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  • 1.
    • Total Quality Management
    • Special Presentation for
    • WAPDA STAFF COLLEGE
    • ISLAMABAD
    • PAKISTAN
  • 2. “ The will to win, the desire to succeed, the urge to reach your full potentials are the keys to unlock the doors to the personal excellence” Confucius
  • 3.
    • Nobody Could make a greater mistake
    • than he
    • who did nothing
    • because he could do a little
  • 4.
    • When person does good deed When he or she didn’t have to, God looks down & smiles & says “for this moment alone it was worth creating world”
  • 5.
    • "Success is a journey, not a destination." —
    • Ben Sweetland
  • 6.
    • Don't become a wandering generality. Be a meaningful specific. - Zig Ziglar
  • 7.
    • Start viewing the probable as possible. You'll be surprised at what you can accomplish.
  • 8.
    • There may be nothing sadder than people who spend their lives talking about what might have been.
  • 9.
    • What we see depends mainly on what we look for.
  • 10.
    • The trouble with self-made men is that they tend to worship their creator.
  • 11.
    • Commencement address by Sir Winston Churchill at a graduation ceremony:
    • "Never give up. Never give up. Never, never, never."
    • - this was his entire speech.
  • 12.
    • What you THINK about reveals what you ARE.
    • Sometimes we need to do a check-up
    • from the neck-up.
  • 13.
    • Accept fate, and move on. Don't yield to the Negative pull of
    • self-pity.
    • Acting like a victim threatens your future.
  • 14.
    • The greatest discovery of our generation is that
    • a human being can
    • alter his life by
    • altering his attitudes. William James
  • 15.
    • Of all the things you wear,
    • your expression is the most important.
  • 16.
    • Three step solution to depression: - GIVING - For GIVING - Thanks GIVING
  • 17.
    • "A handful of patience is worth more than a bushel of brains."
    • Dutch Proverb
  • 18.
    • "Kind words can be short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless."
    • Mother Theresa of Calcuta
  • 19.
    • The growth & development of people is the highest calling of leadership." - Harvey S. Fireston
  • 20.
    • "Little deeds of kindness, little words of love, help to make earth happy like the heaven above. "
    • Julia A. Fletcher Carney
  • 21.
    • "Never mistake motion for action."
    • Ernest Hemingway
  • 22.
    • "Don't curse the darkness -- light a candle."
    • Chinese proverb.
  • 23.
    • The highest result of education is tolerance.
    • Helen Keller (1880 - 1968), 'Optimism,'
  • 24.
    • There is nothing more dreadful than imagination without taste.
    • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    • (1749 - 1832)
  • 25.
    • "True eloquence consists of saying all that should be said, and that only."
    • Francois de La Rochefoucald
  • 26.
    • “ I know the price of success: dedication, hard work, and a devotion to the things you want to see happen." - Frank Lloyd Wright
  • 27.
    • "Some people make headlines while others make history." - Philip Elmer-DeWitt
  • 28.
    • "Courage is the power to let go of the familiar."
    • -- Raymond Lindquist
  • 29.
    • "The best way to break a bad habit is to drop it."
    • Leo Aikmain
  • 30. Placement of HR in Project
    • Pleasure in the job puts Perfection in the work
    • Aristotle
  • 31.
    • Key to Competitiveness
      • Quality
      • Speed
      • Value
      • Cost
  • 32.
    • Poverty Alleviation through
    • Competitiveness
    • using
    • Quality
    • as a tool
  • 33. What is Quality
    • Classical Idea
    • Q: Degree of conformance to a standard
    • (As a product or service)
    Product or Service Specification or Rule Product or Service Product or Service Specification or Rule Build In Reflect Give Satisfaction Conformance Modern Idea Q: User’s Satisfaction or fitness for use
  • 34. CUSTOMER-DRIVEN QUALITY
    • A simpler, more powerful definition came up….
    • “ Quality is meeting or exceeding customer expectations ”
  • 35. What is Quality? * “The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated & implied needs.”
  • 36. Quality means Pleasing consumers not just protecting them from annoyances
  • 37. What is Quality Customer Expectations Meet/exceed Freedom from deficiency Features Doing the right thing Doing the things right
  • 38. Basic Quality Function 2. COMPLAINTS 3. CONSISTENCY 4. PRECISION 5. ACCURACY 6. VARIATION 1. DEFECTS / REJECTS
  • 39. PRINCIPAL QUALITY DIMENSIONS
    • Performance
    • Features
    • Reliability
    • Conformance
    • Durability
    • Serviceability
    • Aesthetics
    • Perceived quality
    • Affordability, Variety, simplicity etc
  • 40. PRINCIPAL QUALITY DIMENSIONS
    • Performance: a product’s primary operating characteristics. Example: A car’s acceleration, braking distance, steering and handling
  • 41. PRINCIPAL QUALITY DIMENSIONS
    • Features: the “bells and whistles” of a product. A car may have power options, a tape or CD deck, antilock brakes, and reclining seats
  • 42. PRINCIPAL QUALITY DIMENSIONS
    • Reliability: the probability of a product’s surviving over a specified period of time under stated conditions of use.
