Lights are used in modern motor vehicles for a wide variety of purposes. Headlights are necessary to illuminate the highway sufficiently to permit safe night driving.
These are usually provided with two or more beams, one of which provides maximum illumination for night driving, and the other is so designed as to permit deflection to the ground to the side of the road to minimize glare when passing other cars on the road. When a third beam is used, it is usually of low intensity for city driving.
Tail lights are used to illuminate the rear of the car, including the license plate, so that both car and license plate can be seen by drivers of other vehicles. Tail lights usually incorporate stop lights which flash red when ever the brakes are applied.
In addition to the head lights, low intensity parking lights usually are provided in the front of the car, either as separate units or as part of the head lamps. The lighting system also includes lights inside the body to illuminate the compartments in which the passengers ride, special lamps to light the instrument panel and sometimes special lights to illuminate the key hole for the ignition key.
Map lights, trunk compartment lights, radio dial lights and clock lights are also provided on some cars. Flashing signals on the front and rear to indicate to other drivers the direction in which the car is about to be turned are standard equipment.
In addition one or more special lights designed as signals to the driver, are incorporated. Such special lights include a red signal light to indicate when the high beams of the head lamps are burning
TYPICAL LIGHTINGCIRCUIT DIAGRAM
It is a single circuit, employing one wire and ground. Current is supplied to the system from the battery or generator at 6-8V or 12-15V. Suitable switches and fuses or circuit breakers to protect the system from overload are also included in the system.
The circuit begins at the battery and passes through the ammeter or charge indicator and a fuse or circuit breaker before it reaches any switch. The stop light branch is controlled by the stop light switch in the brake system so that when the brakes are applied the switch is closed.
The dome light is controlled either by a hand operated pillar switch or by an automatic door switch that completes the circuit when a door is opened. All the other lights are controlled by the light switch on the instrument panel.
This switch generally has three positions. › Parking position › Head lamp position › Off position
Parking position: In the parking position it completes the circuit to the parking lights, tail lights, license plate light and instrument lights.Head lamp position: In the head lamp position the light switch sends current to the head lamps as well as to the tail lights, license-plate light, and instrument lights.
The headlamp circuit generally contains a foot operated dimmer switch which determines whether the current goes to the upper or lower beam filaments. In the upper beam position, it also sends current to a small red indicator lamp on the instrument panel.
Off position: In the off position, all the circuits except the dome and stop light are open. Additional lights and switches are connected to the same side of the ammeter. These may be protected by the same fuse or circuit breaker or have their own set of fuses. In some lighting systems each branch is protected by an individual fuses as well as by the main fuse or circuit breaker.
Automotive lamps are of the incandescent gas-filled type. A typical medium priced car has- › two 50-40 watt headlamps, › two 3-cp parking lights, › one 3-cp license-plate light, › two 21-3 cp stop lights and tail lights, › four or more 1.5-cp instrument lights, › one 1.5-cp map light, › one 6-cp dome light, › one 1-cp beam indicator, › one 1.5-cp trunk-compartment light, › one 1.5-cp radio-dial light, › one 1.5-cp clock light, › one 1-cp glove-compartment light, › and a pair of 21-32 watt back-up lights.
Of all these, the head lamps are the only ones requiring adjustment because of their importance to safe driving.Sealed-beam Headlamp System: It is a two-beam headlamp system. Both these beams produce- › a straight-ahead, › upper or “country” driving beam and a deflected, › lower or “traffic” beam in which the light from both beams is deflected to the right side of the road and slightly downward to minimize glare.
The maximum intensity of country beam, which is for use only when there is no traffic, is specified at 75,000cp, as compared with the traffic beam maximum of 50,000cp. The traffic or passing beam is directed low enough to avoid glare and directs sharp clear illumination to the side of the road, especially to the right side.
This traffic beam is directed downward and to the right by locating the traffic filament in a position slightly eccentric with the center of focus of the parabolic reflector. The lenses are designed especially to direct and distribute the light rays as desired. Construction of the sealed-beam headlamp, the lens, the reflector and light source are all assembled permanently in a sealed unit.
