Airspaces

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Aviation, Air law, Air spaces A,B,C,D,E,F,G, special air spaces

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Airspaces

  1. 1. Airspace withPerspective ofAviation Law BILAL AHMAD Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally,Submitted to: SIR ALI BARKAAT any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere. Submitted by: Bilal Ahmad Sajid Nadeem Mehman Khan Waqas Hameed BS.AMUniversity of Management and Technology 12/16/2012
  2. 2. 1|PageContentsAirspace ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2Types of Airspace ....................................................................................................................................................... 2 a) Controlled Airspace ........................................................................................................................................ 2 1. Class A Airspace .......................................................................................................................................... 3 2. Class B Airspace .......................................................................................................................................... 4 3. Class C Airspace .......................................................................................................................................... 6 4. Class D Airspace.......................................................................................................................................... 8 5. Class E Airspace ........................................................................................................................................ 10 b) Un-Controlled Airspace ................................................................................................................................ 12 Class G Airspace ............................................................................................................................................... 12 c) Special Use Airspace-Class F......................................................................................................................... 15 1. Prohibited Areas........................................................................................................................................... 15 2. Restricted Areas ........................................................................................................................................... 16 3. Warning Areas .............................................................................................................................................. 17 4. Military Operation Areas (MOAs) ................................................................................................................ 17Alert Areas ................................................................................................................................................................ 18Controlled Firing Areas (CFAs) ................................................................................................................................. 19 Military training route (MTR) ............................................................................................................................... 19 d) Other Airspace Areas ................................................................................................................................... 19 Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR) ............................................................................................................. 19 Parachute Jump Aircraft Operations ............................................................................................................ 20 Published VFR Routes................................................................................................................................... 20 Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSAs) ......................................................................................................... 20 National Security Areas (NSAs) .................................................................................................................... 20Summary .................................................................................................................................................................. 20
  3. 3. 2|PageAirspaceAirspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including itsterritorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.Types of Airspace 1) Controlled 2) Un-Controlled 3) Special Use Airspace (SUA) 4) Other Airspaces a) Controlled AirspaceControlled airspace is a generic term that covers the differentclassifications of airspace and defined dimensions withinwhich air traffic control (ATC) service is provided inaccordance with the airspace classification. Controlledairspace usually imposes higher weather minimums than areapplicable in uncontrolled airspace. It is the opposite ofuncontrolled airspace. Controlled airspace consists of: 1. Class A 2. Class B 3. Class C CHAPTER IIArticle 13Entry and clearance regulations 4. Class D 5. Class E
  4. 4. 3|Page 1. Class A AirspaceClass A airspace is generally the airspace from 18,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) up toand including flight level (FL) 600, including the airspace overlying the waters within 12nautical miles (NM) of the coast. Unless otherwise authorized, all operation in Class Aairspace is conducted under instrument flight rules (IFR).Class A- According to Aviation Law a) IFR Flights You must hold Instrument Rating to fly in Class A airspace b) Controlled by ATC All aircrafts are directly controlled by ATC c) Aircraft Separation All aircrafts are separated from each other by ATC d) Lower Limit Lower limit of Class A airspace begins at FL-180 e) Upper Limit The upper limit of Class A airspace is FL-600 f) Clearance ATC clearance is required to enter in Class A g) Communication Tow-way radio communication between ATC and pilot h) Speed Limitations Speed limitations are not applicable in Class A unless otherwise specified by ATC i) VFR is Prohibited All VFR flights are prohibited j) SVFR Special visual flights may be permitted if authorized by ATC.
