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X history

  1. 1. History X Standard Chapter wise Question Bank First war of Indian Independence, 1857Short Questions: 1. Under what pretext was Oudh annexed by the British? 2. Mention any one Provision of the ‘General Enlistment Act of 1856. 3. What was the main grievance of Nana Saheb against the British? 4. Name the First Viceroy and date of Appointment. 5. Name the Last Mughal Emperor of India before the British crown declared India to be its colony. 6. Mention two social evils of 19th Century and two humanitarian measures taken by British. 7. Who was the propounder of Doctrine of Lapse in India? Name any four states annexed by Lord Dalhousie by using this policy? 8. Who was the last Mughal Emperor of India? Mention two declarations made by the British which upset the Mughal royalty. 9. Mention one reason for the unhappiness of the Indian soldiers in the British army in India? 10. What did the British historians often call the events that took place in 1857? Why? 11. Name any two Indian rulers who remained loyal to the British. 12. Name the act which transferred the power from the company to the crown. When was it passed? 13. Where was the India council located? How many members did it have? 14. What do you understand by the policy of Divide and Rule? 15. What was the immediate cause of the revolt of 1857?Structured Questions: 16. Describe the results of the First War of Independence, with reference to the following: a. Policy to the Indian princes b. rise of nationalism in India c. changes in administrative setup of the British territories in India. 17. How was the army organized after the first war of independence? 18. Several factors led to the revolt of 1857. With reference to this, explain each of the following: a. Discontentment of the sepoys b. resentment of the native states against the British c. unhappiness of the Indian artisans and craftsmen.19. What is meant by Doctrine of Lapse?20. Numerous causes were at work in causing the great upsurge of 1857. Explain the following: a. introduction of Railways and telegraph. b. Introduction of Enfield rifles. c. Laws that interferedwith religious customs.21. The revolt of 18576 can be attributed to many causes. Briefly explain a. British Policy of territorial expansion b. British interference in India’s religious and social life. c. Military causes d. policy of Economic exploitation
  2. 2. 2. Growth of Nationalism1. Mention any tow social reforms suggested to the British by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.2. State two factors responsible for the growth of nationalism in India.3. When and by whom was the Indian national congress founded?4. Name two fore-runners of the Indian National Congress.5. Name any two European scholars who projected the richness of India’s cultural heritage.6. Name the British officer who promoted railway construction in India.7. Name two nationalist writers of the 19th century.8. Who wrote ‘Anadmath’?9. What was the influence of western education on the minds of the educated Indians in the 19th century?10. Name Bankim Chandra’s novel that has been called the ‘Bible of Modern Bangalee Patriotism,11. Who passed the vernacular Press Act? When and why was it passed? Who repealed the Vernacular Press Act?12. Name the organization which merged with the Indian Association in 1876.13. Name the organization that merged with Indian national congress in 1886.14. Why had lord Ripon become unpopular among the British officials in India?15. State any tow ways in which the introduction of western education fostered nationalism among the Indians.16. Give two examples to indicate that the British followed the policy of economic exploitation in India.17. Give one reason for the decline of cottage industries in India during British rule. In what way did the zamindars exploit the peasants in India?18. What role did the transport and communication, press played in fostering nationalism in india?19. Give tow reasons for the resentment of the Indians against the British during Lord Lytton’s viceroyalty?20. Mention any tow of the demands of the congress in its infancy?21. What was the objective of the Illbert bill? Why it was not passed?22. Give two evidences to suggest that the British pursued the policy of racial discrimination in India.23. What are the objectives of INC?24. Name two forerunners of INC. when and by whom was the INC founded?25. With reference to Nationalism, explain each of the following: a. Rediscovery of india’s past b. contribution of Bipin Chandra Pal c. How did British react when INC was founded? Why did their attitude change later?26. Explain the Arms Act of 1878.27. In the context of Nationalism state the role of a. Modern means of Communication and Transport. b. Rise of new social classes.28. What was the principle objective of the Vernacular Press Act?29. State any four repressive policies of Lord Curzon.30. Who was called the ‘Father of the Nationalist Movement in India’?
