to the customer. Professional wire within the pad is perforated. The system then con- technicians also carry out service and maintenance siders such factors as braking frequency, the duration of processes that the vehicle operator may not be able to brake actuations and mileage in calculating the theoreti- perform. In the official service and maintenance guide- cally available mileage reserves, which are then reflect- lines the manufacturer defines an action catalogue in- ed in the replacement intervals displayed to the driver. tended to ensure unrestricted functionality and main- tain the vehicles value. The individual procedures are Interior (passenger compartment) filter wear status. contained in the service and maintenance schedules for Data gleaned from the outside air temperature sensor, the specific vehicles. information on heater use, use of the recirculated-air Service intervals can be defined according to the fol- mode, vehicle speed, fan blower speed, mileage and lowing criteria: dates all flow into calculations to determine the period remaining until the dust and pollen filter will be due for ● Invariable, time-based service intervals replacement. (maintenance schedule) ● Flexible service intervals ● New service concepts Brake fluid Service, maintenance and inspection operations Engine oil must be performed in accordance with defined Rear brake pads schedules. Once operations have been carried out, Spark plugs they should be confirmed in a service record and signed by the responsible service technician. 12 months Microfilters Fig. 1:Wear indicators Maintenance schedule Sparking plug replacement intervals are still based on It furnishes information on the specified service and in- mileage, with new plugs specified after a specific dis- spection intervals by specifying (for example) a major tance, such as 100,000 km. inspection for every 20,000 km or 12 months. Service inspection schedule. This schedule defines the Replacement dates for fluids and lubricants, such as contents and lists the procedures included in the ser- the coolant and brake fluid, are defined according to vice inspection (Fig. 1, Page 19). time, for instance, at intervals of 2 or 4 years.
    • 1 Motor vehicle 19New service concepts This gives the service representative time to order anyThe service date is calculated on the basis of data col- required replacement parts such as brake pads and to 1lected on the actual condition of wearing parts, fluids consult the customer in advance concerning a conve-and lubricants, as well as information on the vehicles nient service date.operating conditions. When defined by this demand- Early recognition of potential problems is intended tobased service concept, service and maintenance are help avoid repairs stemming from vehicle breakdowns.carried out only when needed, for instance, when a Additional advantages include:component reaches its wear limit, or a fluid or lubricant ● Precisely defined dateshas reached the end of its service life. ● Minimal waiting timesA new feature is provided by the on-board computer, ● No information losswhich transmits coded data on the customer and the ● Flexible serviceextent of the required service to the service facility. Service inspection schedule Brake system: Visually check for leaks and damage Job no.: Vehicle model: Vehicle owner: Front and rear brake pads: Check thickness km reading/ Vehicle age: Additional work, e.g. mileage: emissions inspection Undercoating: , ………… Visually check for damage Exhaust system: not OK Rectified Servicing to be carried out Visually check for leaks and damage OK Electrical system Track-rod ends: Front lights. Check function: Parking lights, Check play, mounting and sealing gaiters; axle joints: dipped beam, main beam, fog lamps, visually check sealing gaiters for leaks and damage direction indicators and hazard-warning signals Engine compartment Rear lights. Check function: Brake lights, tail lights, Engine oil: Check oil level (during inspection reversing lights, fog warning lamp, number-plate service with filter change, change oil) lights, luggage-compartment light, parking lights, direction indicators and hazard-warning signals Engine and components in engine compartment (from above): Interior and glove-compartment lights, Visually check for leaks and damage cigarette lighter, signal horn and telltale lamps: Check function Windscreen wash/wipe system: Top up fluid Self-diagnosis: Interrogate fault memories of Cooling system: Check coolant