  5. 5. 4|Page 2. Class B AirspaceClass B airspace is generally airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surroundingthe busiest airports in terms of airport operations or passengers. The configuration of eachClass B airspace area is according to the airport requirements, consists of a surface areaand two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down weddingcakes), and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraftenters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area,and all aircraft that are so cleared receive separation services by ATC within the airspace.http://oliverhanisch.com/groundschool/document_library/Airspace/LessonPlanUS-Airspaces.htmlClass B-According to Aviation Law a) Dimensions of Class BIn Class B airspace the lateral dimensions may be different according to the requirements of differentairports, so that the departing and approaching aircrafts must remain in controlled airspace as theytravel between airport and en-route portion of flight.Class B airspace usually have three layers. Arrival extensions i
  6. 6. 5|Page b) IFR, VFR and SVFRInstrument, visual or special visual flights may be permitted in Class Bairspace c) VFR CorridorsThe design of a few of the first Class B airspace areas provided acorridor for the passage of uncontrolled traffic. A VFR corridor isdefined as airspace through Class B airspace, with defined vertical andlateral boundaries, in which aircraft may operate without an ATCclearance or communication with air traffic control. d) Lower LimitsLower limits starts from the surface level e) Upper limitsUpper limits is of 10,000’ MSL f) ClearanceATC clearance is mandatory to enter in Class B airspace g) PPLYou must hold PRIVATE PILOT LICENSE (PPL) h) SPLStudent Pilots cannot fly in Class B airspace unless otherwise theyhave flown in this class before with an authorized instructor. Theymust have the endorsement of instructor in their log book. Thislogbook must be with the pilot during the flight i) TransponderYou must have Mode C transponder j) CommunicationTow-way communication must be set between ATC and pilots k) RadiusThe radius of Class B airspace is usually 30 NM
  7. 7. 6|Page 3. Class C AirspaceClass C airspace is generally airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation(charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower, are serviced by aradar approach control, and have a certain number of IFR operations or passengers. Although theconfiguration of each Class C area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of a surface areawith a five NM radius, an outer circle with a ten NM radius that extends from 1,200 feet to 4,000 feetabove the airport elevation, and an outer area. Each aircraft must establish two-way radiocommunications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace andthereafter maintain those communications while within the airspace.
  8. 8. 7|PageClass C-According To Aviation Law a) Radar Service ATC provides radar service to the aircrafts b) Communication Tow-way communication must be set up between ATC and pilots c) Dimensions Usually Class C consists of two layers. Lower layer starts from surface to the height of 1200’MSL and has the radius of 5 NM. Upper layer starts from 1200’ MSL and extends to 4000’AGL. Outer limit has the radius of 10 NM. d) Transponder Your aircraft must be equipped with transponder of Mode C capability. e) Separation Aircraft operating under IFR and SVFR are separated from each other and from flights operating under VFR, but VFR flights are not separated from each other. Flights operating under VFR are given traffic information in respect of other VFR flights. f) Clearance All aircraft are subject to ATC clearance (country specific variations notwithstanding)
  9. 9. 8|Page 4. Class D AirspaceClass D airspace is generally airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevationsurrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. The configuration of each Class Dairspace area is individually tailored and when instrument procedures are published, the airspace isnormally designed to contain the procedures. Arrival extensions for instrument approach procedures(IAPs) may be Class D or Class E airspace. Unless otherwise authorized, each aircraft must establishtwo-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering theairspace and thereafter maintain those communications while in the airspace.
  10. 10. 9|Page a) VFR, IFR and SVFOperations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or VFR b) Clearance All flights are subject to ATC clearance (country specific variations notwithstanding). c) Separation Aircraft operating under IFR and SVFR are separated from each other, and are given traffic information in respect of VFR flights. Flights operating under VFR are given traffic information in respect of all other flights. VFR flights are not separated by ATC d) Operating Control Towers ATC provides weather air traffic control and weather services to departing and arriving aircrafts. e) Communications Tow-way communication is required between ATC and Pilots during open hours. f) Converting from Class D to E or G During the close hours i.e. when the ATC tower is closed this is called class E airspace. If there is no ground observer to provide weather information then this airspace becomes Class G i.e. Uncontrolled. g) Arrival Extension According to the requirements of airports, the arrival extensions are required but this extension part does not always fall under Class D, instead it sometimes refers to as Class E where tow-way communication is not required.
  11. 11. 10 | P a g e 5. Class E AirspaceIf the airspace is not Class A, B, C, or D, and is controlled airspace, then it is Class E airspace.Class E airspace extends upward from 1. Either the surface or 2. A designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace.When designated as a surface area, the airspace is configured to contain all instrument procedures.Federal AirwaysAlso in this class are federal airways, airspace beginning at either 700 or 1,200 feet above ground level(AGL) used to transition to and from the terminal or en route environment, and en route domestic andoffshore airspace areas designated below 18,000 feet MSL. It is 8NM wide.Unless designated at a lower altitude, Class E airspace begins at 14,500 MSL up to but not including18,000 feet MSL, and the airspace above FL 600.
  12. 12. 11 | P a g eClass E-According to Aviation Law a) IFR, SFVR, VFROperations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or VFR. b) SeparationAircraft operating under IFR and SVFR are separated from each other. c) ClearanceIFR and VFR flights are subject to ATC clearance. Flights under VFR arenot subject to ATC clearance. d) Traffic InformationAs far as is practical, traffic information is given to all flights in respectof VFR flights. e) CommunicationTwo-way communication is not required to enter in Class E airspace. f) If operating control tower is thereIf operating control tower is there then you are encourage tocommunicate with ATC. You have to communicate with ATC if you areflying below 2500’AGL within 4NM of the tower. g) Upper and lower limitsUpper limit of Class E is Fl180 but not including FL-180. Sometimes itstarts from surface or from the designated altitude. Sometimes itstarts from 1200’AGL.
