Graphite in Turkey

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Graphite Presentation for 21st Industrial Minerals Congress

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Graphite in Turkey

  1. 1. Sait UYSAL, Spil Mining Ltd.GRAPHITE IN TURKEY AND ITS POSITION INEUROPEwww.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  2. 2. Graphite At a Glance The mineral graphite is one of the allotropes, and pure form of carbon. Allotropes of carbon are; - Graphite - Diamond - Coal Graphite is; - Excellent HEAT conductor - Excellent ELECTRICITY conductor - Heat resistant - Corrosion resistant www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  3. 3. GRAPHITE TYPES www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  4. 4. Applications by Graphite Type Type of Graphite Application Synthetic Graphite Friction Materials, Energy Materials, Powder Metallurgy, Electrical Components, Carbon Brushes and Parts, Thread Compounds, Drilling Mud Additives, Rubber and Polymer Composites, Packings & Seals. Natural Graphite Amorphous Grap. Lubricant Additives, Friction Materials, Pencils, Refractories, Paints, Rubber and Polymer Composites, Metal Covers, Thread Compounds, Drilling Mud Additives. Flake Graphite Friction Materials, Energy Materials, Powder Metallurgy, Electrical Components, Carbon Brushes and Parts, Insulation, Thread Compounds, Drilling Mud Additives, Packings & Seals. Vein Graphite Energy Materials, Lubricants, Grinding Wheels, Powder Metallurgy, Electrical Components, Friction Materials, Plastics, Carbon Brushes and Parts www.saituysal.com.trSource : Mackie Research Capital March 2012
  5. 5. www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  6. 6. New Graphite’s Applications Lithium-ion batteries Fuel cells Nuclear technology Plastics and composite frames (Boeing Co.s new Dreamliner) www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  7. 7. www.saituysal.com.trSaurce: Byron Capital Market March 2012
  8. 8. Graphite in Turkey Majority of the graphite occurrences in Turkey is mainly “amorphous” type. A graphite occurrence around Balikesir city (West part of Turkey) has bigger crystalline structure. Most promising, most graphitized and high Carbon contented graphite mineralization explored in Balikesir, Yozgat, Konya, Kastamonu and Adıyaman cities. Occurrences in other places like Kutahya, Mugla, Bandirma is mostly semi graphite. www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  9. 9. Reserves in Turkey Reserve Average Place/City Quantity C% (Tonnes) Yozgat > 100 000 45 Kastamonu Unknown 60 Aydin 150 000 10 İzmir - Tire – Karamersin 150 000 8 İzmir - Tire – Çeşme 200 000 6 İzmir - Tire – Başköy 150 000 10 Istanbul 150 000 30 Mersin 500 000 35 Adiyaman Unknown 45 Mugla 510 000 40-70 Kutahya-Oysu 130 000 20 Source : MTA reports (MTA = General Directorate of Minerals Research and Exploration) www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  10. 10. Graphite Mineralizations Map of Turkey www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  11. 11. Production in Turkey 1985-1999 Production Consumption Year (tonnes) (tonnes) 1985 - 4.100,00 1986 3.586,00 4.000,00 Production (tonnes) - 1987 8.900,00 3.400,00 30.000,00 1988 12.911,00 13.000,00 25.000,00 1989 11.000,00 12.000,00 1990 18.712,00 18.712,00 20.000,00 1991 26.763,00 26.763,00 15.000,00 Production 1994 5.000,00 25.000* (tonnes) - 10.000,00 1995 5.000,00 25.000* 1996 5.000,00 25.000* 5.000,00 1997 5.000,00 25.000* 0,00 1990 1998 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1991 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 5.000,00 25.000* 1999 5.000,00 25.000* Source: Turkey State Planning Institute, 8th Quinquennially Development Plan, 2001 * = Rounded roughly www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  12. 12. Production in Turkey 2003-2009 Year Production Production (tonnes) (tonnes) 2003 0,00 3.500,00 3.000,00 2004 28,00 2.500,00 2005 0,00 2.000,00 2006 0,00 1.500,00 Production (tonnes) 2007 1.000,00 0,00 500,00 2008 3.236,00 0,00 2009 2.400,00 Source: http://www.migem.gov.tr/links/istatistikler/2003_2009_URETIM_%20BILGILERI.mht Migem = Turkish Republic Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources - General Directorate of Mining Affairs www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  13. 13. Producers in Turkey - Bilginer Mining Ltd - Mine in Mugla city - Underground mine. - After 1992 they were the only graphite producers in Turkey. Annual Production was 5,000 mt. - Production stop after 2001 Karabacak Mining LTD (Now Oysu Graphite). - Mine in Kutahya City - Underground and Open Pit mine - Installed a flotation plant in 1992 - In 1992 graphite market was collapsed and they stop production. - Occasionally try to run the facility after 2007 www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  14. 