Social science lecture 1(part-2) ppt summer 2011

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  • {"34":"1-2a. Comparing Major Theoretical Approaches \nThree theoretical approaches can be compared along several important dimensions.\nSource: Richard T. Schaefer. 2001. Sociology, 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Table 1-3, p. 19.\n"}
  • Social science lecture 1(part-2) ppt summer 2011

    1. 1. Lecture-2
    2. 2. Sociology as Social Science In this chapter you will examine the nature and the focus of sociology. A brief overview of sociology's early years and current theoretical perspectives are also presented.
    3. 3. Why Sociology a Science? Like all scientists, sociologists follow five basic principles for establishing and explaining facts: Sociology relies on evidence. It demands proof. Sociology minimizes error and bias by following many techniques. Sociology is a public venture. Open discussion and examination of research gives sociology a self-correcting mechanism.  Sociology is concerned with generalizations. Sociology seeks to relate facts to one another and to underlying principles in order to produce theory;
    4. 4. What is Sociology? █ Sociology – Systematic study of social behavior in human groups
    5. 5. Definition of Sociology Sociology is the science that studies human society and social behavior. Sociology is concerned with the study of human society. (Giddens)
    6. 6. Why Study Sociology?  Awareness of the cultural differences  Assessing the effects of the policies  Self-enlightenment/understanding yourself  Making everyday decisions  Career preparation
    7. 7. Promise of Sociology  Sociology can make people aware of the different ways in which social arrangements shape their lives.  Sociology permits the user to examine the assumptions underlying conventional wisdom  Sociology permits the identification of problems that the public has not yet recognized  Sociologists can design and evaluate alternative solutions to social problems  Sociology can help people better understand their own experiences, problems, and prospects.
    8. 8. The Sociological Imagination Awareness of relationship between an individual and the wider society.(C. Wright Mills) Public issues or history & private issue or biography Troubles are private problems in an individual’s life. Issues affect large numbers of people Issues shape the context within which troubles arise. Social issues arise when large numbers of people experience problems rooted in the social structure of society.
    9. 9. Sociology and Common Sense Common sense is the knowledge people gain about the world through their everyday experience. On occasion, sociological findings and common sense do overlap, but often, sociology challenges popular wisdom. Common sense holds that ‘seeing is believing’. Sociologists found that the reverse is also true: what we believe often determines what we see; our perceptions are filtered through the lens of our previous experiences, attitudes, and beliefs. Problems with common sense Limited experience Biasness Lack of evidence
    10. 10. Subjectivity and objectivity Subjective: An attitude toward a situation in which cultural/personal variations are permitted to affect observation & judgment. Objective: An attitude toward a situation in which cultural/group evaluations and personal bias/interest are absent/controlled/reduced to minimum.
    11. 11. Origins of Sociology French Revolution Industrial Revolution 17th and 18th centuries .
    12. 12. Among the classical founders of sociology, five figures are particularly important; Auguste Comte Herbert Spencer Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber
    13. 13. Development of Sociology:  Auguste Comte (French) 1798–1857 Coined term sociology in 1839 to apply to science of human behavior Father of Sociology. . He believed that all societies must progress through certain fixed historical stages of development. His approach to the study of social progress is called ‘positivism’.
    14. 14. Auguste Comte (Laws of three stages) Theological: Belief in God Metaphysical: from supernatural to natural Positivism: Belief in science.
    15. 15. The Development of Sociology Early Thinkers Harriet Martineau 1802–1876 Translated works of Comte  Emphasized impact economy, law, trade, health, and population could have on social problems  Believed that sociologists should act on their conviction in a way that will benefit society 
    16. 16. Herbert Spencer (English) 1820–1903 Father of ‘Social Darwinism’ Applied concept of evolution to explain how societies “evolve” over time Social Darwinist–i.e. promoter of the Darwinian concept of survival of the fittest to the social world ⇒ depicted society as a system, a whole made up of interrelated parts. Idea of "Social Darwinism," held that societies are like living organisms that evolve over time, eventually reaching a state of perfection Spencer, the father of social Darwinism, argued that societies evolve from lower to higher forms. The most capable survives while the least fit dies out. (survival of the fittest)
    17. 17. Karl Marx 1818–1883 (German) Father of Communism. "Das Capital, Communist Manifesto." Emphasized importance of economy and of conflict in society He saw factory as the center of conflict and between exploiters (Bourgeoisie/Capitalist class) and exploited ( Proletariat/Working class) Emphasized on group identification and association as an indicator of status. Marx’s theory of class struggle shows a theory of social change.
    18. 18. Surplus Value Theory Major Contribution: Class Struggle, Surplus Value and alienation theory Surplus Value theory: Actual Cost of Product = Cost of Raw Materials+ labor wages Price of the product = cost of raw materials+ Wages+ Profit Price of the product- actual cost of product = Surplus Value More exploitation, more surplus value, more investment.
    19. 19. Emile Durkheim (France) 1858–1917 Pioneered work on suicide Insisted behavior must be understood within larger social context Mentioned that industrialized societies may suffer from anomie – loss of direction  Major Contribution: Social Facts and Division of Labour  Social facts are the ways of acting , thinking or feeling that are external to human being, state of the economy, religion.  Social facts exercise a coercive power over individuals.  Division of Labor in Society (1893):  -Mechanical solidarity: Grounded on consensus and similarity of belief  - and organic solidarity: economic interdependence
