1-1

Richard T. Schaefer

SOCIOLOGY
Eighth Edition

McGraw-Hill
McGraw-Hill

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All ri...
chapter
UNDERSTANDING
SOCIOLOGY

1

CHAPTER OUTLINE

•What is Sociology?
•What is Sociological Imagination?
•The Developme...
What is Sociology?

1-3

█ Sociology
– Systematic study of
social behavior in
human groups
– Focus on:
• How relationships...
The Sociological Imagination

1-4

█ The Sociological Imagination
– Awareness of relationship between an
individual and th...
The Sociological Imagination

1-5

█ The Sociological Imagination
– Consuming ice cream, snacks or candy
bars while walkin...
Sociology and the
Social Sciences

1-6

█ Sociology and the
Social Sciences

– In contrast to other
social sciences,
socio...
Sociology and the
Social Sciences

1-7

█ Sociology and the Social Sciences
– Science: body of knowledge obtained
by metho...
Sociology and the
Social Sciences

1-8

█ Sociology and the Social Sciences
– All social science disciplines have a
common...
1-9

█

Table 1.1: Gun Ownership in the United States

█ Race
• Whites -------40%
• Nonwhites---10%

█ Age
•
•
•
•

18-29-...
Sociology: The Science of the
Obvious

1-10

█ Sociology and Common Sense
– Knowledge that
relies on “common
sense” not al...
Sociology: The Science of the
Obvious

1-11

 Sociology has been accused of reaching obvious
conclusion is about the way ...
Sociology: The Science of the
Obvious

1-12

█ Sociology and Common Sense
– The earth is flat (Once a common sense)
– Disa...
Sociology: The Science of the
Obvious

1-13

█ woman walking alone at night is in greater danger of sexual
assault or rape...
Sociology: The Science of the
Obvious

1-14

█ The high divorce rate in our society indicates that marriage
as an institut...
Sociology: The Science of the
Obvious

1-15

█ Armed robbery is more dangerous to the victim
than unarmed robbery
█ This (...
Sociology: The Science of the
Obvious

1-16

█ Making contraceptives available to
teenagers through school clinics will
en...
The Development of
Sociology

1-17

█ Early Thinkers
– Auguste Comte 1798–1857
• Worked during an unsettling time in Franc...
Auguste Comte 1798–1857

1-18

 Major Contribution: Positive philosophy
and Laws of three stages.
 Positive Philosophy: ...
The Development of
Sociology

1-19

█ Early Thinkers
– Harriet Martineau 1802–1876
• Translated works of Comte
• Studied s...
The Development of
Sociology

1-20

█ Early Thinkers
– Herbert Spencer 1820–1903
• Hoped to understand the society better,...
The Development of
Sociology

1-21

█ Early Thinkers
– Émile Durkheim 1858–1917
• Insisted behavior must be understood
wit...
Émile Durkheim 1858–1917

1-22

 Major Contribution: Social Facts and Division of
Labor
 Social facts are the ways of ac...
The Development of
Sociology

1-23

█ Early Thinkers
– Max Weber 1864–1920

█ Major Contribution: Social Action and
Ration...
The Development of
Sociology

1-24

█ Modern Developments
– Karl Marx 1818–1883
• Had interest in abstract philosophical
i...
Karl Marx 1818–1883

1-25

 Major Contribution: Class Struggle,
Surplus Value and alienation theory
 Surplus Value theor...
Karl Marx 1818–1883

1-26

Workers in the Capitalist society are
alienated from their productive activity
From their pro...
The Development of
Sociology

1-27

█ Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought
Auguste Comte

1857

1798

Harriet Ma...
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-28

█ Functionalist Perspective
– Emphasizes that parts of a society are
structured to m...
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-29

█ Functionalist Perspective
Manifest Functions:
open, stated,
conscious functions of...
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-30

█ Functionalist Perspective
– Dysfunction: element or process of
society that may ac...
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-31

█ Conflict Perspective
– Assumes social behavior is best
understood in terms of conf...
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-32

█ Conflict Perspective
– The Marxist View: Conflict not merely a
class phenomenon, b...
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-33

█ Feminist Perspective
– Views inequity in gender as central to all
behavior and org...
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-34

█ Interactionist Perspective
– Generalizes about everyday forms of
social interactio...
1-35

Anger

McGraw-Hill

Fear

Disgust

Joy

Sadness

Surprise

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserve...
1-36

McGraw-Hill

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-37

Continued…
McGraw-Hill

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-38

Continued…

McGraw-Hill

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Major Theoretical
Perspectives

1-39

█ The Sociological Approach
– Sociologists use all four perspectives
– We gain broad...
Why Study Sociology?

