Literature review :
Emotional intelligence is a relatively new theoretical construct and can be defined in numerous ways.
Emotional intelligence is not just being nice, putting on a good face, and giving free reign to feelings, nor
is it about controlling, exploiting, or manipulating people (Cooper &Sawaf, 1997; Cherniss& Adler,2000).
Basically, emotional intelligence is the “ability to accurately identify and understand one’s own
emotional reactions and those of others” (Cherniss& Adler, 2000). More formally defined, emotional
intelligence refers to the ability to identify and express emotions, understand emotions, assimilate
emotions in thought, and regulate positive and negative emotions in oneself and others (Matthews,
Zeidner, & Roberts, 2002).
Over the course of the history of psychology, research and theory on emotions has risen and ebbed
(Goleman, 2003). Emotional intelligence can trace its roots to the beginning of the 20th century when
Thorndike (1920) identified and called it social intelligence. He identified three intelligences, (1)
mechanical, (2) social, and (3) abstract. Thorndike defined social intelligence as “the ability to
understand and manage men and women, boys and girls–to act wisely in human relations” (p. 228).
During the next half century the behaviorist and intelligent quotient testing movements were in the
forefront with scant attention being given to the construct of emotional intelligence (Goleman and