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E N E R G Y M A N A G E M E N T

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  • 1. INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PAPER ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION CAN BE EFFECTIVELY USED TO MINIMIZE THE LOAD SHEDDING
  • 2. SQUENCE OF PRESENTATION
    • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.
    • OBJECTIVE.
    • EXISTING ENERGY SITUATION IN PAKISTAN.
    • FUTURE ENERGY FORECAST.
    • FUTURE GENERATION PROJECTS.
    • ENERGY CONSERVATION POTENTIIAL IN PAKISTAN
    • ENERGY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT.
  • 3. SQUENCE OF PRESENTATION
    • POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT.
    • METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY CONSERVATION.
    • CONCLUSION.
    • RECOMMENDATIONS.
  • 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
    • IN TODAY’S WORLD, THE ENERGY IS BASIC NEED OF MANKIND. EVERY THING HAS GOT DIRECT OR INDIRECT RELEVANCE WITH IT AND EVERY ACTIVITY REVOLVES AROUND IT.
    • ITS VITAL IMPORTANCE RENDERS IT ONE OF THE CORNER STONES OF DEVELOPMENT.
    • UNFORTUNATELY COUNTRY’S POWER SECTOR IS PRESENTLY EXPERIENCING ONE OF THE WORST CRISIS IN THE HISTORY. THE CURRENT SPATE OF POWER SHORTAGE IS THREATENING TO DERAIL RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE COUNTRY.
  • 5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
    • THE SCENARIO CALLS FOR MULTI PRONGED APPROACH AND ISSUE HAVE TO BE ADDRESSED THROUGH SHORT TERM & LONG TERM SOLUTIONS.
    • BOTH THE SOLUTIONS EVEN REQUIRES A HUGE CAPITAL AND TIME, SO ENERGY CONSERVATION IS THE ONLY TOOL WHICH CAN BE ADOPTED RIGHT NOW TO MINIMIZE THE LOAD SHEDDING.
    • IN THIS WAY WE CAN MANAGE THE GAP BETWEEN SUPPLY SIDE – DEMAND SIDE, WHICH ULTIMATELY REDUCES THE LOAD SHEDDING DEMAND
  • 6. OBJECTIVES
    • TO IDENTIFY / DETECT THE AREAS / SECTORS WHERE WASTEFUL OR UNNECESSARY ENERGY IS BEING UTILIZED.
    • TO EXPLORE WAYS AND MEANS TO KEEP THE USE OF WASTEFUL ENERGY TO BARE MINIMUM OR TO COMPLETELY ELIMINATE IT.
    • TO MAKE PEOPLE AWARE OF THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE USE OF WASTAGE ENERGY.
    • TO DECREASE THE LOAD DEMAND OF THE SYSTEM WHICH IN TURN REDUCES THE LOAD SHEDDING.
  • 7. EXISTING ENERGY SITUATION IN WAPDA
    • INSTALLED CAPACITY
    • THE TOTAL HYDROELECTRIC POWER CAPACITY OF THE WAPDA SYSTEM FROM 14 STATIONS IS 6463 MW. THE INSTALLED THERMAL CAPACITY OF THE WAPDA SYSTEM IS 4744 MW WITH PRESENT CAPABILITY OF 3927MW.
    • DERATION IN THE CAPACITY IS MAINLY DUE TO AGING FACTOR, USE OF FURNACE OIL.
    • THE TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY IN WAPDA THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR IN AS UNDER.
  • 8. Installed Generating Capacity
  • 9. ENERGY GENERATION
    • PRESENTLY THE HYDRO POWER SUPPLIED IN THE SYSTEM IS 37% WHICH WAS AT ONE TIME ACCOUNTED FOR 65% OF THE TOTAL POWER GENERATION .
