Foreword 3 Foreword 1"Modern Automotive Technology" is a standard work covering the subject of automotive technology. Thisfirst English edition is based on the 28th German edition of the title "Fachkunde Kraftfahrzeugtechnik".It has for many years proven to be a highly popular textbook used for training and further education. Itprovides apprentices, trainees, teachers and all those interested in this subject with the necessarytheoretical knowledge in order to gain a firm grasp of the practical and technical skills involved.Fundamental, technical connections between individual systems are presented in a clear and compre-hensible way.The book is intended to be used as a reference work by employees in the automotive industry and inmotor-vehicle service outlets, by teachers, apprentices, trainees and automotive-technology students tohelp them look up information and supplement their technical knowledge. The work is intended to beused by all those interested in automotive technology as a means of extending their technical knowledgethrough private study.The 22 chapters are logically arranged by subject and in their objectives are geared towards the changesin content that have occurred in the field of automotive technology. The book is particularly suitable forpractically orientated training in all matters pertaining to motor vehicles.This work covers the latest developments in automotive technology, such as, for example, service andmaintenance of vehicle systems, management, communication, FSI engines, supercharging technology,common-rail systems, twin-clutch gearboxes, electronic transmission control, electronic brake systems,compressed-air monitoring systems, adaptive cornering lights, high-frequency technology, electromag-netic compatibility and comfort and convenience systems such as adaptive cruise control, parking assis-tance and navigation. A large chapter is devoted to the subject of electrical engineering. Here, thedetailed coverage of the fundamentals of electrical engineering forms the basis for all the crucial issuesand topics pertaining to automotive electrics, up to and including data transmission in motor vehicles.A separate chapter is devoted to the increasing importance in engineering of comfort and conveniencetechnology.Reference is made to German and European standards in the chapters on environmental protection andoccupational safety, emissions-control engineering, braking technology and motorcycle engineering.However, the standards applicable in the respective individual countries are binding.The work features numerous coloured pictures, drawings and system diagrams as well as particularlyclearly and comprehensibly laid-out tables. These will help the reader to digest and comprehend thecomplex subject matter.The work has been written and compiled – in close co-operation with the automotive trade and industry –by a team of educationally experienced vocational-school teachers, engineers and master tradesmen.The authors and the publishers will be grateful for any suggestions and constructive comments.We would like to thank all the companies and organisations who have kindly contributed pictures andtechnical documents.The Authors of the Automotive Technology Team Summer 2006
4 Abbreviations A/C Air conditioning CPU Central processing unit EMS Electronic engine A/F Air/fuel (mixture) CR Common rail management system ABC Active body control CS Crankshaft Eo Exhaust valve opens ABS Antilock braking system CSR Conti support ring EOBD European on board ABV Automatic braking-force CV Commercial vehicle diagnosis distribution CV Check valve EP Exhaust passage (German: Automatische CVlft Check valve left EPHS Electrically powered Bremskraftverteilung ) hydraulic steering CVrt Check valve right AC Alternating current EPS Electro-pneumatic control CVT Continuous variable ACC Adaptive cruise control system transmission ACEA Association des ESP Electronic stability Constructeurs Européens program DA Drive axle de lautomobile ETC Electronic throttle control DC Direct current ACS Automatic clutch system ETN European type