1-40

 Awareness of the cultural differences
 Assessing the effects of the policies
 Self-enlight...
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  1. 1. 1-1 Richard T. Schaefer SOCIOLOGY Eighth Edition McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. chapter UNDERSTANDING SOCIOLOGY 1 CHAPTER OUTLINE •What is Sociology? •What is Sociological Imagination? •The Development of Sociology •Major Theoretical Perspectives •Developing a Sociological Imagination McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. What is Sociology? 1-3 █ Sociology – Systematic study of social behavior in human groups – Focus on: • How relationships influence people’s attitudes and behavior • How societies develop and change McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. The Sociological Imagination 1-4 █ The Sociological Imagination – Awareness of relationship between an individual and the wider society – Ability to view our own society as an outsider would, rather than from perspective of our limited experiences and cultural biases McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. The Sociological Imagination 1-5 █ The Sociological Imagination – Consuming ice cream, snacks or candy bars while walking. – Unemployment – Divorce – Donating Food to charities – Or consider an everyday interest McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Sociology and the Social Sciences 1-6 █ Sociology and the Social Sciences – In contrast to other social sciences, sociology emphasizes the influence that groups can have on people’s behavior and attitudes and ways in which people shape society McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Sociology and the Social Sciences 1-7 █ Sociology and the Social Sciences – Science: body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation – Natural Science: study of physical features of nature and the ways they interact and change – Social Science: study of social features of humans and the ways they interact and change McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Sociology and the Social Sciences 1-8 █ Sociology and the Social Sciences – All social science disciplines have a common focus on the social behavior of people, yet each has a particular orientation. – Sociology emphasizes the influence of the society on peoples attitude and behavior and the ways in which people shape society. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. 1-9 █ Table 1.1: Gun Ownership in the United States █ Race • Whites -------40% • Nonwhites---10% █ Age • • • • 18-29---------28% 30-49---------37% 50-64---------46% 65+------------36% █ Sex • Men ----------47% • Women------27% McGraw-Hill Source: Death Penalty Information Center 2003 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Sociology: The Science of the Obvious 1-10 █ Sociology and Common Sense – Knowledge that relies on “common sense” not always reliable – Sociologists must test and analyze each piece of information they use McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Sociology: The Science of the Obvious 1-11  Sociology has been accused of reaching obvious conclusion is about the way people behave. But sociological research has shown many seemingly correct ideas about human behavior to be wrong.  More women than men commit suicide.  More young people than old people commit suicide. In young age the stresses and uncertainties of life are greatest.  Blacks have higher suicide rate than that of white.  More people commit suicide during holidays.  People are more likely to commit suicide due to extensive media coverage. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Sociology: The Science of the Obvious 1-12 █ Sociology and Common Sense – The earth is flat (Once a common sense) – Disasters do not generally produce panic McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Sociology: The Science of the Obvious 1-13 █ woman walking alone at night is in greater danger of sexual assault or rape by a stranger than a woman in a familiar place with a man she knows █ 50% of sexual assaults and 25% of rapes involved strangers. Most rapists are known to the victim. The most likely rapists include a casual acquaintance, boss / supervisor, friend, workmate, family member or neighbour. The most common places for rape or assault are, in order of frequency: – The victim’s home. – A street or lane. – The assailant’s home. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Sociology: The Science of the Obvious 1-14 █ The high divorce rate in our society indicates that marriage as an institution is under threat in our society █ Martin Joseph ("Sociology For Everyone") notes that: 90% of people who divorce remarry, which suggests that marriage itself is not unpopular. Rather, people have different expectations of what marriage involves. In the past, divorce was not possible for the majority of the population. People in unhappy marriages simply separated from each other. Since they could not legally remarry, this distorted the figures for marriage in the past. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Sociology: The Science of the Obvious 1-15 █ Armed robbery is more dangerous to the victim than unarmed robbery █ This ("Sociology") notes that an unarmed robber is more likely to hurt the victim because the victim is more likely to resist during the course of the robbery McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Sociology: The Science of the Obvious 1-16 █ Making contraceptives available to teenagers through school clinics will encourage them to be more sexually active because they will not have to worry about unwanted pregnancy. Moore and Caldwell, in a review of the relevant studies, argue that, if anything, this practice reduced the level of teenage sexual activity and significantly reduced the level of teenage pregnancy. They argue that where teenagers are better informed about sex they are less inclined to either indulge in sexual activity out of curiosity / ignorance or are more willing to limit their sexual behavior. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. The Development of Sociology 1-17 █ Early Thinkers – Auguste Comte 1798–1857 • Worked during an unsettling time in France • Coined term sociology to apply to science of human behavior • Hoped that systematic study of social behavior would lead to enduring and rational social order • Presented ambitious challenge for the new discipline McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Auguste Comte 1798–1857 1-18  Major Contribution: Positive philosophy and Laws of three stages.  Positive Philosophy: Like natural sciences sociology should use the same scientific method to study society.  Laws of three stages: Theological: Belief in God  -Metaphysical: belief in supernatural  Positivism: Belief in science. