INTELLIGENT VEHICLE SAFETY SYSTEMS-eCALL                                     Cezar Botezatu                  Faculty of Co...
stakeholder groups involved. Furthermore,           and direction the car was heading.[5]experiences from comparable autom...
o   SP ID(Service Provider Identification )          o "When" via time stampo   SP telephone number                       ...
5. CONCLUSIONS  In order to make the reporting of an accidentmore simple and to give the emergency calloperator more infor...
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Abstract e call

  1. 1. INTELLIGENT VEHICLE SAFETY SYSTEMS-eCALL Cezar Botezatu Faculty of Computer Science for Business Management, Romanian – American University, Bucharest, Romania and Claudiu BÂRCĂ Faculty of Computer Science for Business Management, Romanian – American University, Bucharest, RomaniaABSTRACT The eCall Generator initiate the eCall by sensors triggered and/or manually, send the in- The European Union is promoting eCall to vehicle triggered eCall to a PSAP. The eCallreduce the number of roadway fatalities by consists of two elements: a pure voice (audio)minimizing the response time when an accident telephone call based on 112 and the minimumhas occurred. eCall is a combination of an In set of data (MSD)Vehicle System (IVS), a device with a GSM cell The eCall (data + voice) carried through thephone and GPS location capability, and a mobile network, is recognized by the mobilecorresponding infrastructure of Public Safety network operator (MNO) as a 112 emergencyAnswering Points (PSAPs) Intelligent Vehicle call, and is first handled by the MNO. Based onSafety Systems use Information and the 112 handling the MNO enrich the call withCommunications Technologies for providing the CLI (caller line identification), and at thesolutions for improving road safety in particular same time, according to E112 recommendation,in the pre-crash phase when the accident can still add the best location available .After the 112be avoided or at least its severity significantly handling, the telecom operator delivers the 112-reduced.With these systems,which can operate voice together with the CLI, mobile location andeither autonomously on-board the vehicle, or be the eCall MSD to the appropriate PSAP.based on vehicle-tovehicle or vehicle-to- The PSAP transmits an acknowledgement toinfrastructure communication (co-operative the eCall Generator specifying that the MSDsystems), the number of accidents and their have been properly received.[1]severity can be reduced. Location-enhancedemergency calls like in-vehicle e-Call have theirprimary benefit to society of saving lives and inoffering an increased sense of security. Thearticol presents the system eCall and how does itwork.Keywords: eCall, functional architecture, PSAP1. INTRODUCTION The EU plans to have every new car equippedwith the eCall system from 2010. The systemwill automatically generate an emergency call 2. eCALL SERVICE CHAINafter a serious accident. With this call, the dataof the vehicle including location is transmitted The overall performance criteria for the eCallto the 112 emergency call centre.(PSAP) service chain have been derived from a range of studies and experiences from the various
  2. 2. stakeholder groups involved. Furthermore, and direction the car was heading.[5]experiences from comparable automatic andmanual vehicle emergency or assistance callingsystems and current PSAP operation systems Figure 1: eCall - functional architecture.and emergency response systems have beentaken into account. Figure 1 depicts the architecture of an eCall eCall involves a number of different IVS. Its functional blocks are:stakeholders all with separate responsibilitiesand tasks, which even overlap. In order to o Emergency Call Function: This is the eCallprovide a clear understanding of the different application. It gathers vehicle informationaspects of the eCall chain six different domains through the CAN bus or other sensors and geo-have been identified : location information from the GPS function. In case of a crash, it sends an emergency messageo Vehicle eCall Triggering System ―›112 to the PSAP through the GSM/GPRS function.eCall Trigger (eCall sensors or manual) ―› o GPS: The GPS function is responsible forTransmission over vehicle bus gathering information from GPS satellites ando eCall Generator (EG) ―›In-vehicle software processing this information to accuratelytriggers 112 call ―› in-vehicle communication compute the vehicle’s geo-location.module initiates 112 all and send MSD o GSM/GPRS: The GSM/GPRS function iso EG 2 MNO ―› Receive 112 call and MSD responsible for establishing and maintaining ao Mobile Network Operator (MNO) ―› 112 GSM call to the PSAP so that the crashcall with CLI, celluar location and MSD information can be sent and a voice connectiono MNO 2 PSAP ―› Forward 112 voice, established between the car occupants and anCLI, celluar location and MSD to PSAP operator.o PSAP ―› Answer 112 voice call, decode o In-band Modem: Among a few technologiesand visualise celluar location and MSD to send data to the PSAP (SMS ,GPRS or inband modem), the most likely to be used is the in-3. FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE band modem. This technology uses the voice channel; typically a special processing unit in The eCall IVS function is to : the audio path encodes/decodes messages.o Collect data from the vehicle network and 4. eCALL MINIMUM SET OF DATA (MSD)from vehicle sensors, and maintain an up-to-dateGPS fix of the vehicle’s location. The requirements to the minimum set of datao Automatically detect a crash based on car- were set by a group of emergency servicessensor information. involved in the Driving Group (DC) eCall. Theo Call a PSAP automatically when a crash is requirements were based on the information thatdetected, or when the driver presses a dedicated emergency agencies would need to speed up theeCall button. response time and to ensure a correctEach call has 2 main parts: deployment of emergency resources.[2]o Establish voice contact between the car’s The DG eCall recommends that the belowoccupant and a PSAP operator to provide MSD content should be standardized by anassistance to the driver. appropriate standardization body.o Transmit a Minimum Set of Data (MSD) The MSD provides the following information:to the PSAP, including the current GPS position o GPS Position o Direction of travel o Number of triggers of the call o Colour, make, model of the vehicle o Indicates which sensors are triggered: airbag, roll-over, front crash, side crash or rear crash sensor (at least two should be activated) o Time stamp of the event