number DI Direct injection AD Analogue-digital EV Exhaust valve (converter) DME Digital motor electronics FA Front axle ADSL Asymmetrical digital DOHC Double overhead FB Function button subscriber line camshaft FDI Fuel direct injection AGM Absorbing glas mat DOT Department of Transport FF Freeform (reflector) ALDBFR Automatic load- DSC Dynamic stability control DSG Direct-shift gearbox FH Flat hump dependent brake-force DSP Dynamic shift-program FL Front left regulator selection FOC Fibre-optic cable ALSD Automatic limited-slip differential DSST Dunlop self-supporting FOT Fibre-optical transceiver AM Amplitude modulation technology FR Front right API American Petroleum FSI Fuel stratified injection Institute EBS Electronic braking system FWD Four wheel drive ASC Anti-stability control Ec Exhaust valve closes ASTM American Society for ECE Economic Commission GDI Gasoline direct injection Testing and Materials for Europe GFRP Glass-fibre-reinforced ATF Automatic transmission ECM Electronic clutch plastic fluid management GI General inspection ATS Adaptive transmission ECS Electronic clutch system GMR Automatic regulation of control (system) ECU Electronic control unit yaw moment (German: EDC Electronic diesel control Giermomentregelung) BAS Brake assistant EDP Electronic data GPS Global positioning system BDC Bottom dead centre processing GVWR Gross vehicle weight EDTC Engine-drag torque rating CA Crankshaft angle control CS Camshaft EEPROM Electrically erasable HF High frequency CAN Controller area network programmable read-only HFM Hot-film air-mass meter memory CBS Combined brake system HGV Heavy goods vehicle EGR Exhaust gas recirculation CC Cruise control HNS Homogeneous EGS Electronic gearbox numerically calculated CDI Capacitive discharge control unit (German: surface ignition Elektronisches CFPP Cold filter plugging point HS High-solid (paints) Getriebesteuergerät) CFRP Carbon-fibre-reinforced HTHS High temperature, EH Extended hump plastic high shear EHB Electro-hydraulic braking CH Combination hump HV Hybrid vehicle system CIH Camshaft in head EI Emissions inspection CIP Continuous improvement IC Integrated circuit ELSD Electronic limited-slip process differential Ic Inlet valve closes CN Cetane number EMC Electro-magnetic IC Individual control CNG Compressed natural gas compatibility IDI Indirect injection
5 AbbreviationsIHPF Internal high-pressure OBD On board diagnosis SBC Sensotronic brake control forming OD Outside diameter SC Signal conditioningIo Inlet valve opens OHC Overhead camshaft SCR Selective catalyticIP Inlet passage OHV Overhead valves reductionIPO Input/Processing/Output ON Octane number SCV Solenoid control valve (principle) OV Outlet valve SDC Semi-drop centreIS Input shaft OVlft Outlet valve left SE SensorISAD Integrated starter SI Safety inspection alternator damper SLC Select-low control PBC Parking-brake circuitIV Inlet valve SoC State of charge PC Planet carriersIVlft Inlet valve left SPI Single-point injection PCU Pump control unitIvrt Inlet valve right SRR Short-range radar PDA Personal digital assistant PEM Proton exchange SRS Safety restraint systemsLA Lifting axle membran SSlft Speed sensor leftLD Low density PES Poly ellipsoid system SSR Self-supporting run-flatLDR Light depending resistor (reflector) tyresLED Light emitting diode PIN Personal identification SSrt Speed sensor rightLEV Low-emission vehicle number SV Solenoid valveLF Low frequency PM Particulate matter SV Side valveLI Load index POF Plastic optical fibre SW Short waveLIN Local interconnect POT Plastic optical transceiver SWR Stationary wave ratio network PR Ply ratingLNG Liquefied natural gas PTC Positive temperature Tc Transfer passage closesLS Limited slip coefficient TCS Traction control systemLSG Laminated safety glass PWM Pulse width modulation TDC Top dead centreLU Logical unit TIG Tungsten-inert gasLW Long wave QA Quality assurance TL Tubeless QM Quality management To Transfer passage opensMAF Mass air flow TP Transfer passageMAG Metal-active-gas RA Rear axle TPC Tyre-pressure check (welding) RDS Radio data