14. Turkey Import of Graphite HS Code Year Trade Flow Reporter Partner (Natural Trade Value NetWeight (tonnes) Graphite 2000 Import Turkey World 2504 $2.467.855,00 6.087,66 2001 Import Turkey World 2504 $2.526.441,00 6.430,61 2002 Import Turkey World 2504 $2.635.532,00 7.010,38 2003 Import Turkey World 2504 $2.725.770,00 7.429,34 2004 Import Turkey World 2504 $3.903.755,00 10.212,25 2005 Import Turkey World 2504 $5.255.075,00 11.956,33 2006 Import Turkey World 2504 $4.498.559,00 9.687,78 2007 Import Turkey World 2504 $5.531.200,00 11.920,36 2008 Import Turkey World 2504 $9.109.963,00 13.230,36 2009 Import Turkey World 2504 $4.863.912,00 6.792,96 2010 Import Turkey World 2504 $8.360.945,00 11.191,00 Source : United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database (http://comtrade.un.org/db/dqBasicQueryResults.aspx?cc=2504&px=HS&r=792&y=2000.2001.2002.2003.2004.2005.2006 .2007.2008.2009.2010&p=0&rg=1&so=9999) Source: Turkish Statistical Institute www.saituysal.com.tr (http://www.tuik.gov.tr/disticaretapp/disticaret_ing.zul?param1=25&param2=0&sitcrev=0&isicrev=0&sayac=5902) March 2012
  15. 15. Turkey Export of Graphite HS Code Year Trade Flow Reporter Partner (Natural Trade Value NetWeight (tonnes) Graphite 2000 Export Turkey World 2504 $9.171,00 20,87 2001 Export Turkey World 2504 $3.547,00 44,71 2002 Export Turkey World 2504 $3.018,00 41,03 2003 Export Turkey World 2504 $5.514,00 40,92 2004 Export Turkey World 2504 $6.885,00 6,12 2005 Export Turkey World 2504 $45.633,00 73,82 2006 Export Turkey World 2504 $107.541,00 292,25 2007 Export Turkey World 2504 $180.928,00 471,68 2008 Export Turkey World 2504 $198.479,00 390,30 2009 Export Turkey World 2504 $188.218,00 256,94 2010 Export Turkey World 2504 $182.214,00 220,43 Source : United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database (http://comtrade.un.org/db/dqBasicQueryResults.aspx?cc=2504&px=HS&r=792&y=2000.2001.2002.2003.2004.2005.2006.200 7.2008.2009.2010&p=0&rg=1&so=9999) Source : Turkish Statistical Institute www.saituysal.com.tr (http://www.tuik.gov.tr/disticaretapp/disticaret_ing.zul?param1=25&param2=0&sitcrev=0&isicrev=0&sayac=5902) March 2012
  16. 16. EUROPE - EU is up to 95% dependent on imports, mainly from China - recycling is very limited - EU determined graphite as one of the critical raw material Main Production Main EU Import Import Dependence Countries Sources (2006) 2007: 2008: China 75% China 72% Graphite Brazil 8% 95% India 13% Madagascar 3% Brazil 7% Canada 3% Source : European Union Report of the Ad-hoc Working Group on defining critical raw materials www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  17. 17. Critical raw materials at EU level www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  18. 18. www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  19. 19. www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  20. 20. Europe Export of Natural Graphite NetWeight Period Trade Flow Reporter Partner Trade Value (tonnes) 2007 Export EU-27 World $11,355,239 5,104.84 2008 Export EU-27 World $11,088,802 4,414.25 2009 Export EU-27 World $8,112,888 4,732.48 2010 Export EU-27 World $9,515,029 4,440.32 www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  21. 21. Europe Import of Natural Graphite NetWeight Period Trade Flow Reporter Partner Trade Value (tonnes) 2007 Import EU-27 World $70,385,114 122,663.50 2008 Import EU-27 World $102,595,611 158,653.82 2009 Import EU-27 World $47,715,833 55,339.15 2010 Import EU-27 World $87,186,397 103,187.26 www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  22. 22. NetWeight Period Trade Flow Reporter Partner Code Trade Value (tonnes)2007 Import Germany World 2504 $25,577,000 54,629.432008 Import Germany World 2504 $40,142,000 62,186.712009 Import Germany World 2504 $26,364,000 33,303.132010 Import Germany World 2504 $47,369,064 56,332.80 www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  23. 23. Conclusions Turkey has undiscovered, undeveloped graphite potential Some of the graphite potential areas is promising New applications also create new graphite demand (extra 500,000 mt by 2020) Europe depend on Import for graphite, very limited graphite potential in Europe, and graphite along with REE and PGM was declared as critical raw material for EU. China is the main supplier of Europe (75%) and China has now implemented a 20% export duty on graphite, along with a 17% VAT and an export licensing system, and this creates supply risks. Europe has to develop new alternative suppliers Because of its position and closeness to Europe, low operating costs, and promising potentials of undeveloped graphite reserves, Turkey could be an alternative supplier for Europe www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012
  24. 24. Thank You! Sait UYSAL Manisa/TURKEYwww.saituysal.com.tr www.saituysal.com.tr March 2012

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