  3. 3. History Civics X Standard, Question Bank Moderates-3 Date: 9-12-111. Mention any two acts against which Surendranath Banerjee protested.2. Name the sections into which the congress was divided from its very inception.3. Who were called moderates? Why they were called so? What methods did the moderates use to achieve their goals?4. What did moderated oppose in the field of civil liberties?5. When and by whom was the east India association founded? What was the objective of it?6. Name the literary of Dadabhai Naoroji?7. Who was best known as the political guru of Gandhi?8. Who was awarded title of CIE?9. Who accepted Gokhale as his political mentor?10. Who was known as ‘India’s unofficial Ambassador in England?11. State any two demands of the Moderates with respect to constitution, administrative, civil, economic reforms.12. What was the attitude of British towards congress in the beginning and why it changed later?13. Why the year 1906 for INC was important?14. Who were called Grand Old Man of India, Father of Indian Nationalism?15. Economic ideas of Naoroji, Gokhale.16. Political ideas of Surendranath Bannerjee, Gokhale and Naoroji.17. Achievements of Moderates and criticism leveled against them.18. Mention the demands of moderates.19. What are the reasons for calling them moderates.20. What did Gokhale do for the welfare of the farming community in india?21. Why is the year 1906 most memorable?22. What was Noaroji’s role in strengthening Indian Nationalism?23. What are the efforts of Surendranath Bannerjee to arouse National awakening?24. State two of the policies of the imperial regime which were opposed by Gokhale.25. With reference to the Moderate national leaders Surendranath Bannerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokahle and Dada Bhai Naoroji a. Their political ideas b. economic ideas c. National Education d. literary works e. ways adopted to arouse national awakening and the causes for which they fought against the British26. Highlight the different methods of struggle adopted by congress and radidcals.
  4. 4. Radicals-41. Mention one important anti-india policy adopted by Lord Curzon which brought about aggressive nationalism in India?2. Who started magazine Young India? Why did he start this magazine?3. Mention one reason for the rise of militant nationalism in India.4. Who said ‚Swaraj is my Birthright and I shall have it.‛?5. When and by whom was Bengal Partitioned?6. Name the two journals through which Tilak spread the message of liberty and justice.7. Which classes of people supported the extremists?8. Name the Trio or Leaders of Aggressive Nationalism.9. State the main objective of the extremists. [purna swaraj]10. When and where did the congress split into two blocs?11. Who was known as the ‘father of unrest’?12. Why did Tilak revive Ganapati and Shivaji festivals?13. Why did Tilak leave the INC?14. Who is known as the ‘Father of ‘Aggressive Nationalism’?15. Who is Known as the ‘Father of Revolutionary Thought’ in India?16. Who came to be known as Sher-e-Punjab?17. Mention any two international events that shattered the myth of European Superiority.18. Mention any two factors responsible for the growth of militant nationalism in the beginning of the twentieth century.19. What was the primary objective of the British for partitioning Bengal?20. Mention any tow measures that illustrate Lord Curzon’s repressive policy.21. Mention any two differences between the moderates and Extremists.22. Mention any two achievements of the extremists.23. Name any two books published by Lala Lajpat Rai.24. Who organized ‘Akharas and Lathi Clubs’? why were they organized? {enable youth to fight for freedom]25. In what way was the Tilak the forerunner of Gandhi?26. Why did Bipin Chandra Pal oppose the Non-co-operation of Gandhi? [stern measures]27. With reference to the Radicals national leaders Lal, Bal and Pal mention the role in the field of a. Their political ideas b. economic ideas c. National Education d. literary works e. ways adopted to arouse national awakening and the causes for which they fought against the British28. programmes and achievements of the extremists.29. who started the magazine Young India and why?
  5. 5. History Civics X Standard, Question Bank 5. Partition of Bengal 1. What were Curzon’s two real motives behind the partition of Bengal? 2. When did the partition of Bengal come in to effect? 3. In which year was Bengal Partitioned? 4. What was Lord Curzon’s argument in favour of the partition of Bengal? 5. Who founded the Swadeshi steam navigation company in Tuticorn? 6. Who laid the foundation of Federation Hall? What was its significance? [meeting of E & W Bengal] 7. What virtues did the swdeshi movement instill among the Indians? 8. What was the contribution of the Swadeshi movement in the realm of literature? 9. Who composed our national song? 10. Name the editor of the Dawn. [Satish Chandra Mukherjee] 11. Who composed the Vande Mataram? 12. What is meant by the term ‘Swadeshi and Boycott’? 13. Who set up Bengal Chemical Factory? 14. In which year as the partition of Bengal revoked? 15. What were the Lord Curzon’s two motives behind the partition of Bengal? 16. Briefly state how people reacted to the partition of Bengal? 17. How did the government try to suppress the Swadeshi Movement? Name any two acts passed in this regard.[prevention of seditious meeting act [1907] and explosive substances act [1908] 18. Give two reasons why the swadeshi Movement was not a total success. [untouched by common men, split in congress] 19. Steps taken by government to suppress swadeshi and Boycott. [banned processions and meetings, curbed all those newspapers which supported the Indian cause] 20. What are the reactionary policies of Lord Curzon. 21. What are the aims and programmes of the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement. 22. Impact of the Swadeshi and Boycott movements. What impact did it had on Indian industries. 23. Who laid the foundation of federation hall?what was its significance ? 24. How did swadeshi movement affect education?which newspapers fostered new spirit of nationalism and patriotism in India? 25. What was the positive and negative impact of swadeshi and boycott movement? 26. In which year was the partition of Bengal was revoked? 27. What revolutionary activity is associated with the name of Khudiram Bose? 28. Name any two Bengali leaders who led the Anti-Partition movement. Name any tow papers published from Bengal which vehemently attacked government’s decision to dismember Bengal. 29. Name the editor of the Dawn. 30. Give two reasons why the Swadeshi Movement was not a total success. 6. Formation and objectives of the Muslim League1. State any two objectives of the Muslim League.2. What did the British do to foster the policy of Divide and Rule, which gave rise to the formation of the Muslim league? [Bengal was partitioned]3. Who established the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh?4. When and by whom was the Shimla deputation led?5. When was the all India Muslim league formed?6. Who presided over the first regular session of the Muslim league in 1908?7. Name the viceroy who was responsible in 1909 for granting separate electorates on the basis of communal representation.8. Sate the demands put forward by the Muslim deputation that met Lord Minto in 1906.