system TSG Toughened safety glassMC Microcomputer RHD Right-hand driver TWI Treadwear indicatorMC Main cylinder RL Rear leftME Motor electronics RLFS Return-less-fuel system UIS Unit injector systemMED Motor electronics direct RON Research-octane number UPS Unit pump system injection ROP Roll-over protectionMG Motor generator ROV Rotating high voltage VDC Vehicle dynamicsMIG Metal-inert-gas (welding) distribution controllerMIL Malfunction indicator (German: Rotierende VDR Voltage-dependent lamp Hochspannungs- resistor verteilung)MON Motor-octane number VF Variable focus (reflector) RR Rear rightMOST Media-oriented system VHF Very high frequency transport RRC Radio remote control VT Viscosity temperatureMPI Multi-point injection RUV Static high voltage VTec Variable valve timing and distributionMS Medium-solid (paints) lift electronic control (German: RuhendeMW Medium wave Hochspannungs- VTG Variable turbine geometry verteilung)NF Non-ferrous WIG Wolfram-inert-gas SAC Self-adjusting clutch (welding)NLGI National Lubrication Grease Institute SAE Society of AutomotiveNLS Needle lift sensor EngineersNTC Negative temperature SAM Signal acquisition and coefficient actuation module
6 Contributing companies We wish to thank the companies listed below for providing technical advice, information, photographs and illustrations. Alfa-Romeo-Automobile HAMEG GmbH, Frankfurt/Main Peugeot Deutschland GmbH Mailand/Italien Saarbrücken Hella KG, Hueck & Co, Lippstadt Aprilia Motorrad-Vertrieb Pierburg GmbH, Neuss Hengst Filterwerke, Nienkamp Düsseldorf Fritz Hintermayr, Bing-Vergaser-Fabrik Pirelli AG, Höchst im Odenwald Aral AG, Bochum Nürnberg Audatex Deutschland, Minden Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG HITACHI Sales Europa GmbH Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen Audi AG, Ingolstadt – Neckarsulm Düsseldorf Renault Nissan Deutschland AG Autokabel, Hausen HONDA DEUTSCHLAND GMBH Brühl Autoliv, Oberschleißheim Offenbach/Main Hunger Maschinenfabrik GmbH Samsung Electronics GmbH, Köln G. Auwärter GmbH & Co (Neoplan) Stuttgart München und Kaufering SATA Farbspritztechnik GmbH & Co IBM Deutschland, Böblingen Kornwestheim BBS Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, Schiltach BEHR GmbH & Co, Stuttgart IVECO-Magirus AG, Neu-Ulm SCANIA Deutschland GmbH ITT Automotive (ATE, VDO, Koblenz Beissbarth GmbH Automobil Servicegeräte München MOTO-METER, SWF KONI, Kienzle) , SEKURIT SAINT-GOBAIN Frankfurt/Main Deutschland GmbH, Aachen BERU, Ludwigsburg IXION Maschinenfabrik Aug. Bilstein GmbH & Co KG Otto Häfner GmbH & Co Siemens AG, München Ennepetal Hamburg-Wandsbeck SKF Kugellagerfabriken GmbH Boge GmbH, Eitdorf/Sieg Jurid-Werke, Essen Schweinfurt Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart Kawasaki-Motoren GmbH, Friedrichsdorf SOLO Kleinmotoren GmbH Bostik GmbH, Oberursel/Taunus Knecht Filterwerke GmbH, Stuttgart Maichingen BLACK HAWK, Kehl Knorr-Bremse GmbH, München Stahlwille E. Wille Wuppertal BMW Bayerische Motoren-Werke AG Kolbenschmidt AG, Neckarsulm München/Berlin Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG KS Gleitlager GmbH, St. Leon-Rot CAR-OLINER, Kungsör, Schweden Graz/Österreich KTM Sportmotorcycles AG CAR BENCH INTERNATIONAL.S.P.A. Mattighofen/Österreich Subaru Deutschland GmbH Massa/Italien Friedberg Kühnle, Kopp und Kausch AG Continental Teves AG & Co, OHG, Frankfurt Frankenthal/Pfalz SUN Elektrik Deutschland Celette GmbH, Kehl Mettmann Lemmerz-Werke, Königswinter Citroen Deutschland AG, Köln LuK GmbH, Bühl/Baden Suzuki GmbH Oberschleißheim/Heppenheim DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart MAHLE GmbH, Stuttgart Dataliner Richtsysteme, Ahlerstedt Technolit GmbH, Großlüder Mannesmann Sachs AG, Schweinfurt Deutsche BP AG, Hamburg Mann und Hummel, Filterwerke Telma Retarder Deutschland GmbH Ludwigsburg Ludwigsburg DUNLOP GmbH & Co KG, Hanau/Main ESSO AG, Hamburg MAN Maschinenfabrik Temic Elektronik, Nürnberg Augsburg-Nürnberg AG FAG Kugelfischer Georg Schäfer KG aA München TOYOTA Deutschland GmbH, Köln Ebern Mazda Motors Deutschland GmbH VARTA