  3. 3. o SP ID(Service Provider Identification ) o "When" via time stampo SP telephone number o "Where" via precise locations (e.g. satelliteo Country ID, and positions including the direction of driving)o Special vehicle /user code. o "Who" via vehicle description (caller line identification [CLI], colour, make and model It is recommended to send the minimum set of including, if possible the vehicle identificationdata in the 112-voice channel to the PSAP number, VIN) via a specific vehicle protocol - Global o "Where to obtain more information" viaTelematic Protocol (GTP). During testing the service provider identifier (IP address, including consortium decided to use short message for example telephone number and countryservice (SMS) to transfer the eCall MSD to the code), and PSAP and if subscribed there to the full set of o "How severe" via eCall qualifier (source ofdata (FSD) to the Service provider using the the trigger – manual or automatic including whatsame vehicle protocol (GTP). type of sensors or, if available, the number of sensors). The PSAP is the public controlled call centreresponsible for providing a first point of The minimum set of data makes it possible for contact to a 112 call. The PSAP is thus the PSAP operator to respond to the eCallreceiving the Emergency 112-voice call and the even without the voice connection. It was MSD. Based on the voice connection and the requested by the PSAP operators that at leastMSD content, the PSAP operator decides the two sensors should be activated and sendhandover to the correct dispatcher, which will information to the PSAP before they deal withhandle the remaining part of the specific the call as a silent call. The reason being thatemergency response. The PSAP’s source of the PSAP wanted to minimise the number ofinformation is the voice, the MSD and the false calls in case of a failure on a sensor in thelocation information provided by E112. For vehicle. The minimum set of data is critical forcases where the driver is subscribing to a SP the supplying the correct service to the crash-siteadditional set of data can be pulled by the PSAP and to speed up the response. It is generallyoperator over a secure Internet IP connection. It expected by the PSAP’s that the response timemay happen that the PSAP operator does not can be improved by 5-10% when thisspeak the language of the driver involved in the information is available at the PSAPaccident. In that case and under the sole immediately after the crash.condition that the driver has a service provider The necessary standardisation activities insubscription, it is possible for the PSAP operator Europe related to the technical solution for theto set up a conference voice call between implementation of a pan-European emergencyhimself, the vehicle occupant and the operator at eCall system for road vehicles cover two mainthe responsible service provider.[4] issues: (1) the transport protocol by which the The specification of the minimum set of data minimum set of data (MSD) will be send via thewas created by the emergency agencies. These mobile telecommunication network (e.g. GSM)specifications were set on the basis of the to the public service answering point (PSAP),information the emergency agencies would need and (2) the content and format of the make a correct response and to speed up the The Commission approached ETSI in 2005 toresponse time. The definition of the MSD was look for developing supporting standards formade in close co-operation with the vehicle eCall. ETSI subsequently divided the work intomakers because in the end, the vehicle two parts [3]manufactures need to make sure that the a) the agreement of a communication linkinformation was present. The minimum set of (transport protocol) was assigned to ETSI MSGdata has been coded using the GTP protocol and b) a standard to specify the overall architectureconsists of the following information that will be and MSD was assigned to ETSI ERM TG37.forwarded, together with the voice call, to thePSAP operator when receiving an in-vehicleeCall:
  4. 4. 5. CONCLUSIONS In order to make the reporting of an accidentmore simple and to give the emergency calloperator more information about the accident theEuropean Commission launched acommunication telling the EU Member States toimplement the single European emergency callnumber 112, which has been follow by all EUMember States. In addition the EuropeanCommunication launched a recommendationabout the enhanced E112- number, with alsoprovides the location when an emergency call ismade from a cellular phone. The problem with the existing eCall solutionsprovided by the different vehicle manufacturesand service providers today is that they onlyoperate in on country. From the network operators and serviceprovider’s perspective they are developing different systems for all vehiclesmanufactures, which is making the systemexpensive and not able to work across thedifferent EU Member States [3] Another conclusion is that if there should be aPan-European eCall system, the vehiclemanufactures or the network providers can’tdevelop this themselves. It is very important toinclude the public authorities in this matter andthe public body for this has to be the EU. Onlyhere can a solution be pushed across all EUMember States.6. REFERENCES[1] https://[2][3][4][5] wawecom blue paper no 2-implementingeCall