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. The Development of Sociology 1-19 █ Early Thinkers – Harriet Martineau 1802–1876 • Translated works of Comte • Studied social behavior in Britain and United States • Emphasized impact economy, law, trade, health, and population could have on social problems • Believed that sociologists should act in a way that will benefit society McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. The Development of Sociology 1-20 █ Early Thinkers – Herbert Spencer 1820–1903 • Hoped to understand the society better, was not compelled to improve it • Applied concept of evolution to explain how societies “evolve” over time • Believed that sociologists need not be work actively as a change agent McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. The Development of Sociology 1-21 █ Early Thinkers – Émile Durkheim 1858–1917 • Insisted behavior must be understood within larger social context • Mentioned that industrialized societies may suffer from anomie – loss of direction McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Émile Durkheim 1858–1917 1-22  Major Contribution: Social Facts and Division of Labor  Social facts are the ways of acting , thinking or feeling that are external to human being. State of the economy, religion.  Social facts exercise a coercive power over individuals.  Division of Labor in Society (1893):  -Mechanical solidarity: Grounded on consensus and similarity of belief  - and organic solidarity: economic interdependence McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. The Development of Sociology 1-23 █ Early Thinkers – Max Weber 1864–1920 █ Major Contribution: Social Action and Rationalization  Social Action is the force behind change  People are moving away from the traditional beliefs to the rational, Ideal Type: construct for instrumental calculations. evaluating specific cases McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. The Development of Sociology 1-24 █ Modern Developments – Karl Marx 1818–1883 • Had interest in abstract philosophical issues and everyday reality • Emphasized importance of economy and of conflict in society • He saw factory as the center of conflict and between exploiters and exploited • Emphasized on group identification and association as an indicator of status McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Karl Marx 1818–1883 1-25  Major Contribution: Class Struggle, Surplus Value and alienation theory  Surplus Value theory:  Actual Cost of Product = Cost of Raw Materials+ labor wages  Price of the product = cost of raw materials+ Wages+ Profit  Price of the product- actual cost of product = Surplus Value  More exploitation, more surplus value, more investment. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Karl Marx 1818–1883 1-26 Workers in the Capitalist society are alienated from their productive activity From their product From their fellow workers From human potential McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. The Development of Sociology 1-27 █ Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought Auguste Comte 1857 1798 Harriet Martineau 1802 Herbert Spencer Karl Marx 1876 1820 1903 1818 1883 Émile Durkeim Jane Addams 1858 1860 George Herbert Mead 1864 1935 1863 Max Weber Charles Horton Cooley W.E.B. Du Bois 1931 1920 1864 1929 1868 Talcott Parsons 1963 1902 Robert Merton 1979 1910 C. Wright Mills 2003 1916 Erving Goffman McGraw-Hill The “timelines” shown here give an idea of relative chronology. 1917 1962 1922 1982 Source: Figure 1-2 (p.15) in Richard T. Schaefer and Robert P. Lamm, © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies,thInc.New rights reserved. Sociology: An Introduction. 5 ed. All York: McGraw-Hill.
  28. 28. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-28 █ Functionalist Perspective – Emphasizes that parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. – Talcott Parsons viewed society as vast network of connected parts, each of which helps to maintain the system as a whole. – Each part must contribute or it will not be passed on from one generation to the next. Continued... McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-29 █ Functionalist Perspective Manifest Functions: open, stated, conscious functions of institutions; these involve intended, recognized, consequences of an aspect of society Latent Functions: unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution Continued... McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-30 █ Functionalist Perspective – Dysfunction: element or process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or reduce its stability McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-31 █ Conflict Perspective – Assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups • Conflict not necessarily violent. • Can take the form of labor negotiation, party politics, competition between religious groups for new members or disputes over federal budget Continued... McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-32 █ Conflict Perspective – The Marxist View: Conflict not merely a class phenomenon, but part of everyday life in all societies – Emphasis on social change and redistribution of resources makes conflict theorists more “radical” and “activist” than functionalists Continued... McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-33 █ Feminist Perspective – Views inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization – Sometimes allied with conflict theory, the feminist perspective also focuses on micro-level relationships of everyday life, just as interactionists do McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-34 █ Interactionist Perspective – Generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction to explain society as a whole. – Sociological framework for viewing human beings as living in a world of meaningful objects. McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. 1-35 Anger McGraw-Hill Fear Disgust Joy Sadness Surprise © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. 1-36 McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-37 Continued… McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-38 Continued… McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  39. 39. Major Theoretical Perspectives 1-39 █ The Sociological Approach – Sociologists use all four perspectives – We gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives, noting where they overlap or where they diverge – Each perspective offers unique insights into the same issue McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  40. 40. Why Study Sociology? 1-40  Awareness of the cultural differences  Assessing the effects of the policies  Self-enlightenment/understanding yourself  Making everyday decisions  Career preparation McGraw-Hill © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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