Autobatterien GmbH J. Eberspächer, Esslingen Leverkusen Hannover EMM Motoren Service, Lindau MCC – Mikro Compact Car GmbH Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co KG Ford-Werke AG, Köln Böblingen Stuttgart Carl Freudenberg Messer-Griesheim GmbH ViewSonic Central Europe, Willich Weinheim/Bergstraße Frankfurt/Main Metzeler Reifen GmbH Voith GmbH & Co KG, Heidenheim GKN Löbro, Offenbach / Main München Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg Getrag Getriebe- und Zahnradfarbrik Ludwigsburg Michelin Reifenwerke KGaA Karlsruhe Volvo Deutschland GmbH, Brühl Girling-Bremsen GmbH, Koblenz Microsoft GmbH, Unterschleißheim Wabco Westinghouse GmbH Glasurit GmbH, Münster/Westfalen Hannover Mitsubishi Electric Europe B.V. Globaljig, Deutschland GmbH Ratingen Webasto GmbH, Stockdorf Cloppenburg Mitsubishi MMC, Trebur Yamaha Motor Deutschland GmbH Glyco-Metall-Werke B.V. & Co KG Wiesbaden/Schierstein MOBIL OIL AG, Hamburg Neuss Goetze AG, Burscheid NGK/NTK, Ratingen ZF Getriebe GmbH, Saarbrücken Grau-Bremse, Heidelberg Adam Opel AG, Rüsselsheim ZF Sachs AG, Schweinfurt Gutmann Messtechnik GmbH, Ihringen OSRAM AG, München ZF Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen AG Hazet-Werk, Hermann Zerver, Remscheid OMV AG, Wien Friedrichshafen/Schwäbisch Gmünd
11 1 Motor vehicle 11.1 Evolution of the motor vehicle1860 The Frenchman Lenoir constructs the first fully operational internal-combustion engine; this powerplant relies on city gas as its fuel source. Thermal efficiency is in the 3 % range.1867 Otto and Langen display an improved internal- combustion engine at the Paris International Exhibition. Its thermal efficiency is approxi- mately 9 %. Fig. 3: Ford Model T and VW Beetle 1897 First Electromobile from Lohner-Porsche (Fig. 2). 1899 Fiat Automobile Factory founded in Turin. 1913 Ford introduces the production line to automo- tive manufacturing. Production of the Tin Lizzy (Model T, Fig. 3). By 1925, 9,109 were leaving the production line each day. 1916 The Bavarian Motor Works are founded.Fig. 1: Daimler motorcycle and Benz motor carriage 1923 First motor lorry powered by a diesel engine1876 Otto builds the first gas-powered engine to produced by Benz-MAN (Fig. 4). utilise the four-stroke compression cycle. At vir- 1936 Daimler-Benz inaugurates series-production of tually the same time Clerk constructs the first passenger cars propelled by diesel engines. gas-powered two-stroke engine in England. 1938 The VW Works are founded in Wolfsburg.1883 Daimler and Maybach develop the first high- 1949 First low-profile tyre and first steel-belted radial speed four-cycle petrol engine using a hot-tube tyre produced by Michelin. ignition system. 1950 First gas-turbine propulsion unit for automo-1885 The first self-propelled motorcycle from tive application makes its debut at Rover in Daimler. First self-propelled three-wheeler from England. Benz (patented in 1886) (Fig. 1). 1954 NSU-Wankel constructs the rotary engine1886 First four-wheeled motor carriage with petrol (Fig. 4). engine from Daimler (Fig. 2).1887 Bosch invents the magneto ignition.1889 Dunlop in England produces the first pneu- matic tyres. NSU Spider with Wankel1893 Maybach invents the spray-nozzle carburettor. Benz-MAN lorry, 5 K 3 engine, 1963, 500 cc, 1st diesel lorry, 1923 37 kW at 6,000 rpm, 153 km/h1893 Diesel patents his design for a heavy oil-burn- Fig. 4: Diesel-engined lorry ing powerplant employing the self-ignition Passenger car with Wankel rotary engine concept. 1966 Electronic fuel injection (D-Jetronic) for stan-1897 MAN presents the first workable diesel engine. dard production vehicles produced by Bosch. 1970 Seatbelts for driver and front passengers. 1978 Initial application of the ABS Antilock Braking System in passenger cars. 1984 Debut of the airbag and seatbelt tensioning system. 1985 Advent of a catalytic converter designed for op- eration in conjunction with closed-loop mixture control, intended for use with unleaded fuel.Fig. 2: Daimler motor carriage and the first Electromobile 1997 Electronic suspension control systems.
