Legal Secondary Sources Presentation


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Legal Secondary Sources Presentation

  1. 1. Secondary Sources Advanced Legal Research February 2, 2009
  2. 2. Secondary Sources: Introduction <ul><li>Using secondary sources is a great way to start your research because they … </li></ul><ul><li>Provide references to primary sources </li></ul><ul><li>Offer explanations and analysis of governing legal doctrines </li></ul>
  3. 3. Secondary Sources: Intro. (cont’d) <ul><li>More benefits to using secondary sources … they </li></ul><ul><li>Aid you in practice with practical breakdowns of the law and helpful forms (e.g. motions, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Help law students understand complex legal doctrine: Hornbooks, Nutshells, Examples & Explanations, etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Secondary Sources: Citation? <ul><li>As a general rule, you should not cite to secondary sources. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Secondary Sources – Citation? <ul><li>There are rare exceptions to this general rule: If the legal question is one of first impression or controversial, you may cite influential treatises, law review articles, the restatements, & hornbooks. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Secondary Sources <ul><li>This lecture will cover the following secondary sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Research Guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Law Reports (ALR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looseleafs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopedias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restatements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form Books </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Secondary Sources – Online Research Guides <ul><li>Online research Guides, pathfinders, bibliographies are good places to start research because they show you the various sources you can explore to execute your research </li></ul>
  8. 8. Secondary Sources – Online Research Guides (cont’d) <ul><li>Available from many library web sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rutgers – Newark Law Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgetown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Univ. of Minnesota </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online Searches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cornell Law Library : Legal Research Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google! : European Union Law </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Secondary Sources – ALR <ul><li>ALR contains articles called ‘annotations.’ These annotations are essays that collect summaries of cases from a variety of jurisdictions. </li></ul><ul><li>If you find an ALR annotation on your subject, your in luck because most of your research is already done. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Secondary Sources – ALR <ul><li>Availability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print:  KF132 .A533 (1 st floor, Foosaner Reading Gallery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online: Westlaw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access Points – Print: Digest, Quick Index (on reserve), Multi-Volume Index </li></ul><ul><li>Access Points – Electronic: Keyword searching </li></ul>
  11. 11. Secondary Sources – ALR Click on ALR link on the main Westlaw Page
  12. 12. Secondary Sources -- ALR Choose your terms …
  13. 13. Secondary Sources -- ALR Yay! A result that looks relevant Now, let’s look at all the helpful information that this annotation has …
  14. 14. Secondary Sources – Periodicals <ul><li>Law review articles are a useful research tool not only in research papers, but also in practice, too. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Secondary Sources – Periodicals <ul><li>Law review articles can be useful in obtaining an overview of an area of the law, finding references to primary & secondary authority, and developing ideas for analyzing a question of first impression or resolving a conflict in the law. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Secondary Sources – Periodicals <ul><li>Accessing law review articles: </li></ul><ul><li>Keyword searching in Lexis & Westlaw </li></ul><ul><li>Citators: Key Cite & Shepard’s </li></ul><ul><li>HeinOnline </li></ul><ul><li>Index to Legal Periodicals </li></ul><ul><li>Current Index of Legal Periodicals </li></ul><ul><li>Google Scholar </li></ul>
  17. 17. Secondary Sources – Periodicals <ul><li>Find print indexes in our library … </li></ul><ul><li>FYI: Don’t forget about the online catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Location: law library lobby </li></ul><ul><li>Call numbers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index of Legal Periodicals: KF 8 .I5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Index to Legal Periodicals: KF 8 .C8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using print indexes: pointers </li></ul>
  18. 18. Secondary Sources – Encyclopedias <ul><li>Legal encyclopedias provide a general overview of the law on a variety of topics. They are a good introductory source if you know little to nothing about an area of the law. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Secondary Sources – Encyclopedias <ul><li>Encyclopedias can be general or cover a specific jurisdiction: </li></ul><ul><li>General: AmJur, CJS, Words & Phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction specific: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NYJur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia of New Jersey Causes of Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only in print; Reserve  KFN 2335 .A59 B3 2004 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Secondary Sources -- Formbooks <ul><li>Formbooks exist to assist practitioners with completing basic transactions & court filings. </li></ul><ul><li>The best formbooks also contain analysis & citations to primary authority. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Secondary Sources -- Formbooks <ul><li>General: West’s Legal Forms, American Jurisprudence Legal Forms 2d, American Jurisprudence Pleading & Practice Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction/Topic Specific: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West’s Federal Forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey Transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Legal Forms with Tax Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Secondary Sources – Looseleafs <ul><li>Traditionally, a looseleaf service is published in a binder and limited to a specific topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Looseleafs contain a goldmine of information including cases, administrative decisions, analysis, and legal news. </li></ul><ul><li>They are favorites of practitioners because they are so specialized. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Secondary Sources -- Looseleafs <ul><li>Often looseleafs are difficult to use, but once you get used to them, they are great ways to monitor a specific area of the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Available in print & electronic form: Westlaw, Lexis, Stand-alone platforms (BNA & CCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Labor Relations Reporter, KF 3319 .L32; BNA platform & Lexis </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Secondary Sources – Directories <ul><li>Most people think that the internet has made legal directories obsolete. I was one of those people, until I realized that sometimes it is easier to find information in a directory. Honestly. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Secondary Sources -- Directories <ul><li>There are directories of courts, state governments, administrative agencies, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NJ Diary, NY Diary (on reserve at the circulation desk) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some offer professional biographies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martindale-Hubbell </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Secondary Sources -- Treatises <ul><li>Treatises provide in-depth treatment of a single subject such as contracts or constitutional law </li></ul><ul><li>Often written by influential legal scholars; therefore, they are well respected </li></ul>
  27. 27. Secondary Sources – Treatises <ul><li>Access points: keyword searching or an index </li></ul><ul><li>There are usually treatises in every major area of the law. Many are on Westlaw & Lexis </li></ul>
  28. 28. Secondary Sources – Treatises <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Williston on Contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nimmer on Copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collier on Bankruptcy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The list could go on & on and I’m sure you’re sad that it doesn’t  </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Secondary Sources -- Restatements <ul><li>Restatements of the law summarize, in a concise manner, the common law rules on a subject (what the majority of JRDs say) </li></ul><ul><li>Published by the American Law Institute (i.e., experts) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Secondary Sources -- Restatements <ul><li>They are available in print and on Westlaw & Lexis. </li></ul><ul><li>Restatements have been published in the following fields: </li></ul>Agency Conflict of Laws Contracts Foreign Relations Judgments Law Governing Lawyers Property Restitution Security Suretyship & Guaranty Torts Trusts Unfair Competition
  31. 31. Secondary Sources -- Restatements <ul><li>Access electronically: keyword searching </li></ul><ul><li>Access in print: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index or Table of Contents to find rule; commentary is located after the rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can find cases by going to the appendix volumes at the end of the set. The appendices are organized numerically by the Restatement numbers. </li></ul></ul>