eighteenth century concepts

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eighteenth century concepts

  1. 1. The French AcademicThe French Academic TraditionTradition
  2. 2. Context Post RenaissanceContext Post Renaissance Baroque Era - beginning 1600 A.D.Baroque Era - beginning 1600 A.D. Neo Classicism / 1750 – 1900Neo Classicism / 1750 – 1900 French Academic TraditionFrench Academic Tradition Decline of NeoclassicismDecline of Neoclassicism Nineteenth Century ConceptsNineteenth Century Concepts Gothic Revival - Structural RationalismGothic Revival - Structural Rationalism The industrial revolutionThe industrial revolution
  3. 3. BaroqueBaroque The Architects of the Baroque Era wereThe Architects of the Baroque Era were intent on extending the horizon of theirintent on extending the horizon of their sources of inspiration beyond thesources of inspiration beyond the Classical, and sought artistic freedom.Classical, and sought artistic freedom. new emphasis was placed on boldnew emphasis was placed on bold massing, colonnades, domes, light-and-massing, colonnades, domes, light-and- shade (shade (chiaroscurochiaroscuro), 'painterly' color), 'painterly' color effects, and the bold play of volume andeffects, and the bold play of volume and void.void.
  4. 4. Francois Mansart's Chateau de Maisons.Francois Mansart's Chateau de Maisons.
  5. 5. As an assault on orthodox RenaissanceAs an assault on orthodox Renaissance conventions, Baroque Architecture alsoconventions, Baroque Architecture also tended toward what was in many respectstended toward what was in many respects a stricter geometrical and scientifica stricter geometrical and scientific determinism - experimentation with formdeterminism - experimentation with form and a greater emphasis on a geometricand a greater emphasis on a geometric approach to design.approach to design.
  6. 6. Church of St.Mary, VeniceChurch of St.Mary, Venice  Salzburg CathedralSalzburg Cathedral
  7. 7. LouvreLouvre ExtensionExtension  Typical BaroqueTypical Baroque ExteriorExterior
  8. 8. Neoclassical architecture andNeoclassical architecture and the influence of antiquitythe influence of antiquity  In architecture, neoclassicism was the dominantIn architecture, neoclassicism was the dominant style in Europe during 1750s-1850s, marked bystyle in Europe during 1750s-1850s, marked by the imitation of Greco-Roman forms. Classicalthe imitation of Greco-Roman forms. Classical architectural models were adapted or referencedarchitectural models were adapted or referenced in a range of architectural forms, includingin a range of architectural forms, including churches, arches, temple, house, terraces,churches, arches, temple, house, terraces, garden monuments and interior designs. Later,garden monuments and interior designs. Later, Neoclassical architecture became anNeoclassical architecture became an international style, each country held someinternational style, each country held some distinct characteristic in their style.distinct characteristic in their style.
  9. 9. Petit TrianonPetit Trianon Circus at BathCircus at Bath Altes Museum, BerlinAltes Museum, Berlin
  10. 10.  Neoclassical, or "new" classical, architectureNeoclassical, or "new" classical, architecture describes buildings that are inspired by thedescribes buildings that are inspired by the classical architecture of ancient Greece andclassical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome.Rome.  The over-elaboration of architectural language inThe over-elaboration of architectural language in the Baroque era led to the search by architectsthe Baroque era led to the search by architects for a true style through a precise re-appraisal offor a true style through a precise re-appraisal of Classical Design Tenets. Their motivation wasClassical Design Tenets. Their motivation was not simply to copy the ancients but to obey thenot simply to copy the ancients but to obey the principles on which their work had been based.principles on which their work had been based.