12 1 Motor vehicle 1.2 Motor vehicle classifications ● Commercial vehicles. These are designed to trans-1 port people and cargo and for pulling trailers. Pas- senger cars are not classified as commercial vehi- Roadgoing or highway vehicles is a category com- cles. prising all vehicles designed for road use, as op- posed to operation on tracks or rails (Fig. 1). Single-track vehicles Motorcycles are single-track vehicles with 2 wheels. A The basic division is into two classes, motor vehicles sidecar may be attached to the motorcycle, which re- and trailers. Motor vehicles always possess an integral mains classified as such provided that the tare weight mechanical propulsion system. of the combination does not exceed 400 kg. A motor- cycle can also be employed to pull a trailer. Single-track Roadgoing vehicles vehicles include Motor vehicles Trailer vehicles ● Motorcycles. These are equipped with permanent, fixed-location components (fuel tank, engine) locat- Vehicle combination ed adjacent to the knees as well as footrests. ● Motor scooters. Because the operators feet rest on Motor vehicles Semitrailers a floor panel, there are no fixed components at knee Passenger cars level on these vehicles. Drawbar trailers ● Bicycles with auxiliary power plants.These vehicles Commercial vehicles exhibit the same salient features as bicycles, such as Centre-axle pedals (mopeds, motor bicycle, etc.). Motor buses trailers Trucks 1.3 Design of the motor vehicle Tractors The motor vehicle consists of component assem- Motorcycles blies and their individual components. Fig. 1: Overview of roadgoing vehicles The layout of the individual assemblies and their rela- tive positions is not governed by invariable standards. Dual-track vehicles Thus, for example, the engine may be designed as an Motor vehicles with more than two wheels can be found independent assembly, or it may be integrated as a sub- in dual-track and multiple-track versions. These include: assembly within a larger powertrain unit. ● Passenger cars. These are primarily intended for use One of the options described in this book is to divide the in transporting people, as well as their luggage and vehicle into 5 main assembly groups: engine, drivetrain, other small cargo. They can also be used to pull trail- chassis, vehicle body and electrical system. ers. The number of seats, including that of the dri- The relationships between the assemblies and their ver, is restricted to nine. constituent components are illustrated in Fig. 2. Motor vehicle Engine Drivetrain Vehicle Suspension Electrical body system Internal-combustion engine Electric motor Clutch Wheel Frame suspension Power Reciprocating- Stator Variable-ratio generators Rotary engine gearbox piston engine, Body Suspension Wankel engine petrol/diesel engine Rotor Damping Electrical Hydrodynamic loads/ Cylinders Housing Control torque Steering consumers electronics converter Crankshaft drive Rotor Brakes Power Automatic Engine management Eccentric shaft supply gearbox Wheels Tyres Mixture preparation Propeller shaft Cooling Final-drive unit Lubrication Differential Exhaust system Fig. 2: Design of the motor vehicle
1 Motor vehicle 131.4 The motor vehicle as technical system 1 Safety equipment: e.g. airbag; seat-belt tensioner Support and bearing unit: e.g. body Open and closed-loop control units: e.g. antilock braking system Transmission unit: e.g. suspension Transmission unit: e.g. drivetrain Drive unit: Transmission unit: engine e.g. suspensionFig. 1:The motor vehicle as a system with operational units1.4.1 Technical systems The rectangle symbolises the system limit (hypotheti- cal boundary) that delineates the border separatingEvery machine forms a complete technical system. each individual technical system from other systems and/or the surrounding environment. Characteristics of technical systems: • Defined system borders delineate their limits The distinctive, defining features of the individual relative to the surrounding environment. system include: • They possess input and output channels. • Input (input variables or parameters) entering • The salient factor defining system operation is from beyond the system limits the total function, and not the individual func- • Processing within the system limits tion, which is discharged internally, within the • Output (output variables or parameters) issued system. and relayed to destinations