    • A car’s ability to start on cold days and frequency of failures are reliability factors
  • 43. PRINCIPAL QUALITY DIMENSIONS
    • Conformance: the degree to which physical and performance characteristics of a product match pre-established standards.
    • car’s fit/finish, freedom from noises can reflect this.
  • 44. PRINCIPAL QUALITY DIMENSIONS
    • Durability: the amount of use one gets from a product before it physically deteriorates or until replacement is preferable.
    • For car - corrosion resistance & long wear of upholstery fabric
  • 45. PRINCIPAL QUALITY DIMENSIONS
    • Serviceability:
    • Speed, courtesy, competence of repair work.
    • auto owner -access to spare parts.
  • 46. PRINCIPAL QUALITY DIMENSIONS
    • Aesthetics:
    • how a product looks, feels, sounds, tastes, or smells.
    • car’s color, instrument panel design and “feel of road” –
    • make aesthetically pleasing
  • 47. PRINCIPAL QUALITY DIMENSIONS
    • Perceived quality:
    • Subjective assessment of quality resulting from image, advertising, or brand names.
    • car, - shaped by magazine reviews-manufacturers’ brochures
  • 48. MANUFACTURING BASED CRITERIA
    • Quality = Conformance to specifications
    • Quality is
    • “ about manufacturing a product that people can depend on every time they reach for it”
    • Achieved at Coca-Cola through rigorous quality & packaging standards
  • 49. JUDGEMENTAL CRITERIA
    • Quality = superiority or excellence
    • “ Goodness of a Product”
    • “ You just know it when you see it”
    • little practical value to managers
    • No means through which quality can be measured for decision making
  • 50. PRODUCT-BASED CRITERIA
    • Quality is a function of a specific, measurable variable
    • Higher amount of product characteristics = higher quality
    • Quality is mistakenly related to price
    • Higher the price, higher the quality (Not necessarily true)
  • 51. USER-BASED CRITERIA
    • Quality is determined by what customer wants
    • Quality = Fitness for intended use
    • How well the product:
      • Performs its intended purpose
      • Meets consumers’ needs
  • 52. VALUE-BASED CRITERIA
    • “ Quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptable price and control of variability at an acceptable cost.”
  • 53. UNCOVERING THE REAL OPPORTUNITIES OF QUALITY
    • Value
    • “ what the customer gets per what it costs the customer”
    • But customer “gets” more than a physical product.
    • He or she gets:
      • A sense of confidence in a supplier, and
      • A sense of assurance that the supplier will be there when needed
  • 54. VALUE-BASED CRITERIA Cont…. Gales Model of the Purchase Decision Value Quality Price Product Service
  • 55. VALUE-BASED CRITERIA
    • Purchase decision involves trading off the quality against the price
    • Because many of attributes of quality are subjective assessments, therefore most of these definitions - subjective
    • Unlike manufacturing & product-based approaches
  • 56. VALUE-BASED CRITERIA
    • Offering greater satisfaction at comparable price
    • Procter & Gamble brought in VALUE PRICING
    • Consumer brand loyalty
    • More consistent sales
    • Improvement of product characteristics
    • Internal efficiencies
  • 57. DEFINING QUALITY
    • Perfection
    • Consistency
    • Eliminating waste
    • Speed of delivery
    • Compliance with policies & procedures
    • Providing good, usable products
    • Doing it right the first time
    • Delighting or pleasing customers
    • Total customer service & satisfaction
  • 58. WHAT GOOD CAN QUALITY DO ?
    • Provides competitive advantage
    • Reduces costs
    • Lesser returns, rework & scrap
    • Increases productivity & profits
    • Generates satisfied customers
    • “ No Quality, no sales. No sales, no profit. No profits, no jobs.”
  • 59. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
    • Denotes firm’s ability to achieve market superiority
    • Driven by customer needs & wants
    • Provides value to customers that competitors do not
    • Makes significant contribution to business success
    • Allows a firm to use its resources effectively
  • 60. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE cont….