These lighting devices are affixed to the front side of an automobile, whose main function is to light the road ahead of you. These lights are really powerful and have reflectors as well. Its usage is not only restricted during nights but can also be used in the foggy conditions as well.
Headlights are the intrinsic parts of the vehicle, which are affixed to the header panel assembly at the front side of your automobile. These lights comprise of three basic components: reflectors, filament and special lenses that are melded closely in an airtight unit.
Headlights come in variety of shapes, designs, colours, materials and sizes but round is the common shape as it is easy to manufacture. They are mostly made of plastic, Headlights usually come in pairs and are operated electronically.
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The Volvo Headlights are usually attached to the front of the car, with the purpose of illuminating the road ahead during periods of low visibility, such as night or precipitation. The Volvo Headlights are electrically operated, positioned in pairs, one or two on each side of the front of a vehicle. A headlight system is required to produce a low and a high beam, which may be achieved either by an individual lamp for each function or by a single multifunction lamp.
It is, however, very important that you check your headlights. › First, pop open the hood. Behind the headlight assembly, the bulb holder must be examined. › It will have 3 wires coming from a trapezoid shaped plug. › Next the wiring harness must me removed. › The plug will be held into place by one of three methods, a plastic catch, a metal clip, or a screw cap. › A plastic catch will have a small lever sticking out from the plug. › By pressing it down with thumb it should come right off. › A metal clip can be simply pulled right off into the hand easily. › Finally, a screw cap can be unscrewed.
Tail lights are the lamps, usually covered by a red or translucent body, which are installed at the rear end of an automobile. Taillights are mounted at the backside of a vehicle and usually come in pairs.
The common types of tail lights are: › Signal Lights or Turn Lights: are usually yellow in colour and are used for indicating whether the vehicle is moving towards left or right. › Reverse lights are installed to warn others about the backing up of the vehicle. Reverse lights switches on automatically when the driver puts the vehicle in reverse gear. › Park lights are used for warning or signalling the drivers about the presence of another vehicle at the time of foggy, rainy or dark weather. These lights are also used as brake lights.
Sidelights are often regarded as directional lights, which are enclosed in a plastic shell or frame and are affixed to the front side of an automobile. The sidelights are especially designed to improve greater visibility and for safety
Interior Lights comprises of different types of powerful lighting devices used in the interior portion of a vehicle. Interior lights mostly consist of key light and instrument displays.
Key lights are very powerful mini flashlights that are installed inside the head of a bow or door lock. While instrument display comprises of small mechanical devices like dual tachometer, altimeter, air speed, vertical speed indicator, ammeter, engine instrument cluster used for measuring air, speed, pressure and flow of a fuel in a vehicle.
Auxiliary Lights are the devices, which are exclusively created to offer long range illumination forward of the vehicle that improves and increases the visibility of distant objects in the night. These lights are fitted just above the bumper of an automobile or on its grill. These lights are used along with headlamps to enhance the visibility of various distant objects coming in contact while driving during nights.
A vehicular lighting control system for controlling the illumination of a vehicles external directional/turn signalling and/or hazard lighting, by controlling continuous illumination of pairs of the brightest filaments of single or dual filament bulb designed vehicles. The system controls to operate the brightest filaments when the operator wishes to draw attention to the vehicle for safety, or for visibility purposes, without the same system negatively affecting normal operation of existing turn signal/hazard warning systems.
The system automatically and manually controls o the light output as desired, o incorporates the vehicles internal turn signal bulb-failure indication subsystem to continuously monitor the target bulbs for any failure event, o and employs a dynamic safety reconnect feature, o an attribute which reconnects factory wiring with factory bulbs instantaneously with any signalling or hazards activation. The device employs a zero-system current drain, actual dual bulb activation/current consumption notwithstanding, for minimum environmental impact/maximum fuel conservation.