  • 10. MAXIMUM GENERATION 13292 JUNE 13567 MAY 13002 APRIL 11171 MARCH 12552 FEBRUARY 11039 JANUARY-07 10897 DECEMBER 12537 NOVEMBER 13971 OCTOBER 12947 SEPTEMBER 13616 AUGUST 13531 JULY -06 (MW) MONTH
  • 11. MAXIMUM UNITS GENERATION(M KWh) 87835 07 82225 06 73520 05 69094 04 64040 03 60860 02 58455 01 55873 2000 M KWh YEAR
  • 12. PRESENT ENERGY DEMAND
  • 13. PRESENT ENERGY GENERATION VS ENERGY DEMAND
  • 14. MAXIMUM DEMAND RECORDED VS GENERATION & LOAD SHEDDING Contd.. 1943 10897 11743 DEC 242 12537 12073 NOV 1011 13971 13717 OCT 1029 12947 13976 SEPTEMBER 1028 13616 14013 AUGUST 1820 13531 14238 JULY LOAD SHED (MW) MAX. GEN. DEMAND MAX. DEMAND (MW) PERIOD
  • 15. MAXIMUM DEMAND RECORDED VS GENERATION & LOAD SHEDDING 2868 13292 15838 JUNE 1201 13567 14650 MAY 1334 13002 13843 APR 1347 11171 12311 MAR 849 12552 11590 FEB 1735 11039 12093 JAN LOAD SHED (MW) MAX. GEN. DEMAND MAX. DEMAND (MW) PERIOD
  • 16. Historical Surplus/Deficit (2002 – 2007) YEAR WAPDA SYSTEM Installed Capacity Firm Capability Computed Peak Demand Surplus/ Shortfall 2001-02 15819 10894 10459 435 2002-03 15819 10958 11044 -86 2003-04 17299 11834 11598 236 2004-05 17350 12792 12595 197 2005-06 17400 12600 13847 -1247 2006-07 17366 13292 15838 -2546
  • 17. Month-wise surplus/deficit (MW) -3837 9845 13682 Mar-08 -3151 9104 12255 Jan-08 -2475 9679 12154 Dec-07 -811 11590 12401 Nov-07 355 14092 13737 Oct-07 Month Peak Demand Generation Surplus/deficit Jan-07 12093 11039 -1054 Feb-07 11590 12552 962 Mar-07 12311 11171 -1140 Apr-07 13843 13002 -841 May-07 14650 13567 -1083 Jun-07 15838 13292 -2546 Jul-07 15941 13706 -2235 Aug-07 15862 13666 -2196 Sep-7 16056 13644 -2412 Feb-08 12123 10122 -2001 Apr-08 15124 11568 -3556
  • 18. FUTURE GENERATION PROJECTS* (2008-2011) *Based on WPPO information dated 25 April 2008 Dec. 2010 390 IPP PIE AmPower Project Fiscal Year Name of Project Type Installed Capacity (MW) Expected COD Capacity Added in each Year (MW) Total Installed Capacity (MW) Star Thermal Project IPP 134 Jan. 2011 CC at Chichoki Mallian Public 526 Mar. 2011 Bestway IPP 205 Mar. 2011 Guddu Steam Public 750 Apr. 2011 UCH-2 ICB Power Project IPP 450 Jun. 2011 Gulistan Project IPP 200 Jun. 2011
  • 19. MAXIMUM DEMAND RECORDED VS GENERATION & LOAD SHEDDING
    •     
    HISTORICAL LOAD GROWTH ~ 5% DOUBLE DIGIT LOAD GROWTH IN THE PRECEDING 3 YEARS DUE TO FOLLOWING REASONS .
    • HIGHER ECONOMIC & INDUSTRIOUS ACTIVITIES
    • EXTENSIVE VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION
    • RAPID URBANIZATION
    • POOR QUALITY OF LOCALLY MANUFACTURED ELECTRIC GADGETS
    • SUBSIDIES TO SOME CATEGORIES
    • RE-ATTRACTION OF LOST INDUSTRIAL CONSUMERS
  • 20. MAXIMUM DEMAND RECORDED VS GENERATION & LOAD SHEDDING
    •   THE PRESENT FAST INCREASING LOAD GROWTH HAS RESULTED IN GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION ISSUES THAT THREATEN THE RELIABILITY AND ECONOMICS OF EFFECTIVE ENERGY DELIVERY.
  • 21. FUTURE ENERGY FORE CAST/ REQUIREMENTS
    • THE GROWTH IN ELECTRIC ENERGY USE IN PAKISTAN IS EXPECTED TO REMAIN HIGH FOR MANY YEARS TO COME AND BY 2030. THE FORECAST LOAD DEMAND IS WORKED OUT ON THE BASIS OF ACTUAL DEMAND RECORDED DURING 2007 I.E 15138 MW AND APPLIED THE SAME GROWTH RATE EACH YEAR AS APPLIED IN THE GOP MTDF LOAD FORECAST. THESE PROJECTIONS OF LOAD SHOW AN ACCUMULATED GROWTH OF 10.44 FROM THE YEAR 2010 TO 2015.