  13. 13. 12 | P a g e b) Un-Controlled AirspaceUncontrolled airspace is airspace where an Air Traffic Control (ATC) service is not deemed necessary or cannotbe provided for practical reasons. According to the airspace classes set by ICAO both class F (Special UseAirspace) and class G airspace are uncontrolled. It is the opposite of controlled airspace.iiClass G AirspaceUncontrolled airspace or Class G airspace is the portion of the airspace that has not been designated asClass A, B, C, D, or E. It is therefore designated uncontrolled airspace. Class G airspace extends from thesurface to the base of the overlying Class E airspace. Although ATC has no authority or responsibility tocontrol air traffic, pilots should remember there are visual flight rules (VFR) minimums which apply toClass G airspace. G G G
  14. 14. 13 | P a g eClass G-According to Aviation Law a) ATC’s RoleATC have no authority or responsibility of your aircraft in Class G b) IFR, VFROperations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. c) SeparationNeither IFR nor VFR flights are entitled to ATC separation. d) ClearanceBoth IFR and VFR flights may operate without a clearance. e) Traffic InformationBoth IFR and VFR can get flight information from ATC, equipment andworkload permitting, but essentially, youre on your own. f) CommunicationTwo-way communication is not required to enter in Class E airspace. g) If operating control tower is thereIf operating control tower is there then you are encourage tocommunicate with ATC. You have to communicate with ATC if you areflying below 2500’AGL within 4NM of the tower.
  15. 15. 14 | P a g eSummary of Controlled and Un-Controlled Airspace Special Use Airspace
  16. 16. 15 | P a g e c) Special Use Airspace-Class FSpecial use airspace or special area of operation (SAO) is the designation for airspace in which certainactivities must be confined, or where limitations may be imposed on aircraft operations that are notpart of those activities. Certain special use airspace areas can create limitations on the mixed use ofairspace.The special use airspace depicted on instrument charts includes The area name Effective altitude Time Weather conditions of operation The controlling agencyOn National Aeronautical Charting Group (NACG) en route charts, this information is available on oneof the end panels.Special use airspace usually consists of:1. Prohibited areas2. Restricted areas3. Warning areas4. Military operation areas (MOAs)5. Alert areas6. Controlled firing areas (CFAs)1. Prohibited AreasProhibited areas contain airspace of defined dimensions within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited.Such areas are established for security or other reasons associated with the national welfare.These areas are published in the Federal Register and are depicted on aeronautical charts. The area ischarted as a “P” followed by a number. Examples of prohibited areas include Camp David and theNational Mall in Washington, D.C., where the White House and the Congressional buildings are located. CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION, CHAPTER II FLIGHT OVER TERRITORY OF CONTRACTING STATES ARTICLE 9 PROHIBITED AREAS
  17. 17. 16 | P a g e2. Restricted AreasRestricted areas are areas where operations are hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft and containairspace within which the flight of aircraft, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restrictions.Activities within these areas must be confined because1. Of their nature, or2. Limitations may be imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of those activities,3. Or both.Restricted areas denote the existence of1. Unusual,2. Often invisible,Hazards to aircraft (e.g., artillery firing, aerial gunnery, or guided missiles).Authorization of IFR Flights:IFR flights may be authorized to transit the airspace and are routed accordingly. Penetration ofrestricted areas without authorization from the using or controlling agency may be extremelyhazardous to the aircraft and its occupants.ATC facilities apply the following procedures when aircraft are operating on an IFR clearance (includingthose cleared by ATC to maintain VFR on top) via a route which lies within joint-use restricted airspace: 1. If the restricted area is not active,If restricted area is not active, the ATC facility allows the aircraft to operate in the restricted airspacewithout issuing specific clearance for it to do so. 2. If the restricted area is active,If the restricted area is active, the ATC facility issues a clearance which ensures the aircraft avoids therestricted airspace.Restricted areas are charted with an “R” followed by a number (e.g., R-4401) and are depicted on theen route chart appropriate for use at the altitude or FL being flown.
