Palwasha
Nazar
Presented to :
Ma'am Asma Bashir
Topic
‘’Islamic And Western
World Contributions In
Field Of Psychology’’
•

Roots Of Psychology

•

Schools Of Psychology

•

Approaches Of Psychology

•

Western Famous Contributors

•

Islamic ...
Roots of psychology
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental
processes.
Components:


Behavior – Anythin...
Historical Roots of Psychology
Two historical roots of psychology are the
disciplines of:


Philosophy and chemistry



...
Plato and Aristotle


Greek philosopher that believed that who we are and
what we know are innate (inborn).



What we k...
Rene Descartes


The French philosopher / mathematician



Invented the Cartesian system of coordinates (the
coordinate ...
John Locke


The body-mind duality



„Clean-slate mind‟ (tabula rasa)



Knowledge comes from observation, and what we...
Nature vs. Nurture
Controversy
The debate about the extent to which
our behavior is inborn or learned
through experience i...
Schools And Approaches To
Psychology

1.

School of Structuralism

2.

School of Functionalism

3.

Gestalt psychology
School of Structuralism


First school of psychology



Focused on breaking down mental processes
into the most basic co...
School of Functionalism



Formed as a reaction to the theories of the
Structuralism school



Instead of focusing on th...
Gestalt psychology


Formed as a reaction to the over emphasis of
reductionist methods in psychology



Against blind re...
Eight Approaches To Psychology


Behavioral Approach



Psychoanalytic approach



Psychodynamic Approach



Humanisti...
IBN SINA (980-1037)


Qur'an and the Arabic classics



Neurosciences



Psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine

...
AL-KINDI (803-873)


Pioneer in experimental psychology



Cognitive method to combat
depression



Music therapy



S...
AL-FARABI (870-950)



Causes of dreams



Worked on Social Psychology

He stated that "an isolated individual could
not...
IMAM GHAZALI (1058-1111)
He described the self using four terms:
1)

Qalb (heart)

2)

Ruh (spirit)

3)

Nafs (soul)

4)

...
Continued…

He stated :
"The self has an inherent yearning for an
ideal, which it strives to realize and it is
able with q...
Continued…

He further wrote that impulse resides in the
muscles, nerves, and tissues, and moves the organs to
“fulfill th...
ASHRAF ALI THANVI (1873-1943)



Referred to by many south Asian Muslims as „physician
of the Muslims„ and „Reformer of t...
Continued …
Ashraf Ali Thanvi divided his therapies into
two kinds:
1. Reading therapy
2. Communication therapy
Prophet Muhammad {SAW} -(570-632)
Focused on:
 Superiority and inferiority complex
 Wisdom
 Manners
 Good health
 Spi...
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Islamic and western world contributions in field of psychology

  1. 1. Palwasha Nazar Presented to : Ma'am Asma Bashir
  2. 2. Topic ‘’Islamic And Western World Contributions In Field Of Psychology’’
  3. 3. • Roots Of Psychology • Schools Of Psychology • Approaches Of Psychology • Western Famous Contributors • Islamic World Famous Contributors • Common Concepts Given By Both Worlds • Summary
  4. 4. Roots of psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Components:  Behavior – Anything that you do that can be observed.  Mental Processes – Internal experiences such as: thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions.  Systematic Study: Systematic collection and examination of data (empirical evidence) to support or disprove hypotheses (predictions) rather than depending on common sense.
  5. 5. Historical Roots of Psychology Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of:  Philosophy and chemistry  Philosophy and physiology  Philosophy and physics
  6. 6. Plato and Aristotle  Greek philosopher that believed that who we are and what we know are innate (inborn).  What we know are acquired from experience.  Mind body relationship  Body-mind duality
  7. 7. Rene Descartes  The French philosopher / mathematician  Invented the Cartesian system of coordinates (the coordinate geometry)  Believed in the body-mind duality. But he was open enough to consider that there is an uninterrupted transaction between the body and the mind.
  8. 8. John Locke  The body-mind duality  „Clean-slate mind‟ (tabula rasa)  Knowledge comes from observation, and what we know comes from experience.
  9. 9. Nature vs. Nurture Controversy The debate about the extent to which our behavior is inborn or learned through experience is called the nature vs. nurture controversy. „‟Men are made, not born „‟
  10. 10. Schools And Approaches To Psychology 1. School of Structuralism 2. School of Functionalism 3. Gestalt psychology
  11. 11. School of Structuralism  First school of psychology  Focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components  Wilhelm Wundt helped found the school of structuralism which aimed to focus on the structure of the mind and identify the basic elements of consciousness.
  12. 12. School of Functionalism  Formed as a reaction to the theories of the Structuralism school  Instead of focusing on the mental processes themselves, functionalist thinkers were instead interested in the role that these processes play.
  13. 13. Gestalt psychology  Formed as a reaction to the over emphasis of reductionist methods in psychology  Against blind reliance on analysis and reductionism  The gestalt psychologists believed that you must look at the whole of experience as each person has a completely different experience when viewing the world
  14. 14. Eight Approaches To Psychology  Behavioral Approach  Psychoanalytic approach  Psychodynamic Approach  Humanistic Approach  Biological Approach  Cognitive Approach  Evolutionary Approach  Socio-cultural Approach  Eclectic approach
  15. 15. IBN SINA (980-1037)  Qur'an and the Arabic classics  Neurosciences  Psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine  Studied senses
  16. 16. AL-KINDI (803-873)  Pioneer in experimental psychology  Cognitive method to combat depression  Music therapy  Spiritual (nafsani)
  17. 17. AL-FARABI (870-950)  Causes of dreams  Worked on Social Psychology He stated that "an isolated individual could not achieve all the perfections by himself, without the aid of other individuals."
  18. 18. IMAM GHAZALI (1058-1111) He described the self using four terms: 1) Qalb (heart) 2) Ruh (spirit) 3) Nafs (soul) 4) 'Aql (intellect).
  19. 19. Continued… He stated : "The self has an inherent yearning for an ideal, which it strives to realize and it is able with qualities to help realize it."
  20. 20. Continued… He further wrote that impulse resides in the muscles, nerves, and tissues, and moves the organs to “fulfill the partialities.” Partialities may include hunger, thirst, and sexual craving, rage, indignation and revenge.
  21. 21. ASHRAF ALI THANVI (1873-1943)  Referred to by many south Asian Muslims as „physician of the Muslims„ and „Reformer of the Nation‟  Thanvi believed in individual potentialities and qualities of human beings.
  22. 22. Continued … Ashraf Ali Thanvi divided his therapies into two kinds: 1. Reading therapy 2. Communication therapy
  23. 23. Prophet Muhammad {SAW} -(570-632) Focused on:  Superiority and inferiority complex  Wisdom  Manners  Good health  Spiritual elevation and purity  Clarity of thoughts  Positive thoughts  Building of character  Meditation
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