  • 22. LOAD FORECAST Based on Regression Analysis (Revised April, 2008) * Base year figure without export to KESC Year MW G.R (%) 2006-07* 15138   2007-08 16484 8.9 2008-09 17868 8.4 2009-10 19352 8.3 A.C.G.R. (2006-2010) 8.5 2010-11 20874 7.9 2011-12 22460 7.6 2012-13 24126 7.4 2013-14 25919 7.4 2014-15 28029 8.1 A.C.G.R. (2010-2015)   7.7
  • 23. FUTURE GENERATION PROJECTS
    • THE GROWTH IN THE LAST THREE YEARS WITNESSED THAT THERE IS A HUGE GAP BETWEEN DEMAND AND SUPPLY WHICH IS THREATENING TO RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE COUNTRY.
    • TO MEET THE PROJECTED DEMAND OF WAPDA SYSTEM, A NUMBER HYDRO AND THERMAL PROJECTS, BOTH IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR ARE AT VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION.
  • 24. HYDRO POWER PROJECTS UNDER TAKEN BY WAPDA 1422 MW UNDER CONSTRUCTION 6464 MW IN OPERATION CAPACITY DESCRIPTION
  • 25. HYDRO POWER PROJECTS UNDER TAKEN BY WAPDA 20770 PROJECTS UNDER STUDIES V MUNDA 381139 TOTAL IV AKHORI III KURAM TANGI II KALABAGH I BASHA 9523 PROJECTS ANNOUNCED BY PRESIDENT OF PAKISTAN FOR CONSTRUCTION CAPACITY DESCRIPTION
  • 26. FUTURE GENERATION PROJECTS* (2008-2011) *Based on WPPO information dated 25 April 2008 Fiscal Year Name of Project Type Installed Capacity (MW) Expected COD Capacity Added in each Year (MW) Total Installed Capacity (MW) Existing Capacity 17684 2007-08 Malakand-III HPP Public 81 May. 2008 141 17825 Rehab. of GENCO Plants Public 60 Jun. 2008 2008-09 Orient Thermal (Balloki) IPP 150 Jul. 2008 2029 19854 Attock Power Project IPP 165 Oct. 2008 Rental Plant at F/Abad IPP 150 Nov. 2008 Rental Plant at Guddu IPP 110 Nov. 2008 Rental Plant at Multan IPP 192 Dec. 2008 Rental Plant at Sahiwal IPP 150 Dec. 2008 Rehab. of GENCO Plants IPP 240 Dec. 2008 Rental Plant at Satiana Road IPP 200 Jan. 2009 Orient Thermal(Balloki) IPP 75 Jan. 2009
  • 27. FUTURE GENERATION PROJECTS* (2008-2011) *Based on WPPO information dated 25 April 2008 IPP Public IPP Public Public IPP IPP Public Public IPP IPP IPP Type Jul. 2009 225 Muridke Power Project 22109 2255 Jul. 2009 130 Duber Khwar HPP 2009-10 Fiscal Year Name of Project Installed Capacity (MW) Expected COD Capacity Added in each Year (MW) Total Installed Capacity (MW) Rental Plant at Ludewala 200 Feb. 2009 Rental Plant at Nooriabad 100 Mar. 2009 Atlas Shirazi Project 225 Mar. 2009 Khan Khwar HPP 72 Apr. 2009 Fauji Mari Power Proj 202 Sep. 2009 F/Abad ICB Project 375 Nov. 2009 Dadu ICB Project 375 Nov. 2009 Nishat Power project 200 Dec. 2009 Jinnah Low Head Hydel 96 Feb. 2010 Sahiwal Power Project 225 Feb. 2010
