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  1. 1. Automobile Tyres
  2. 2. ContentsTyre-functions & Properties.Tyre-Types Types of carcass(Tread)Comparison of radial & bias-ply tyresTyre materials & Considerations in tread designTyre designation & Factors affecting tyre lifeTyre trouble shooting & Tyre manufacturing
  3. 3. Tyre and its functionsTyre is a rubber member which gives the cushion to the automobile. It consists of outer cover i.e. tyre proper and tube inside.The tyre-tube assembly is mounted over the wheel rim and air inside the tube carries entire load and provides cushion.
  4. 4. Tyre cross-section
  5. 5. Functions of tyreTo support the vehicle load.To provide cushion against the shocks.To transmit driving and braking forces to the road.To provide cornering power for smooth steering.
  6. 6. Properties of tyresNon-skiddingUniform wearLoad-carryingCushioning Power consumptionTyre noiseBalancing
  7. 7. Types of tyresConventional tubed tyre.Tubeless tyre.
  8. 8. Tubed tyre
  9. 9. Tubeless tyre
  10. 10. Advantages of tubeless tyresLesser unsprung weight.Better cooling.Lesser rolling resistance.Comfortable ride.Slower leakage of air.Simpler assembly.Improved safety.
  11. 11. Types of carcass(Tread)Cross ply (or) bias ply type.Radial ply type.Belted bias ply type.
  12. 12. Cross ply (or) bias ply type.
  13. 13. Cross ply (or) bias ply type.
  14. 14. Radial ply type
  15. 15. Radial ply type.
  16. 16. Belted bias ply type
  17. 17. Comparison of radial and bias-ply tyresAdvantages of radial ply tyres:- The side walls can be bend readily ,its shock absorbing capacity is 25% more than bias ply or cross ply. The breaker strips of radial tyres act independently of the wall plies unlike in cross ply where there is no breaker strip. Lower rolling resistance and hysteresis loss leads to less fuel consumption.
  18. 18.  Longer tread life because of less heat build in tyre. Breaking efficiency on wet roads is better because of greater sidewall flexibility and tread stiffness. Smaller slip angles and higher cornering power which results in Better steering characteristics. While taking turns it has less tendency to distort and lift off the road from one side. Larger resistance to punctures ,cuts and impacts in the tread area.
  19. 19. Tyre materialsFor carcass:- At the time of second world war, staple cotton was the tyre carcass material and it was replaced with rayon. Then nylon was introduced which is stronger, more elastic and cooler running than rayon. Then terylene was introduced.
  20. 20. For cords of stabilizer belts:- Rayon ,Terylene ,glass fibre or steel.Rubber :- Rubber used in tyres is blend of natural and synthetic rubbers to which various chemicals are added to obtain desired properties like wear resistance ,reduced hysteresis, less internal friction.
  21. 21. Considerations in tread design Grip Noise wear
  22. 22. Tyre designation
  23. 23. Factors affecting tyre life Inflation Vehicle maintenance Manner of driving Miscellaneous factors
  24. 24. Tyre trouble shooting Side wear of tyres One side wear of tyres Centre wear of tyre tread Uneven tyre wear Uniform rapid wear Rapid wear with feathered edges on the tread Tread cracking Tread or ply separation Loss of tyre pressure Radial tyre lead Radial tyre waddle
  25. 25. Tyre manufacturing
  26. 26. Thank you