    • Durability & dependability – difficult for others to copy
    • Provides basis for further improvement
    • Provides direction & motivation to the organization
  • 61. Quality Evolution in Japan Fitness to Use Fitness to Cost Fitness to Latent Requirements Fitness to Standards Determining the customer’s needs before the customer becomes aware of them Obtain high quality & low cost by effective designing of both the product & processes. To build a product that meets the needs of customer. To build a product that meets the specifications set by the designer.
  • 62. Quality Control
    • Systematic Techniques to control quality.
  • 63. What is Quality Assurance
    • “ Quality assurance includes “all planned & systematic activities implemented within the quality system, & demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate confidence that an entity will fulfill requirements for quality”.
  • 64. QUALITY ASSURANCE
    • Any action directed towards providing consumers with products (goods & services) of appropriate quality
    THERE ARE NO FACTS ONLY INTERPRETATIONS -FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE
  • 65. Quality Management
    • All activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives and responsibilities and implement planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement within the quality system” (ISO 840)
  • 66. What is Total Quality Total Quality means: quality of work, quality of service, quality of information, quality process, quality of organization, quality of people, quality of company and quality of objectives.
  • 67. DEFINING TOTAL QUALITY
    • Three Ways to Define Total Quality
    The Unifying Principle Total dedication to customers so That the customers’ needs are met And their expectations are exceeded The Outcomes Intensely loyal customers Time is minimized so that costs go down A climate that supports teamwork And more meaningful work A general ethic of continuous improvement
  • 68. DEFINITION OF TOTAL QUALITY
    • Total Quality describes the state of an organization in which all the activities of all functions are designed and carried out in such a way that
    • all external customer requirements are met
    • while reducing internal time and cost,
    • and enhancing the workplace climate.
  • 69. The Profile of TQM
    • TQM is a:
      • Scientific
      • Systematic
      • Company – Wide
    • Activity in which
    • A company is devoted to customers through its products and services.
  • 70. Total Quality Management
    • TQM a philosophy set of guiding principals that represent foundation of a continuously improving org.
    • TQM is application of (a) Quantitative methods and (b) HR to improve material & services supplied to an organization, & all processes within an org, & degree to which needs of customer are met, now & in future.
  • 71.
    • TQM integrates fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, & technical tools under a disciplined approach focused on continuous improvement.
  • 72. A TQM Approach To Management
    • A unique blending of :
    • (a) Objective, practical, & quantitative aspects of management, e.g. Focus on processes & reliance on quantitative data & statistical analysis for decision-making:
    • (b) “soft” aspects of mgt, e.g. providing visionary leadership, promoting a spirit of cooperation teamwork, and practicing participative management.
    • Many orgs when deciding to undertake a TQM effort focus on one or other of these general approaches.
    • A fully successful effort requires balanced attention to both.
  • 73. The Essence of TQM
    • Is involving & empowering the entire workforce to improve the quality of goods and services continuously in order to satisfy, and even delight the customer.
  • 74.
    • TQM tools & technical methods used to accomplish specific tasks.
    • These are means of implementing TQM. Can be used by everyone in org to:
      • identify problem areas,
      • structure data collection efforts,
      • analyze data,
      • focus problem solving efforts on areas of special concern.,
      • disseminate info throughout org.
      • These tools are used primarily to collect & analyze numerical data.
  • 75. Meanings of “Total” In TQM
    • Objectives
    • Not only quality and environment but also other parameters including cost, delivery, safety.
    • 2. Every Department
    • Not only a manufacturing department but also other departments including R&D marketing, administration, etc.
    • 3. Every Echelon
    • Not only engineers but also top managers, middle managers, supervisors, workers, and clerks.
    • 4. Group-Wide
    • TQM is not lonely implemented by am company but also by all its group companies.
    • All The Industries:
    • Not only in manufacturing industry but also in all the industries such as: construction, real estate, electric power, city gas, water supply, transportation, communications, servicing.
  • 76. A Manager Who Fails To Provide Resources And Time For Prevention Activities Is Practicing False Economy Concentrate on Prevention, Not Correction Prevention has more leverage when improving quality Prevention Correction Quality
  • 77. Results of Total Quality Management Lower Cost High Revenue Empowered Employers Delighted Customer
  • 78. Food For Thought
    • 85 percent of opportunities for improvement comes from:
    • (a) changing the systems
    • (b) Re-engineering work process
    • © modifying or replacing equipment.
    • Dr. Deming
  • 79. TQM & Customer Orientation
    • TQM Provides a system of methods on how to realize the principle of customer orientation beyond a slogan.
  • 80. WHO IS A CUSTOMER ?