lying outside the limits of the system (IPO concept)A rectangle is employed in graphic portrayals of techni-cal systems (Fig. 2). Kinetic 1.4.2 Motor vehicle system Motor vehicle Air energy The motor vehicle is a complex technical system in Exhaust gas which various subsystems operate in harmony to dis- charge a defined function. Fuel Heat The function of the passenger car is to transport System limit people, while the function of the motor lorry, or truck, is to carry cargo.Fig. 2: Basic system portrait using a motor vehicle as an Operational units within the motor vehicle example Systems designed to support operational processesInput and output variables are represented by arrows. are combined in operational units (Fig. 1). FamiliarityThe number of arrows varies according to the number with the processes performed in operational units suchof input and output variables. as the engine, drivetrain, etc. can enhance our under-
14 1 Motor vehicle standing of the complete system represented by the1 Operational unit: Vehicle structure as support motor vehicle in its implications for maintenance, diag- structure, exemplified by body nosis and repair. The concept is suitable for application with any techni- cal system. Among the operational units that comprise the motor vehicle are the: ● Power unit ● Power-transfer assembly ● Support and load-bearing structure ● Electro-hydraulic systems (open and closed-loop systems, etc.) ● Electrical and electronic systems (such as safety devices) Each operational unit acts as a subsystem by assuming a specific function. Subfunction: Support function, support for all subsystems Operational unit: Power unit – engine Operational unit: Electro-hydraulic systems (open and closed-loop control systems, such as ABS, ESP etc.) , Steering-wheel- 2 pressure sensors on Yaw-rate sensor Wheel-speed angle sensor tandem master cylinder sensor GMR ESP ABS Hydraulic control unit with integrated controller Engine V management AB T C Lateral-acceleration S sensor E S P ABS: Antilock Braking System + ABV: Automatic regulation of braking-force distribution + TCS: Traction Control System + GMR: Automatic regulation of yaw moment Subfunction: Provides energy for propulsion = ESP: Electronic Stability Program purposes Subfunction: Active occupant protection, improve- ments in dynamic response Operational unit: Power-transfer assembly, such as drivetrain Operational unit: Electr., electron. systems (safety and security devices, such as airbags, seatbelt tensioners) Seat belt Driver side airbag ECU for Seat with integrated Crash sensor, airbag side airbag driver side airbag Subfunction: Relays mechanical energy from the power unit to the drive wheels Subfunction: Passive protection for vehicle occupants
1 Motor vehicle 15 1 Complete system, motor vehicle Operational units Power-transfer Support and load- Power unit: Electrical assembly: Suspension bearing structure: engine system drivetrain vehicle body Subsystems e.g.: e.g.: e.g.: e.g.: e.g.: • Engine • Clutch system • Suspension • Body • Lights management • Gearbox • Brakes • Side-impact • Ignition • Crankshaft protection assembly • Propeller shafts • Wheels • Data- • Final-drive unit • Tyres • Frame transmission • Engine lubrication systems • Engine cooling • Comfort and • Exhaust system convenience • Air systems systemsFig. 1:The motor vehicle as composite systemVarious subsystems must operate together for the mo- 1.4.3 Subsystems in the motor vehicletor vehicle to discharge its primary functions (Fig. 1).Reducing the scale of the systems limits shifts the Each subsystem is subject to the IPO concept (Fig. 3).focus to progressively smaller subsystems, ultimately System limitleading to the level of the individual component.The motor vehicle as a complete systemDefining the limits of the system to coincide with thoseof the overall vehicle produces boundaries in which the Engine Axle Drivesystems limits border on environmental entities such Clutch Gearbox Propeller shaft drive wheelsas air and the road surface. On the input side, air and • Engine speed • Output speedfuel are the only factors entering from beyond the sys- • Engine torque Gearbox • Output torquetems limits, while exhaust gas joins kinetic and ther- • Engine power • Output powermal energy outside this boundary on the output side(Fig. 2, Fig. 3). Input Processing Output Fig. 3: Subsystem: Gearbox Input Output