level and antifreeze; all systems setpoint value: – 25 °C (insert printout at back of logbook wallet) Actual value (measured value): °C Vehicle from the outside Dust and pollen filter: Replace filter element (every 12 months or every 15,000 km) Door arresters and retaining bolts: lubricate Toothed belt for camshaft drive: Windscreen wash/wipe system and Check condition and tension headlight washer system: Check function and spray-nozzle setting Air filter: Clean housing and replace filter element Windscreen wiper blades: Check for damage, check home position; in event Fuel filter: Replace of rubbing wiper blades: Check contact angle Power steering: Check fluid level Tyres Brake-fluid level (dependent on brake-pad wear): Tyres: Check condition, tyre tread pattern and Check inflation pressure, enter tread depth Battery: Check FL mm FR mm Idle speed: Check RL mm RR mm Headlight adjustment / documentation / final inspection Vehicle from below Engine oil: Drain or draw off, replace oil filters Headlight adjustment: Check Engine and components in engine compartment: Service sticker: Visually check for leaks and damage Enter date/mileage for next service (also brake-fluid renewal) on sticker and V-belts, ribbed V-belts: attach sticker to door pillar (B-pillar) Check condition and tension Take vehicle for test drive Gearbox, final-drive unit and joint boots: Visually check for leaks and damage Date / Signature (mechanic) Manual gearbox / axle drive: Check oil level Date / Signature (final inspection)Fig. 1: Service inspection schedule
    • 20 1 Motor vehicle1 1 Partial-flow 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 In-tank petrol- centrifugal filter element oil filter 3 12 14 Tank-ventilation 2 Electronics- filter 11 box filter 15 Urea filter for 3 Water SCR catalysts separator 4 Air filter 16 Interior filter with service 13 indicator 2 17 Gear-oil filter 1 5 Air-filter 18 Steering- element hydraulics filter 6 Coolant filter 19 Brake- hydraulics filter 7 Inline fuel filter 25 20 Suspension- hydraulics filter 8 Washer-fluid filter 21 Desiccant box 24 9 Diesel-filter 14 22 Easy-change module 23 oil filter 10 Metal-free fuel-filter 23 Oil-filter module element 24 Metal-free 1 Cylinder-head 1 oil-filter element cover with integrated 25 System for oil separator crankcase ventilation with 12 Oil-mist multi-cyclone separator 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 filter Fig. 1: Filters in modern motor vehicles 1.6 Filter, body and maintenance Adhesive filters. These are usually wet air filters. Contam- inants such as dust adhere to the filter surface on contact. Filters installed in the motor vehicle guard against Magnetic filter. The filter (for instance, on the oil drain contaminants and impurities by providing protec- plug) attracts and retains ferromagnetic contaminants tion for the engine, other vehicle components, and suspended in the flowing medium. the vehicles occupants. Centrifugal filter. The object medium (such as air) is Motor vehicle filters (Fig. 1) can be classified according placed in a state of rotation. Centrifugal force propels to two criteria. These are the filtration concept and the the contaminants onto the filters walls, where they set- medium being filtered. tle as deposits. Filtration concepts. Solid contaminants are filtered from Filter types include flowing media such as air, oil, fuel and water by: ● Air and exhaust-gas filters ● Screen filtration, using sieve-type filter screens and ● Fuel filters fibre filters, etc. ● Filters for lubricating oils ● Adhesive filtration, including wet filters ● Interior filters, such as pollen, smog and ozone filters ● Magnetic filtration, as with magnetic separators ● Hydraulic filters, for ATF etc. , ● Centrifugal filtration, with centrifugal filters, etc. Strainers (filter screens). Filter mesh dimensions smal- ler than the contaminants facilitate filtration (Fig. 2). 1.6.1 Air filters The purpose of the air filter is to cleanse induction Mesh air of impurities while simultaneously subduing in- duction roar. Direction Airborne dust particles are minute in size (0.005 mm to of flow 0.05 mm). The air can also contain quartz. Dust concen- trations vary considerably according to vehicle operat- Contaminant ing conditions (motorway, construction site). Should it enter the oil, this dust would form an abrasive film, Strainer leading to extreme wear, especially on the cylinder Fig. 2: Operational concept of the filter screen walls, the pistons and the valve guides.