    • The ultimate purchaser of a product or service
    • External customers purchase products or services from other companies/plants
    • Internal customers receive goods or services from within the company
  • 81. Customer Satisfaction
    • Satisfaction
    More Features
  • 82. Looking at your organization from you customers’ point of view and improving processes to enable you to meet and exceed your customers’ expectations is the only way to achieve quality, because quality is defined by the customer.
  • 83. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO MEET CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS?
    • Needs of customers have to be met
    • Understanding of one’s customers leads to customer satisfaction
    • Japanese relate quality to customer satisfaction
    Inadequate Internal Facilities Poorly Designed Processes Poor Quality Product
  • 84. Conventional Wisdom Deming’s Approach Quality is meeting conformance standards. Quality is an intangible good. Quality is meeting & exceeding customer expectation. Quality is defined by the customer. Finding and Fixing problems results in improvements, which may or may not be sustainable. Making changes to the system to prevent problems results in sustainable improvements. Effectiveness & efficiency are achieved by meeting acceptable defect levels. Effectiveness & efficiency are achieved by continually improving. Crisis management is the dominant management mode. Preventative management. Performance standards & quotas improve productivity. Changes in the process improve productivity. Decisions are made by “superiors.” Decisions are made through collaboration between staff & management.
  • 85. Top management evaluates the organization on financial performance. Top management focuses on process performance & customer satisfaction as well as on financial performance. Process improvement is expensive. Process improvement leads to lower costs. Only managers are capable of identifying & making Workers know the process best & will suggest excellent ways to improve it when given a chance. Managers command functions & are concerned with directing & controlling. Team leaders guide cross-functional improvement teams & are concerned with planning & prevention. Employees receive instruction & information from above, as deemed appropriate by management. Management shares information with employees on a routine basis & on request. Leadership for an improvement effort can be delegated to outside expert. Leadership for an improvement effort is provided by executives within the org, who are accountable for results. Reviews are necessary only when things go wrong. Regularly scheduled performance-improvement reviews are a key to improved processes.
  • 86. Deming’s Dreadful Diseases
    • Looking elsewhere for examples, or concluding that “our problems are different”.
    • Creative accounting rather than commitment.
    • Purchasing to an”acceptable level of quality”.
    • Management’s failure to delegate responsibility.
    • That employees (or unions)cause all the problems.
    • Quality can be assured by inspection.
    • False starts: no organization-wide commitment.
  • 87. Infrastructure, Practices, & Tools
    • Practices -those activities occur within a mgt system to achieve hi performance objectives.
    • Tools include a wide variety of graphical & statistical methods to plan work activities, collect data analyze results, monitor progress, & solve problems.
  • 88. Infrastructure, Practices, & Tools
    • Infrastructure -basic mgmt systems necessary to function as a hi performing org. Infra structure that Support TQM Principles are:
    • Leadership
    • Strategic planning
    • HRM
    • Process mgt
    • Data & info mgmt
  • 89. The Scope of Total Quality Management Infrastructure Tools & Techniques PRINCIPLES Customer Focus Continuous Improvement & Learning Participation & Teamwork
  • 90. The Scope of Total Quality Management Principles Practices Infrastructure Tools & Techniques Participation and Teamwork Customer focus Continuous improvement And learning
  • 91. Leadership
    • “ Inventories can be managed, but people must be led”.
    • Their task is to create clear quality values & high expectations, & then build these in to the company operations .
  • 92. STRATEGIC PLANNING
    • The org must first address some fundamental strategic questions:
    • Who are our customers?
    • What is our mission?
    • What principles do we value?
    • What are our long range & short range goals?
    • How do we accomplish these goals?
    • Strategic business planning should be the driver for quality improvement throughout the org.
  • 93. Human Resource Management
    • Major Challenges:
    • Integration of HR practices
    • (selection, performance, recognition, training, and career advancement )
    • with
    • business directions and strategic change processes
  • 94. Process Management
    • “ Involves design of processes to
    • develop & deliver products & services
    • that meet needs of customers, daily control so that they perform as required & their continual improvement”
  • 95. Do You know??
    • Well designed processes lead to better quality products & services & less waste/ rework
    • Is this amazing?
  • 96. Data & Info Mgmt Modern Business depends on measurement & Analysis of Performance to support a variety of purposes: Planning, reviewing Company profile, Improving operations, and comparing company’s strategy with competitors. Statistical Reasoning with factual data provide basis for problem solving & CI.
