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Schaefer6e ppt ch03 Schaefer6e ppt ch03 Presentation Transcript

  • 3-1 Richard T. Schaefer SOCIOLOGY: Eighth Edition McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3 chapter CULTURE CHAPTER OUTLINE •Culture and Society •Development of Culture around the World •Elements of Culture •Culture and the Dominant Ideology •Cultural Variation •Social Policy and Culture: Bilingualism McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Culture and Society 3-3 █ Culture: totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior – Culture includes all objects and ideas within a society, values, customs, and artifacts of groups of people • Does not refer to fine arts or intellectual taste McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Tattooing? McGraw-Hill 3-4 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Development of Culture Around the World 3-5 █ We have come a long way from our prehistoric age and we are remarkably different from other species of the animal kingdom. █ Human culture has been evolving for thousands of years. █ Tracing human culture is not easy. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Development of Culture Around the World 3-6 █ Cultural Universals – All societies have developed certain common practices and beliefs. – They are not uniform – Most human cultures change and expand through innovation and diffusion McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Development of Culture Around the World 3-7 █ Innovation – Process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture – Innovation may take the form of either discovery or invention • Discovery: making known or sharing existence of an aspect of reality • Invention: when existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not exist before McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Development of Culture Around the World 3-8 █ Globalization, Diffusion, and Technology – Globalization: worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trades and the exchange of ideas McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Development of Culture Around the World 3-9 █ Globalization, Diffusion, and Technology – Diffusion: process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Development of Culture Around the World 3-10 █ Globalization, Diffusion, and Technology – Technology: “cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires” (Nolan and Lenski 1999). • Accelerates the diffusion of scientific innovations • Transmits culture McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Development of Culture Around the World 3-11 █ Globalization, Diffusion, and Technology – Material culture: physical or technological aspects of our daily lives •Food •Houses •Factories •Raw materials McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Development of Culture Around the World 3-12 █ Globalization, Diffusion, and Technology – Nonmaterial Culture: ways of using material objects •Customs as well as: •Beliefs •Government •Patterns of communication •Philosophies McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Development of Culture Around the World 3-13 █ Globalization, Diffusion, and Technology – Culture Lag: period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture 3-14 █ Language – Abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture. Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and gestures and expressions of nonverbal communication McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture 3-15 █ Language – Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language precedes thought. Language is not a given. Language is culturally determined. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture 3-16 █ Language – Nonverbal Communication • Use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images to communicate • Not the same in all cultures • Learned just as we learn other forms of language McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3-17 McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture 3-18 █ Norms – Established standards of behavior maintained by a society To be significant, must be widely shared and understood McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture 3-19 █ Norms – Types of Norms • Formal norms – Generally written down; specify strict punishments for violations • Informal norms – Generally understood but not precisely recorded McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture 3-20 █ Norms – Types of Norms • Mores – Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society, often because they embody the most cherished principles of a people • Folkways – Norms governing everyday behavior McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture 3-21 █ Norms – Acceptance of Norms • Subject to change as political, economic, and social conditions of a culture are transformed █ Sanctions – Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm • May be either positive or negative McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture McGraw-Hill 3-22 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture 3-23 █ Values – Collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper—or bad, undesirable, and improper—in a culture Influence people’s behavior Criteria for evaluating actions of others McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Elements of Culture 3-24 █ Values may be specific or they may be more general. █ Values may change but only slowly. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Culture and the Dominant Ideology 3-25 █ Dominant Ideology – Describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests • Control wealth and property • Control the means of producing beliefs about reality through: – religion – education – the media McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Cultural Variation 3-26 █ Aspects of Cultural Variation – Subculture: Segment of society that shares distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger society • A subculture is a culture existing within a larger, dominant culture McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Cultural Variation 3-27 █ Aspects of Cultural Variation – Counterculture: subculture that conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture • Hippies • JMB McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Cultural Variation 3-28 █ Cultural Variation – Culture shock: Feeling disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Cultural Variation 3-29 █ Attitudes Toward Cultural Variation – Ethnocentrism: Tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to all others. – Cultural relativism: views people’s behaviors from the perspective of their own culture – Xenocentrism: Belief that products, styles, or ideas of one’s society are inferior to those that originate elsewhere McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.