Runway orientation presentation

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runway markings, lights, types of runways, wind rose analysis, Aviation

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Runway orientation presentation

  1. 1. NAVIGATION AND INSTRUMENT FLIGHT PROCEDURE RUNWAY ORIENTATION 1
  2. 2. GROUP MEMBERS• FATIMA HAFEEZ• SAJID NADEEM 2
  3. 3. RUNWAY• “Rectangular area on an aerodrome used for landing and take off “• Runway orientation is important in airport planning• Current practice is to layout a runway in the direction of prevailing wind 3
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF RUNWAY LAYOUT• Determination of runway is a critical task• It is very important for safe take offs and approaches• The width and sloping of runway also play a role in safe approaches . It can be illustrated by the figure below : 4
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  6. 6. RUNWAY NUMBERS• Runways are numbered according the magnetic compass direction they are oriented to• Consists of two numbers one at each end of runway• Preceding that number are eight stripes 6
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  8. 8. • By 500 feet is the touchdown zone , identified by six stripes• Runway numbers are not given in degrees, rather in shorthand format• e.g. a runway with a marking of 14 is actually 140 degrees• For simplicity FAA rounds off the precise headings to nearest tens 8
  9. 9. RUNWAY HEADING 9
  10. 10. RUNWAY CONFIGURATION• FAA includes over 20 runway layouts• Amongst them there are 4 basic runway patterns :1. SIMPLE RUNWAY2. PARALLEL RUNWAY3. OPEN-V RUNWAYS4. INTERSECTING RUNWAYS 10
  11. 11. SINGLE RUNWAY 11
  12. 12. PARALLEL RUNWAYS There are 4 types of parallel runways 12
  13. 13. OPEN-V RUNWAYSRunways diverging from different directions but do notintersect and form an open-V shape are ‘OPEN-V runways’ 13
  14. 14. INTERSECTING RUNWAYSTwo or more runways that cross each other are classified asintersecting runways.This type of runway is used when there are relatively strongprevailing winds from more than one direction during theyear. 14
  15. 15. FACTORS AFFECTING RUNWAY ORIENTATION• WIND• AIRSPACE AVAILABILITY• ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS• OBSTRUCTIONS TO NAVIGATION• AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL VISIBILITY• WILD LIFE HAZARDS• TERRAIN AND SOIL CONSIDERATION 15
  16. 16. WIND ROSE ANALYSIS• An approach often used in determining the runway orientation• The method uses a wind rose template• A transparent runway template is placed and rotated around the center of wind rose• At each rotating angle, the percentage of allowable cross winds is measured 16
  17. 17. WIND ROSE METHOD 17
  18. 18. RUNWAY LIGHTING• These lights are used to assist pilot in to identify the runway• GREEN THRESHOLD LIGHTS : Line the runway edge• RED LIGHTS : Mark the end of runway• BLUE LIGHTS : Run alongside taxiways• While runways have YELLOW or WHITE lights marking their edges 18
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  20. 20. RUNWAY SIGNS• Various kinds of runway signs are also used for facilitation• They differ according to their purpose and action 20
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  22. 22. THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME THE END 22

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