  • 97. Data & Information Management
    • Many Types of data & Information are needed for quality assessment & quality improvement:
      • Customer needs
      • Product & service performance
      • Operations performance
      • Market assessments
      • Competitive comparisons
      • Supplier performance
      • Cost & financial performance
  • 98. TQ & Traditional Management Practices- I
    • TQ demands new styles of managing & an entirely new set of skills. These new styles include the following characteristics:
      • Thinking in terms of systems
      • Defining customer requirements
      • Planning for quality improvement with each customer
      • Dealing with customer dissatisfaction
      • Ensuring ongoing quality efforts
      • Developing a life long learning style
      • Team building
      • Encouraging openness
  • 99. TQ & Traditional Management Practices-II
      • Encouraging openness
      • Creating climates of trust & eliminating fear
      • Listening & providing feedback
      • Leading & participating in group meetings
      • Solving problems with data
      • Clarifying goals & resolving conflicts
      • Delegating & coaching
      • Implementing change
      • Making continuous improvement a way of life.
  • 100. Change of The Name of Quality Activities
    • QC : Quality Control
    • At the beginning of 1910-20s
    • SQC : Statistical Quality Control
    • At the beginning of 1950s
    • TQC : Total Quality Control
    • At the beginning of 1960s
    • TQM : Total Quality Management
          • In the middle of 1960s in Japan
          • 1980s in NA
          • 1990s in Pakistan
  • 101. THE QUALITY CHALLENGE INDIVIDUAL CRAFTSMAN FOREMAN INSPECTION STATISTICAL CONTROL QUALITY ASSURANCE TOTAL QUALITY CONTROL ORGANIZATION WIDE TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 THE EVOLUTION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  • 102. QUALITY IS FREE !
    • According to Crosby:
    • Quality is not only free, it is profit maker
    • Increase of 5% -10% in profitability by concentrating on quality
    • Quality provides a lot of money for free
  • 103. “ Quality is never an accident, it is always the result of an intelligent effort” John Ruskin
  • 104. UNCOVERING REAL OPPORTUNITIES of QUALITY
    • Those assurances are part of the package customers get and for which they may be willing to pay
    • Turning that “may” into a “will” has to do with the degree of understanding of one’s customers
    • And what this all “costs” customer is more than money
    • This is not a panacea
    • It will not magically provide all the right answers
    • It will make us far more likely to ask the right questions, which is a major piece of progress
  • 105. “ Quality is never an accident, it is always the result of an intelligent effort” John Ruskin
  • 106. THREE LEVELS OF QUALITY
    • Quality must be examined at three levels…
    • The organizational level
    • The process level
    • The performer / job level
  • 107. AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL
    • Meeting requirements of external customers
    • Organization must seek regular customer input
    • Use customer-driven performance standards for:
      • Setting goals
      • Solving problems
      • Allocating resources
  • 108. AT PROCESS LEVEL
    • Must Identify:
    • Products or services the customers desire
    • Key processes
    • Core inputs
    • Organization’s customer-driven performance standards
    • Needs of internal customers
  • 109. AT THE PERFORMER LEVEL
    • Standards of output must be determined
    • Accuracy
    • Completeness
    • Innovation
    • Timeliness
    • Cost
    • Determine how requirements will be measured
  • 110. What makes people Sweat for Quality? What Is Quality Sweating Theory Theory Of Driving Force For Quality
  • 111. Five Questions of Your Quality
    • What is your major product/service?
    • Who are its major users/customers?
    • What are its quality requirements which the major users/customer demand?
    • What is its most competitive product/service which is provided by your competitor?
    • What kind of comparative study do you have between you product/service and you competitor’s for the quality requirements from the major users/customers?
  • 112. Sense of Crisis + Leadership Vision + Leadership VLSQ Approach Two Approaches in Quality Sweating Theory CLSQ Approach
  • 113. VLSQ Approach
    • If a company is so good in its business and if it has no crisis nor crisis consciousness, what then could serve as a driving force for TQM
    • A forward looking grand vision would mobilize people to sweat hard for sake of achieving that vision.
    • vision must be one which could really motivate people to sweat willingly for quality.
    • Vision approach for TQM promotion needs to conduct an aggressive public relations activity so that the people fully understand the integrity of the vision.
    V ision & L eadership Encourage People to S weat for Q uality
  • 114. Someone has to “pull” people in same direction so that this sense of crisis will materialize effectively as a moving force for the entire organization. Crisis consciousness pushes leadership pulls organization to motivate people to sweat for quality . “ C risis Consciousness & L eadership Make People S weat for Q uality CLSQ Approach vision approach for TQM promotion needs to conduct an aggressive public relations activity so that people fully understand integrity of the vision.
  • 115. The lesson Learnt The Enemy for Quality, that is complacent.
  • 116. That’s a good idea. But Our Quality has already achieved at a certain high level. Hence, we need not do so to such a extent. We Are Complacent, Aren’t We?
  • 117. THANK U!