  • 28. FUTURE GENERATION PROJECTS* (2008-2011) *Based on WPPO information dated 25 April 2008 Jun. 2010 227 IPP Engro Power Project Fiscal Year Name of Project Type Installed Capacity (MW) Expected COD Capacity Added in each Year (MW) Total Installed Capacity (MW) Nishat Chunian Project IPP 200 Jun. 2010 2010-11 Allai Khwar HPP Public 121 Jul. 2010 4856 26965 C.C. at F/Abad Public 125 Nov. 2010 C.C. at Dadu Public 125 Nov. 2010 Nandipur Power project Public 425 Dec. 2010 Bhikki Power Project IPP 225 Dec. 2010 Western ElectricProject IPP 150 Dec. 2010 Green Power Project IPP 205 Dec. 2010 KAPCO Extension IPP 400 Dec. 2010 HUBCO Narowal IPP 225 Dec. 2010 Liberty Power IPP 200 Dec. 2010
  • 29. ENERGY CONSERVATION POTENTIAL IN PAKISTAN
  • 30. ENERGY CONSERVATION POTENTIAL IN PAKISTAN 20-25 PULP AND PAPER 10-20 PETROLEUM 10-20 CEMENT 5-10 METALLURGICAL % REDUCTION IN ENERGY USE PER UNIT PRODUCTION INDUSTRY
  • 31. ENERGY CONSERVATION POTENTIAL IN PAKISTAN 10 PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES 10-15 DOMESTIC 35 PETROCHEMICAL 23 IRON / STEEL 20-40 CEMENT 16-30 FERTILIZER 14-30 TEXTILE 10-30 FOOD & BEVERAGE 10-25 COMMERCIAL BUILDING 10-15 GLASS / CERAMIC 10 PAPER 5-15 AGRICULTURE SAVING POTENTIAL (%) INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
  • 32. ENERGY CONSERVATION POTENTIAL IN PAKISTAN
    • LATEST INFORMATION ON WEBSITE OF ENERCON AS UNDER:
    25% TRANSPORT 30% BUILDING 25% INDUSTRY 20% AGRICULTURE SAVING POTENTIAL (%) INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
  • 33. ENERGY MANAGEMENT
    • IT IS SAID THAT A WATT SAVED IS A WATT GENERATED, BETTER IT IS MUCH CHEAPER TO SAVE THAN GENERATE A WATT. THEREFORE IT IS HIGHLY LOGICAL AND NEED OF THE DAY TO GIVE PRIME IMPORTANCE TO ENERGY MANAGEMENT / CONSERVATION.
  • 34. ENERGY MANAGEMENT
    • THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT / CONSERVATION ENCOMPASSES IN IT WAYS AND MEANS OF OPTIMIZING THE USE OF ENERGY. IT SHOULD NOT BE ASSOCIATED WITH RATIONING OR CURTAILMENT OF ENERGY SUPPLY SERVICES. ACTUALLY IT MEANS IDENTIFYING AREAS OF WASTEFUL USE OF ENERGY AND TAKING ACTION TO REDUCE THE WASTE TO A BARE MINIMUM OR ELIMINATE THE WASTE COMPLETELY. MANAGEMENT AND TECHNICAL TECHNIQUES BE APPLIED TO HAVE OPTIMUM AND EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY.
  • 35. ENERGY MANAGEMENT
    • THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT / CONSERVATION ENCOMPASSES IN IT WAYS AND MEANS OF OPTIMIZING THE USE OF ENERGY. IT SHOULD NOT BE ASSOCIATED WITH RATIONING OR CURTAILMENT OF ENERGY SUPPLY SERVICES. ACTUALLY IT MEANS IDENTIFYING AREAS OF WASTEFUL USE OF ENERGY AND TAKING ACTION TO REDUCE THE WASTE TO A BARE MINIMUM OR ELIMINATE THE WASTE COMPLETELY.
  • 36. ENERGY MANAGEMENT
    • ENERGY CONSERVATION WILL PROVIDE FOLLOWING BENEFITS TO THE INDIVIDUAL CONSUMER AS WELL AS FOR THE COUNTRY.
    • REDUCE THE ENERGY BILL OF THE INDIVIDUAL CONSUMER TO CUSHION AGAINST INFLATION.
    • REDUCES THE ENERGY / LOAD DEMAND WHICH ULTIMATE REDUCES THE LOAD MANAGEMENT / LOAD SHEDDING TO MINIMUM.
    • REDUCES THE INPUT BILL.
