DECISIONS
LECTURE # 4
if Statement
Syntax
• Single statement if
if(condition)
statement;
• Multi statement if
if(condition)
{
statement1;
statem...
if Statement Flow Chart
Body of if
Test
Expression
Exit
FalseTrue
if Statement Example
#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int num;
cout<<“Enter a number”;
cin>>num;
if(nu...
Example
• Generate even number using if and for
loop.
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()...
If…else Statement
Syntax
• Single statement if...else
if(condition)
statement;
else
statement;
• Multi statement if…else
i...
If…else Statement Flow Chart
Body of if
Test
Expression
Exit
FalseTrue
Body of else
If…else Statement Example
#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int num;
cout<<“Enter a number”;
cin>>num;
...
If…else Statement Example
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int chcount=-1;
int wdcou...
Nested If…else Statement
Syntax
• Single statement if...else
if(condition)
statement;
else
statement;
• Multi statement if...
Nested If…else Example
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
char dir=‘a’;
int x=0,y=0;
w...
Matching else
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
int main()
{
int a,b,c;
cout<<“Enter three numbers:”;
cin>>a>>b>>c;
if(...
Switch Statement
Syntax
switch(n)
{
case 1:
statement
statement;
break;
case 2:
statement
statement;
break;
default:
state...
Switch Statement Flow Chart
1st case body
Switch
variable==1st
case constant
Exit
Switch
variable==2nd
case constant
Switc...
Switch Example
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
char dir=‘a’;
int x=0,y=0;
while(dir...
Conditional Operator ?:
Syntax
result=(Condition)? Expression 1:
Expression 2;
Conditional Operator Flow Chart
Expression 1
Test
Expression
Exit
FalseTrue
Expression 2
Conditional Operator Example
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int x=100, y=0;
int re...
Logical Operators
Operator Effect
&& Logical And
|| Logical Or
! Logical Not
Logical And
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int number;
cout<<“Enter your numbers”;...
Logical Or
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
char dir=‘a’;
int x=0,y=0;
while(dir!=‘r...
Logical Not
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
int main()
{
int x;
cout<<“enter a number”;
cin>>x;
if(!(x==0))
cout<<“Nu...
Operator Precedence
Operator Type Operators
Unary !,++,--
Arithmetic *, /, %
+, -
Relational <, >, <=, >=
==, !=
Logical &...
Continue Statement
Condition
within loop
continue;
Start of loop
Normal loop return
Example
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
int main()
{
int dividend, divisor;
char ch=‘a’;
while(ch!=‘r’)
{
cout<<“Ente...
goto Statement
Syntax
goto Label;
//other statements
Label:
//control will begin here
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Lecture 4

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Lecture 4

  1. 1. DECISIONS LECTURE # 4
  2. 2. if Statement Syntax • Single statement if if(condition) statement; • Multi statement if if(condition) { statement1; statement2; }
  3. 3. if Statement Flow Chart Body of if Test Expression Exit FalseTrue
  4. 4. if Statement Example #include<iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int num; cout<<“Enter a number”; cin>>num; if(num>100) { cout<<“Number is greater than 100”; cout<<endl; } return 0; }
  5. 5. Example • Generate even number using if and for loop. #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> using namespace std; int main() { int i; for(i=0;i<=100;i++) { if(i%2==0) cout<<i<<endl; } getche(); return 0; }
  6. 6. If…else Statement Syntax • Single statement if...else if(condition) statement; else statement; • Multi statement if…else if(condition) { statement1; statement2; } else { statement1; statement2; }
  7. 7. If…else Statement Flow Chart Body of if Test Expression Exit FalseTrue Body of else
  8. 8. If…else Statement Example #include<iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int num; cout<<“Enter a number”; cin>>num; if(num>100) { cout<<“Number is greater than 100”; cout<<endl; } else cout<<“Number is not greater than 100”; return 0; }