  18. 18. 17 | P a g e3. Warning AreasWarning areas are similar in nature to restricted areas; however, the United Statesgovernment does not have sole jurisdiction over the airspace. A warning area is airspaceof defined dimensions, extending from 12 NM outward from the coast, containingactivity that may be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. The purpose of such areas is towarn nonparticipating pilots of the potential danger.A warning area may be located over domestic or international waters or both. Theairspace is designated with a “W” followed by a number (e.g., W-237). iii4. Military Operation Areas (MOAs)MOAs consist of airspace with defined vertical and lateral limits established for the purpose ofseparating certainmilitary training activities from IFR traffic.IFR Flights in MOAWhenever an MOA is being used, nonparticipating IFR traffic may be cleared through an MOA if IFRseparation can be provided by ATC. Otherwise, ATC reroutes or restricts nonparticipating IFR traffic.MOAs are depicted on sectionalMOAs are depicted on sectional, VFR terminal area, and en route low altitude charts and are notnumbered (e.g., “Camden Ridge MOA”).However, the MOA is also further defined on the back of thesectional charts with times of operation, altitudes affected, and the controlling agency.
  19. 19. 18 | P a g e ivAlert AreasAlert areas are depicted on aeronautical charts with an “A” followed by a number (e.g., A-211) toinform nonparticipating pilots of areas that may contain a high volume of pilot training or an unusualtype of aerial activity.Responsibility of PilotPilots should exercise caution in alert areas. All activity within an alert area shall be conducted inaccordance with regulations, without waiver, and pilots of participating aircraft, as well as pilotstransiting the area, shall be equally responsible for collision avoidance. v
  20. 20. 19 | P a g eControlled Firing Areas (CFAs)CFAs contain activities, which, if not conducted in a controlled environment, could be hazardous tononparticipating aircraft. The difference between CFAs and other special use airspace is that activitiesmust be suspended when a spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lookout position indicates an aircraftmight be approaching the area. There is no need to chart CFAs since they do not cause anonparticipating aircraft to change its flightpath.Military training route (MTR)MTRs are routes used by military aircraft to maintainproficiency in tactical flying.Dimensions of MTRsThese routes are usually established below 10,000 feetMSL for operations at speeds in excess of 250 knots.Some route segments may be defined at higheraltitudes for purposes of route continuity.Identification of MTRsRoutes are identified as IFR (IR), and VFR (VR), followed by a number.MTRs with no segment above 1,500 feet AGL are identified by four number characters (e.g., IR1206,VR1207). MTRs that include one or more segments above 1,500 feet AGL are identified by threenumber characters (e.g., IR206, VR207). IFR low altitude en route charts depict all IR routes and all VRroutes that accommodate operations above 1,500 feet AGL. IR routes are conducted in accordancewith IFR regardless of weather conditions. VFR sectional charts depict military training activities such asIR, VR, MOA, restricted area, warning area, and alert area information. d) Other Airspace Areas“Other airspace areas” is a general term referring to the majority of the remainingairspace. It includes: • Temporary flight restriction (TFR) • Parachute jump aircraft operations • Terminal radar service area (TRSA) • National security area (NSA) Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR)A flight data center (FDC) Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) is issued to designate a TFR.The NOTAM begins with the phrase “FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS” followed by the 1. Location of the temporary restriction, 2. Effective time period, 3. Area defined in statute miles, 4. Altitudes affected.
  21. 21. 20 | P a g eSome of the purposes for establishing a TFR are: 1. Protect persons and property in the air or on the surface from an existing or forthcoming hazard. 2. Provide a safe environment for the operation of disaster relief aircraft. 3. Protect the President, Vice President, or other public figures. Parachute Jump Aircraft OperationsParachute jump aircraft operations are published in the Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD).Sites that are used frequently are depicted on sectional charts. Published VFR RoutesPublished VFR routes are for transitioning around, under, or through some complexairspace. Terms such as VFR flyway, VFR corridor, Class B airspace VFR transitionroute, and terminal area VFR route have been applied to such routes. These routes aregenerally found on VFR terminal area planning charts. Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSAs)TRSAs are areas where participating pilots can receive additional radar services. Thepurpose of the service is to provide separation between all IFR operations andparticipating VFR aircraft.The primary airport(s) within the TRSA become(s) Class D airspace. The remaining portion of the TRSAoverlies other controlled airspace, which is normally Class E airspace beginning at 700 or 1,200 feet andestablished to transition to/from the en route/terminal environment. TRSAs are depicted on VFRsectional charts and terminal area charts with a solid black line and altitudes for each segment. TheClass D portion is charted with a blue segmented line. Participation in TRSA services is voluntary;however, pilots operating under VFR are encouraged to contact the radar approach control and takeadvantage of TRSA service. National Security Areas (NSAs)NSAs consist of airspace of defined vertical and lateral dimensions established at locations where thereis a requirement for increased security and safety of ground facilities. Flight in NSAs may be temporarilyprohibited and prohibitions are disseminated via NOTAM. Pilots are requested to voluntarily avoidflying through these depicted areas.SummaryThis assignment introduces the various classifications of airspace and providesinformation on the requirements to operate in such airspace.
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