  • 37. ENERGY MANAGEMENT
    • CONSERVATION OF ENERGY IS ESSENTIAL FOR THE SURVIVAL OF OUR NATION AS PAKISTAN IS AN ENERGY DEFICIENT COUNTRY. WE CAN STIMULATE / ACHIEVE ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH:
    • AWARENESS
    • TRAINING
    • DEMONSTRATION
    • PROVIDING TECHNICAL AND ADVISORY SERVICES
    • FINANCIAL INCENTIVES
    • POLICY FORMATION
  • 38. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • DOMESTIC SECTOR
    • ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IS ABOUT 46% OF THE TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION THIS SECTOR
  • 39. Consumption (MkWh) by Economic Group
  • 40.  
  • 41.
    • CONSERVATION IN LIGHTING
    • COMMERCIAL BUILDING AND RESIDENTIAL HOMES UTILIZE FROM 25-50% OF THE ELECTRIC CONSUMPTION FOR LIGHTING. THE CORRECT CHOICE OF BULBS CAN SAVE MUCH NEEDED ENERGY, TO BE USED IN OTHER IMPORTANT AREAS OF THE ECONOMY.
    POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
  • 42. DOMESTIC CONSUMERS GROWTH RATE 14.3 07 12.30 06 6.10 05 8.69 04 1.49 03 2.65 02 5.67 2001 %AGE YEAR
  • 43. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • REPLACEMENT OF INCANDESCENT BULBS WITH COMPACT FLUORESCENT BULBS.
    •      COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS ARE FOUR TO FIVE TIMES MORE EFFICIENT THAN INCANDESCENT ONES AND HIGH RATED LIVES OVER TEN TIMES LONGER.
    • HIGH-PRESSURE SODIUM LAMPS COMBINE HIGH EFFICIENCY WITH LONG LAMP LIFE AND ARE USED EXTENSIVELY FOR OUT DOOR AND PUBLIC LIGHTING.
  • 44. Impact of Replacing one Tube with Energy Saver Note: There will be additional reduction in Reactive Load by this replacement & a resultant reduction in overall system losses of Utility as well as Consumers Watts 96,961,527 Saving in Generation with load reduction of FESCO and associated loss (25%) to WAPDA 7 Watts 72,721,145 Reduction in Load Demand if Each Consumer of FESCO Replaces one Tube of 40 Watts 6   2,077,747 No of Energy Savers Required to supply one Saver to each consumer 5   2,077,747 No. of FESCO Consumers 4 Watts 35 Saving for Consumer due to Reduction in Load per replacement 3 Watts 55 Load of Tube Light (40 Watt) with Choke (Average) 2 Watts 20 Load of Energy Saver 1
  • 45. Impact of Replacing one Bulb with Energy Saver Watts 221,626,347 Saving in Generation with load reduction of FESCO and associated loss (25%) to WAPDA 7 Watts 166,219,760 Reduction in Load if Each Consumer of FESCO Replaces one Tube 6   2,077,747 No of Energy Savers Required to supply one Saver to each consumer 5   2,077,747 No. of FESCO Consumers 4 Watts 80 Saving for Consumer due to Reduction in Load per replacement 3 Watts 100 Load of Bulb 2 Watts 20 Load of Energy Saver 1
  • 46. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • THE STUDY, RESEARCH OF SAVING OF ELECTRICITY BY REPLACING THE INCANDESCENT BULBS, TUBE LIGHTS WITH COMPACT FLORESCENT BULBS IS AS UNDER:
  • 47. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION Watts 96,961,527 Saving in Generation with load reduction of FESCO and associated loss (25%) to WAPDA Watts 72,721,145 Reduction in Load Demand if Each Consumer of FESCO Replaces one Tube of 40 Watts   2,077,747 No of Energy Savers Required to supply one Saver to each consumer   2,077,747 No. of FESCO Consumers Watts 35 Saving for Consumer due to Reduction in Load per replacement Watts 55 Load of Tube Light (40 Watt) with Choke (Average) Watts 20 Load of Energy Saver
  • 48. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION Watts 221,626,347 Saving in Generation with load reduction of FESCO and associated loss (25%) to WAPDA Watts 166,219,760 Reduction in Load if Each Consumer of FESCO Replaces one Tube Watts 2,077,747 No of Energy Savers Required to supply one Saver to each consumer   2,077,747 No. of FESCO Consumers   80 Saving for Consumer due to Reduction in Load per replacement Watts 100 Load of Bulb Watts 20 Load of Energy Saver
  • 49. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • CONSERVATION IN ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS
  • 50. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • COMMERCIAL
    • ALL THE SHOPPING MALLS, SHOPPING CENTERS BE CLOSED BY 8.00 P.M.