  9. 9. If…else Statement Example #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> using namespace std; int main() { int chcount=-1; int wdcount=1; char ch=‘a’; cout<<“Enter a phrasen”; while(ch!=‘r’) { ch=getche(); if(ch==‘ ‘) wdcount++; else chcount++; } cout<<“nWord count=“<<wdcount<<endl; cout<<“Character count=“<<chcount; return 0; }
  10. 10. Nested If…else Statement Syntax • Single statement if...else if(condition) statement; else statement; • Multi statement if…else if(condition) { statement1; statement2; } else { statement1; statement2; } (condition) (condition)
  11. 11. Nested If…else Example #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> using namespace std; int main() { char dir=‘a’; int x=0,y=0; while(dir!=‘r’) { cout<<“Enter your location”; dir=getche(); if(dir==‘n’) y--; else if(dir==‘s’) y++; else if(dir==‘e’) x++; else if(dir==‘w’) x--; } return 0; }
  12. 12. Matching else #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> int main() { int a,b,c; cout<<“Enter three numbers:”; cin>>a>>b>>c; if(a==b) if(b==c) cout<<“b and c are same”; else cout<<“b and c are different”; getche(); retutn 0; }
  13. 13. Switch Statement Syntax switch(n) { case 1: statement statement; break; case 2: statement statement; break; default: statement; statement; } 1st case body 2nd case body Default body Break causes exit from switch
  14. 14. Switch Statement Flow Chart 1st case body Switch variable==1st case constant Exit Switch variable==2nd case constant Switch variable==nth case constant 2nd case body Nth case body Default body true true true false false false
  15. 15. Switch Example #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> using namespace std; int main() { char dir=‘a’; int x=0,y=0; while(dir!=‘r’) { cout<<“Enter your location”; dir=getche(); switch(dir) { case ‘n’: y--; break; case ‘s’: y++; break; case ‘e’: x++; break; case ‘w’: x--; break; default: cout<<“try again”; } //end switch } return 0; }
  16. 16. Conditional Operator ?: Syntax result=(Condition)? Expression 1: Expression 2;
  17. 17. Conditional Operator Flow Chart Expression 1 Test Expression Exit FalseTrue Expression 2
  18. 18. Conditional Operator Example #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> using namespace std; int main() { int x=100, y=0; int result=(x>y)?x:y; getche(); return 0; }
  19. 19. Logical Operators Operator Effect && Logical And || Logical Or ! Logical Not
  20. 20. Logical And #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> using namespace std; int main() { int number; cout<<“Enter your numbers”; cin>>number; if(number>=90) cout<<“A”; else if(number>=70 && number<90) cout<<“B”; else if(number>=60 && number<70) cout<<“C”; else cout<<“F”; getche(); return 0; }
  21. 21. Logical Or #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> using namespace std; int main() { char dir=‘a’; int x=0,y=0; while(dir!=‘r’) { cout<<“Enter your location”; dir=getche(); if(dir==‘n’ || dir==‘N’) y--; else if(dir==‘s’ || dir==‘S’) y++; else if(dir==‘e’ || dir==‘E’) x++; else if(dir==‘w’ || dir==‘W’) x--; } return 0; }
  22. 22. Logical Not #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> int main() { int x; cout<<“enter a number”; cin>>x; if(!(x==0)) cout<<“Number is not zero”; getche(); return 0; }
  23. 23. Operator Precedence Operator Type Operators Unary !,++,-- Arithmetic *, /, % +, - Relational <, >, <=, >= ==, != Logical && || Conditional ?: Assignment =, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=
  24. 24. Continue Statement Condition within loop continue; Start of loop Normal loop return
  25. 25. Example #include<iostream> #include<conio.h> int main() { int dividend, divisor; char ch=‘a’; while(ch!=‘r’) { cout<<“Enter dividend”; cin>>dividend; cout<<“Enter divisor”; cin>>divisor; if(divisor==0) continue; cout<<“Quotient=“<<dividend/divisor; } getche(); return 0; }
  26. 26. goto Statement Syntax goto Label; //other statements Label: //control will begin here
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