  11. 11. Ancient Greek Architecture was studiedAncient Greek Architecture was studied and emulated in terms of the qualities likeand emulated in terms of the qualities like Harmony, Proportion, Rationality, Balance,Harmony, Proportion, Rationality, Balance, etc.etc. This was more than a revival, it was anThis was more than a revival, it was an argument for a return to rational structuralargument for a return to rational structural principles and their expression in buildingsprinciples and their expression in buildings
  12. 12.  many of the first generation of neoclassical architectsmany of the first generation of neoclassical architects received training in the classic French tradition through areceived training in the classic French tradition through a series of exhaustive and practical lectures that wasseries of exhaustive and practical lectures that was offered for decades by Jacques-François Blondeloffered for decades by Jacques-François Blondel Zwinger Palace in DresdenZwinger Palace in Dresden
  13. 13. Neo Classicism / PalladianismNeo Classicism / Palladianism  Last phase of the Renaissance, when Ancient GreekLast phase of the Renaissance, when Ancient Greek Architecture was studied and emulated in terms of the qualitiesArchitecture was studied and emulated in terms of the qualities like Harmony, Proportion, Rationality, Balance, etc.like Harmony, Proportion, Rationality, Balance, etc.  The architecture of Neo-Classicism emerged out of twoThe architecture of Neo-Classicism emerged out of two different but related developments which radically transformeddifferent but related developments which radically transformed the relationship between man and nature.the relationship between man and nature.  A sudden increase in man’s capacity to control nature due to technicalA sudden increase in man’s capacity to control nature due to technical advances of the Industrial Revolutionadvances of the Industrial Revolution  A fundamental shift in the nature of human consciousness, in responseA fundamental shift in the nature of human consciousness, in response to major changes taking place in society, resulting in a new culturalto major changes taking place in society, resulting in a new cultural formation that was equally appropriate to the life styles of the decliningformation that was equally appropriate to the life styles of the declining aristocracy and the rising bourgeoisie.aristocracy and the rising bourgeoisie.  Neo Classicism was more than a revival; it was an argument forNeo Classicism was more than a revival; it was an argument for a return to rational structural principles and their expression ina return to rational structural principles and their expression in buildingsbuildings
  14. 14. Fanueil HallFanueil Hall The Capitol, WashingtonD.CThe Capitol, WashingtonD.C.. American ExamplesAmerican Examples
  15. 15. Low Library, New YorkLow Library, New York Massachusetts State HouseMassachusetts State House Mount Vernon, VirginiaMount Vernon, Virginia
  16. 16. French Academic TraditionFrench Academic Tradition Chiefly articulated byChiefly articulated by  Jacques Francois BlondelJacques Francois Blondel  Claude PerraultClaude Perrault  The founding of the Royal Academy ofThe founding of the Royal Academy of Architecture in Paris in 1671 can be taken as theArchitecture in Paris in 1671 can be taken as the starting point of modern European theory andstarting point of modern European theory and practice. The purpose of the Academy was topractice. The purpose of the Academy was to codify the principles of Classical Design and tocodify the principles of Classical Design and to espouse them in practice.espouse them in practice.  Symbolically, the new academy represented, inSymbolically, the new academy represented, in line with the political and cultural ascendancy ofline with the political and cultural ascendancy of France, a declaration of independence from theFrance, a declaration of independence from the Renaissance tradition.Renaissance tradition.
  17. 17. Jacques-FrançoisJacques-François BlondelBlondel Claude PerraultClaude Perrault Jean Baptiste Rondelet Jean Nicolas Louis Durand
  18. 18. In response to the perceived architecturalIn response to the perceived architectural excesses of the baroque period, theexcesses of the baroque period, the academy’s foundation reflected theacademy’s foundation reflected the tendency to provide a nationallytendency to provide a nationally sanctioned forum for the consolidation andsanctioned forum for the consolidation and rational reinterpretation of traditionalrational reinterpretation of traditional conventions.conventions. The question of whether contemporaryThe question of whether contemporary culture could match or even exceedculture could match or even exceed classical accomplishments led to the re-classical accomplishments led to the re- evaluation of Vitruvius and Renaissanceevaluation of Vitruvius and Renaissance theory.theory.