    • BILL-BOARDS, ADVERTISEMENT SIGNS AND EVEN MOVIES WILL NOT OPERATE DURING THE PEAK HOURS
    • ALL LIGHTING RELATING CEREMONIES FUNCTIONS AND ENTERTAINMENTS ARE REQUIRED TO BE SHUT DOWN DURING PEAK HOURS.
  • 51. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • ALL THE POINTS DISCUSSED FR DOMESTIC HOLD GOOD FOR COMMERCIAL CONSUMERS ALSO. IN ADDITION FOLLOWING ASPECTS NEEDS TO BE EMPHASIZED.
    • APPROPRIATE SELECTION OF LUMINARIES.
    • ECONOMIC SCHEDULING AIR CONDITIONING PLANT OPERATION.
    • PROPER MAINTENANCE OF AIR CONDITION PLANT.
    • CENTRAL CONTROL OF UTILITY LIGHTS.
    • USE OF PROPER REFLECTORS FOR DISPLAY LIGHTS.
    • CURTAILING OF LIGHTING TIME OF ADVERTISING DISPLAYS.
    • USE OF DOOR – KEY SWITCHES IN HOTEL ROOMS.
  • 52. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • ESTIMATED LOAD DEMAND SAVING DURING
    • PEAK HOURS = SYSTEM LOAD DEMAND X % COMM. LOAD X LOAD FACTOR
    • = 12000 X 0.06 X 0.3 = 216 MW
    •  
  • 53. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • INDUSTRIAL CONSUMERS
    • STAGGERING OF HOLIDAYS BE STRETCHED OVER SIX DAYS INSTEAD OF SUNDAY/FRIDAY.
    • APPROPRIATE CAPACITY OF MOTORS WITH PROPER SWITCH GEARS AND SAFETY CONTROLS FOR OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY.
    • IMPROVEMENT OF POWER FACTOR RESULTS IN REDUCTION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION.
    • PREVENTION OF IDLE RUNNING OF MOTORS.
    •  
  • 54. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • INDUSTRIAL CONSUMERS
    • PLUGGING OF LEAKS IN COMPRESSED AIR CIRCUITS, STEAM CIRCUITS, ELECTRIC CIRCUITS, WATER CIRCUITS, COLD AIR DUCTS, AND PROPER INSULATION OF STEAM CIRCUITS, HOT WATER CIRCUITS AND AIR CONDITIONING DUCTS CAN HELP A LOT TO CONSERVE ENERGY
    • EXTERIOR LIGHTS SHOULD BE LOW POWER HIGH LUMENS. MOREOVER THEIR MAINTENANCE CLEANNESS AND PROPER CONTROL OVER SWITCHING OFF TIMINGS IS THE ESSENCE OF CONSERVATION.
    • BY CONTROLLING PEAK DEMANDS AND KEEPING LOAD FACTORS CLOSE TO UNITY AN INDUSTRY CAN SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE ITS ELECTRICAL COSTS.
    •  
  • 55. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • INDUSTRIAL CONSUMERS
    • ESTIMATED LOAD DEMAND SAVING DURING
    • PEAK HOURS = SYSTEM LOAD DEMAND X % IND. LOAD X LOAD FACTOR
    • = 12000 X 0.26 X 0.1 = 312 MW
    •  
  • 56. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • AGRICULTURE CONSUMERS
    • WAPDA HAS INTRODUCE INCENTIVE DURING OFF PEAK IN NIGHY HOURS FOR AGRICULTURE CONSUMERS FROM 10.00 P.M TO 6.00 A.M.
    • ESTIMATED LOAD DEMAND SAVING DURING
    • PEAK HOURS = SYSTEM LOAD DEMAND X % AGRI. LOAD X LOAD FACTOR
    • = 12000 X 0.08 X 0.2 = 192 MW
  • 57. POTENTIAL SECTORS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
    • PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES
    • WATER SUPPLY
    • SEWERAGE
    • PUBLIC LIGHTING
    • REDUCTION IN ENERGY LOSSES
    • CO-GENERATION
    • PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES
    • IMPROVEMENT IN REFRIGERATION EFFICIENCY
  • 58. METHODS FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT
    • PUBLIC AWARENESS
    • STAFF TRAINING AND PARTICIPATION
    • ENERGY MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION
  • 59. CONCLUSIONS
    • ENERGY CONSERVATION IS THE CHEAPEST AND QUICKEST MEAN OF OBTAINING ADDITIONAL SUPPLY OF ENERGY.