Input. The factors operating on the input side of the gearbox are engine speed, engine torque and engine System limit power. Processing. The crankshafts rotation speed and the Processing torque it transfers undergo a transformation process Exhaust within the gearbox. Air gas + + Output. The elements exiting the subsystem on the Motor vehicle Fuel system Travelling output side include output-shaft speed, output torque motion and output power as well as heat. (chemically (mechanical combined energy) Efficiency level. The efficiency of the drivetrain is re- energy) duced by energy losses sustained within the gearbox. Environment (air, road) The "gearbox" subsystem is connected to the drive wheels via other subsystems, such as the propellerFig. 2: System: Motor vehicle shaft, final-drive unit, and half shafts.
16 1 Motor vehicle 1.4.4 Classifications of technical systems Examples of material-processing systems within the1 motor vehicle: and subsystems by processing mode ● Lubrication system, in which the oil pump provides Technical systems (Fig. 1) are classified according to the motive power for material propulsion. the type of processing within overall systems: ● Cooling system, in which the water pump transports ● Material-processing systems such as the fuel-supply a medium to support thermal transfer. system ● Energy-processing systems such as the internal- Energy-processing systems combustion engine Energy-processing systems transform energy from ● Information-processing systems such as the on- an external source from one form into another. board computer, the steering system, etc. This class embraces all manner of power-generation machines, including internal-combustion engines and electric motors, steam engines and gas power plants, as well as energy units such as heat pumps, photovoltaic systems and fuel cells. In the realm of energy conver- sion the operative distinction is between: ● Heat engines, such as spark-ignition and diesel en- gines, and gas turbines ● Hydraulically powered machines, such as water tur- bines ● Wind-energy devices, such as wind-powered genera- Information Material Energy tors processing processing processing ● Solar-energy converters, such as photovoltaic sys- tems Fig. 1: Systems classified according to processing mode ● Fuel cells Material-processing systems Within the internal-combustion engine, the fuels chemical energy is initially converted into thermal energy before undergoing a second transformation to Material-processing systems modify materials in emerge as kinetic energy (Fig. 2). their geometrical configuration (reshaping) or transport them from one position to another (repo- Fuel/air mixture Chemical sitioning). energy Transport media and basic machinery are employed to Combustion convey substances and materials. Machine tools as- Thermal energy sume responsibility for shaping materials. To cite an ex- Conrod force ample: in the material-transport process, a pump in- duces motion in a static fluid (gasoline in the fuel tank) in order to transport it to the fuel-injection system. A Torque at Mechanical crankshaft energy precondition for this processing operation is provision of electrical energy to the operational machinery, such Fig. 2: Energy processing in the spark-ignition engine as a fuel pump, that is responsible for the process. This process can generate additional substances and in- Overview of material-processing systems: formation. Because these are of secondary significance Machines for reshaping include machine tools such as in the operation of the energy-processing machine, they drills, mills and lathes as well as the equipment found are not usually primary objects of attention. in foundries and stamping works such as metal press- The flow of substances and materials (entry of fuel and es. emission of exhaust gases) and the flow of information Machines for repositioning include all conveyors, (fuel-air mixture, engine-speed control, steering, etc.) all transporters and machines employed in the transport assume the role of secondary functions. of solid materials (conveyor belts, fork lift trucks, Energy-processing system.The primary focus is on con- trucks, passenger cars), liquids (pumps) and gases verting chemical energy contained in fuel into kinetic (fans, turbines). energy to propel the vehicle, with the internal-combus- tion engine serving as the energy-processing system.