  19. 19. French Academic TheoryFrench Academic Theory  The theoretical developments that attended theThe theoretical developments that attended the emergence of Neo-Classicism in France were chieflyemergence of Neo-Classicism in France were chiefly articulated by Perrault & Blondel.articulated by Perrault & Blondel.  Claude Perrault questioned the validity of the ClassicalClaude Perrault questioned the validity of the Classical Vitruvian proportions to his time.Vitruvian proportions to his time.  Instead, he elaborated his thesis of positive beauty andInstead, he elaborated his thesis of positive beauty and arbitrary beauty, giving to the former the normative rolearbitrary beauty, giving to the former the normative role of standardization and perfection and to the latter suchof standardization and perfection and to the latter such expressive function as may be required by a particularexpressive function as may be required by a particular circumstance or character.circumstance or character.  Jacques – Francois Blondel, after opening hisJacques – Francois Blondel, after opening his architectural school in Rue de la Harpe in 1743 becamearchitectural school in Rue de la Harpe in 1743 became the master of a ‘visionary’ generation of architectsthe master of a ‘visionary’ generation of architects  Blondel’s preoccupation was an appropriateBlondel’s preoccupation was an appropriate physiognomy to accord with the varying social characterphysiognomy to accord with the varying social character of different building types.of different building types.
  20. 20. Jean Baptiste RondeletJean Baptiste Rondelet  French theory took a new direction in theFrench theory took a new direction in the nineteenth century when Jean Baptiste Rondelet,nineteenth century when Jean Baptiste Rondelet, famed for saving the collapsing church of Ste.famed for saving the collapsing church of Ste. Genevieve in Paris (now the Pantheon) publishedGenevieve in Paris (now the Pantheon) published his volume ‘Traite theorique et pratique de l’art dehis volume ‘Traite theorique et pratique de l’art de batir’, a work that is remarkable simply because itbatir’, a work that is remarkable simply because it contains almost no theoretical discussion.contains almost no theoretical discussion.  Rondelet was one of the first modern architects toRondelet was one of the first modern architects to argue that the art of building should emulate theargue that the art of building should emulate the science of engineering, that was based on thescience of engineering, that was based on the principles of mathematics and physics.principles of mathematics and physics.
  21. 21. Jean Nicolas Louis DurandJean Nicolas Louis Durand  Jean Nicolas Louis Durand taught a course onJean Nicolas Louis Durand taught a course on architecture at the Ecole Polytechnique whicharchitecture at the Ecole Polytechnique which was without academic precedent. The classicalwas without academic precedent. The classical Orders, he argued, were not the essence ofOrders, he argued, were not the essence of architecture; rules for proportion should bearchitecture; rules for proportion should be derived from the nature of the material and itsderived from the nature of the material and its use. Convenience, rather than beauty, was theuse. Convenience, rather than beauty, was the reason for making architecture, thus thereason for making architecture, thus the architect had two problems to solve : how toarchitect had two problems to solve : how to design and build a private building with thedesign and build a private building with the greatest convenience within a given budget; andgreatest convenience within a given budget; and how to design and build a public edifice with thehow to design and build a public edifice with the greatest possible economy.greatest possible economy.
  22. 22.  Durand sought to establish a universal buildingDurand sought to establish a universal building method by the application of a normativemethod by the application of a normative building typology with which economic andbuilding typology with which economic and appropriate structures could be created throughappropriate structures could be created through the modular permutation of fixed plan types andthe modular permutation of fixed plan types and alternative elevations- an interchangeablealternative elevations- an interchangeable typology of compositional parts that could betypology of compositional parts that could be assembled or organized in variousassembled or organized in various combinations.combinations.  Durand’s compositional methodology proved toDurand’s compositional methodology proved to be enormously influential throughout Europe,be enormously influential throughout Europe, especially in Germany. Economic factors, suchespecially in Germany. Economic factors, such as the injunction that maximum floor area beas the injunction that maximum floor area be obtained with minimum perimeter construction,obtained with minimum perimeter construction, became the overriding criteria of design.became the overriding criteria of design.
  23. 23. Decline of NeoclassicismDecline of Neoclassicism During the second half of the 18th century theDuring the second half of the 18th century the the interaction of a number of a number ofthe interaction of a number of a number of unprecedented technical developments andunprecedented technical developments and socio-economic forces gave rise to a newsocio-economic forces gave rise to a new context. In the space of a century the finite citycontext. In the space of a century the finite city was totally transformed.was totally transformed. The rapid decline of Neoclassicism was due to aThe rapid decline of Neoclassicism was due to a progressive functionalism propelled byprogressive functionalism propelled by technological developments of fireprooftechnological developments of fireproof construction, gas lighting, central heat andconstruction, gas lighting, central heat and ventilation, and exposed cast-iron structure.ventilation, and exposed cast-iron structure.

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