    • THE SCOPE AND IMPACT OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IS IMMENSE AND FAR – REACHING.
    • CONSERVATION IS POSSIBLE ONLY BY MAKING PEOPLE AWARE OF THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE WASTAGE OF ENERGY.
  • 60. CONCLUSIONS
    • REDUCE DEMAND TO AVOID LOAD SHEDDING.
    • REDUCE NEED FOR ENERGY IMPORT, THUS SAVING OF NATIONAL EXCHEQUER.
    • IMPROVE FOREIGN EXCHANGE POSITION.
    • GREATER PRODUCTIVITY / PROFITABILITY INDUSTRIES
  • 61. CONCLUSIONS
    • ENERGY CONSERVATION/MANAGEMENT AND ITS EFFICIENT UTILIZATION IN ALL ITS FORMS IS OF VITAL IMPORTANCE TO THE CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF PAKISTAN.
    • THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT / CONSERVATION CAN PLAY A PIVOTAL ROLE IN KEEPING THE GAP BETWEEN GENERATION AND DEMAND AS NARROW AS POSSIBLE.
    • ENERGY CONSERVATION IS THE TOOL OF EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY WITHOUT REDUCING PRODUCTION LEVEL AND WITHOUT SCARIFYING PRODUCT QUALITY, SAFETY OR ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS.
  • 62. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FOLLOWING RECOMMENDATIONS IS NOT AN EASY TASK, BUT FOR THE SURVIVAL OF NATION IT DEMANDS SACRIFICES, COMMITMENT, DEVOTION, DEDICATION, UNTIRING EFFORTS AND SELFLESS SERVICES.
  • 63. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • MANUFACTURING AND USE OF ENERGY EFFICIENT SAVER / DEVICES AND EQUIPMENTS SHOULD BE PROMOTED.
    • ENERGY / MANAGEMENT SHOULD BE MADE EFFECTIVE BY EDUCATION, AWARENESS AND REGULATION.
    • ENERGY AUDIT SURVEY BE CARRIED OUT FOR ALL INDUSTRIES, PLANTS, COMMERCIAL AND HOUSES, SO AS TO IDENTIFY THE AVAILABLE AREAS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION.
    • ENGINEERING STANDARDS MUST BE FOLLOWED STRICTLY.
    • FINANCIAL INCENTIVES BE PROVIDED TO THOSE WHO WANT TO IMPLEMENT ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAMME. LIKE AS TOU TARIFF FOR ALL CATEGORIES OF CONSUMERS
  • 64. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • GOVT. / DISCO,S SHOULD SET UP ENERGY CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT AT EVERY LEVEL WHICH SHOULD ENFORCE THE SUGGESTED ENERGY SAVING METHODS BY EDUCATION AND REGULATION.
    • MASS EDUCATION ON PRINT AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA WILL HELP IN IDENTIFYING THE ENERGY WASTE AREAS FOR STOPPING THE SAME.
    • ENERGY MANAGEMENT / CONSERVATION PROGRAMME SHOULD BE IMPLEMENTED IN LETTER AND SPIRIT IN ALL SECTORS.
  • 65. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • EXPLORATION OF NEW RESERVES OF OIL, GAS AND COAL BE ACCELERATED. THE OFF SHORE EXPLORATION OF OIL AND GAS IN THE ARABIAN SEA SHOULD BE GIVEN SERIOUS THOUGHT AS THERE ARE AMPLE OPPORTUNITIES OF NEW RESERVES.
    • BECAUSE OF EARLIER DEPLETION OF OIL AND GAS RESOURCES, COAL FIRED POWER STATIONS, NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS AND HYDEL POWER STATION SHOULD BE INSTALLED TO MEET THE GROWING DEMAND OF POWER.
  • 66. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES OF ENERGY BE INTENSIFIED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS.
    • SOLAR ENERGY.
    • WIND MILLS.
    • TIDE WAVES.
    • GEO THERMAL.
    • FACILITIES TO TRAINS THE STAFF IN ADOPTING TOTAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME BE PROVIDED IN ALL BIG CITIES OF COUNTRY.
  • 67. THANK YOU