    20. 20. Emile Durkhiem: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Mechanical Solidarity homogenous population Little or no specialization Shared Values and Beliefs  traditional values As a result of the dominance of a few shared values, society mobilise people, collective consciousness Little individual freedom The status of the individual is determined by kinship can Organic Solidarity Larger population spread out over a larger geographical area Complex division of labor, high job specialization Individuals are dependent on others to perform economic functions that they themselves can not perform Functional interdependence
    21. 21. Emile Durkheim Mechanical Solidarity: Example- Primitive society. Organic solidarity: Example: Urban and industrial society.
    22. 22. Max Weber (Germany) 1864–1920  Social Action is the force behind change  People are moving away from the traditional beliefs to the rational, instrumental calculations.  Max Weber, argue that, in order to truly understand a social phenomenon, the researcher should be value-free or neutral. Personal values should have no influence on research (value-free sociology) Ideal Type: construct for evaluating specific cases
    23. 23. Micro Vs Macro Sociology Macrosociology: concentrates on largescale phenomena or entire civilization Microsociology: stresses study of small groups, often through experimental means
    24. 24. What is a Theoretical Perspective? Perspectives might best be viewed as models. Each perspective makes assumptions about society.
    25. 25. The Functionalist Perspective (Social stability) The origins of the functionalist perspective can be traced to the work of Herbert Spencer and Emile Durkheim.  Functionalist perspective see society in terms of functions, roles and activities. To the functionalist society could be compared to living organism. Understanding society from a functionalist perspective is to visualize society as a system where all the parts act together even though each part may be doing different things.
    26. 26. Functionalist Perspective Robert Merton Manifest Functions: open, stated, conscious functions of institutions; these involve intended, recognized, consequences of an aspect of society Latent Functions: unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution
    27. 27. Major Theoretical Perspectives █ Functionalist Perspective Dysfunction: element or process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or reduce its stability
    28. 28. Functionalist Perspective In brief, The Functionalist Perspective views society as a system where the elements are interlinked in a stable fashion. identifies the structural characteristics and functions and dysfunctions of institutions. distinguishes between manifest functions and latent functions. assumes that most members of a society share a consensus regarding their core beliefs and values.  The main weakness of Functionalism is its tendency to downplay the importance of power and social change.
    29. 29. Conflict Perspective (Social change) • Conflict perspective assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups • Conflict not necessarily violent can take the form of labor negotiation, Party politics, competition between religious groups for new members or disputes over federal budget • Marx is a conflict theorist. • The Marxist View: Conflict not merely a class phenomenon, but part of everyday life in all societies Emphasis on social change and redistribution of resources makes conflict theorists more “radical” and “activist” than functionalists.
    30. 30. Conflict Perspective In brief, The Conflict Perspective draws much of its inspiration from the work of Karl Marx and argues that the structure of society and the nature of social relationships are the result of past and ongoing conflicts.  highlights that some groups always benefit more from the social arrangements.  eventually narrates that the structure of society reflects the efforts of those at the top maintaining their privileges at the expense of those who lack the power to oppose them.  The main weakness of conflict theory is its failure to explain social cohesion.
    31. 31. The Interactionist Perspective (Social interaction) The scope of investigation for these sociologists is very small. They are interested in the way individuals act toward, respond to, and influence one another in society.  Society occurs as a result of interaction between individuals and small groups of individuals.
    32. 32. Major Theoretical Perspectives █ Feminist Perspective Views inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization Sometimes allied with conflict theory, the feminist perspective also focuses on micro-level relationships of everyday life, just as interactionists do
    33. 33. Major Theoretical Perspectives Sociologists use all perspectives We gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives, noting where they overlap or where they diverge Each perspective offers unique insights into the same issue
    34. 34. Functionalist Conflict Interactionist View of Society Stable, well-integrated Characterized by tension and struggle between groups Active in influencing and affecting everyday social interaction Level of Analysis Emphasized Macrosociological analysis Macrosociological analysis of of large-scale patterns large-scale patterns Microsocial analysis as a way of understanding the larger phenomena View of the Individual People are socialized to perform societal functions People manipulate symbols and create their social worlds through interaction People are shaped by power, coercion and authority View of the Maintained through Maintained through force and Social Order cooperation and consensus coercion View of Predictable, reinforcing Social Change communication with others Maintained by shared understanding of everyday behavior Change takes place all the timeReflected in people’s position and and may have positive their consequences

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