  6. 6. 9. Who founded ‚Majlis-i-Ahrar‛?Habib ur Rahman10. In what way the economic backwardness of the Muslim Community lead to the growth of communalism in India?11. Write Sir Syed Ahamed Khan’s objective in establishing the Mohammadean Anglo-Oriental College.12. Why were the Muslims treated with suspicion by the British after the revolt of 1857?13. What important declaration did Montague make on 20th August,1917 regarding self government in India?14. What is meant by separate or communal electorate?15. What was the attitude of the nationalist Muslims?16. Explain all causes responsible for the formation of Muslim league in detail?17. What negative impact did Muslim league have on national movement in India?18. How were the following events responsible for the formation of Muslim League? A. The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College b. The United Patriotic Association c. The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Defence Association19. Sketch the role of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.20. What are the factors responsible for the formation of Muslim League. Explain each in detail.21. Why did Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advise Muslims not to join the congress?22. Give two examples to show that the British encouraged communal and separatist attitude in Indian politics. 7. Lucknow Pact and the Home Rule League.1. Mention two reasons why the Lucknow pact is considered important in the history of the Indian national congress.2. Why was the signing of the Lucknow pact important event towards the growth of unity in India?3. Mention any one factor which brought the Muslim league and the Congress closer.4. What is meant by Home Rule? Name its founders.5. What was the reaction of the British government to the Home Rule League?6. What was the object of the Montague-Chelmsford reform? [to give some responsibility to Indian elected representative]7. Why did the INC and Indians decide to help the British during First World War? [self government, self governing dominion under the British throne]8. Mention the factors resulted in gradual change in the attitude of the Muslim League towards the INC. [Turkey was fighting against Britain in the First World War Balkan wars Britain was against the turkey]9. Why was the Lucknow session of congress in 1916 significant? Mention the defect of the Lucknow Pact? [Extremist and moderates reconciled, excess representation in the council for Muslims]10. Mention any two factors responsible for launching of the Home Rule League? [increased misery among poorer classes due to inflation, weakness of congress in carrying out mass agitation]11. What were the objectives of the Home Rule League in India?, self government and swaraj12. Achievements of home rule league are it infused new life in the national movement, and it intensified the demand for the grant of self-government.13. What is meant by dyarchy introduced by the government of India act 1919 [Montague Chelmsford] diarchy means government by two authorities the reserved subjects to be administered by the governor and his council, while the transferred subjects were under the control of ministers responsible to the provincial legislature.14. In what way was the Lucknow Pact an important step in achieving the Hindu-Muslim Unity?15. What were the terms of the Lucknow Pact.16. Why did Tilak and Besant work together in Home Rule Movement?What are the objectives of Home Rule League?17. What methods were employed by Tilak and Besant in Home Rule Movement?18. What is the impact of Home Rule Movement on Indian National Movement?19. Why didn’t Home Rule Movement scucceed ?20. Write briefly the terms of Montague Chelmford Reforms?21. What is August Declaration? What made British government to pass this declaration?22. Write the achievement of Home Rule Movement?
  7. 7. 8. The National Movement and Mahatma Gandhi1. State two methods of political struggle evolved by Mahatma Gandhi as part of the national movement.2. On what assurances did Gandhiji withdraw the Civil-dis-obedience movement? [Gandhi-Irwin pact] what was agreed upon both sides in the Gandhi Irwin pact?3. Name the congress leader who died after being assaulted by the British in his demonstration against the Simon commission. Mention one consequence of the protest against the Simon commission’s recommendation. [Lala Lajpat Rai, whole country became ready for another nationwide movement]4. What was Rowlatt act? Why it was not passed? What is the other name of Rowlatt Act? What were the main provisions of it? What was the reaction of the Indians to it?5. Mention any two events which led to the civil disobedience movement of 1930.6. Name two leaders of the Swaraj party. Why were they said to be pro-changers?7. When and by whom was the civil disobedience movement launched?8. Name the act passed by the British government in the year 1919 which gave them the authority to arrest and detain suspect Indians.9. Name the national leader who succumbed to the lathi-charge during the protest movement against the Simon commission.10. Name any two important methods adopted by Gandhi in the freedom struggle.11. What was Khilafat movement? Under whose leadership was the Khilafat movement launched?12. Why was Dandi March undertaken?13. Name the medal that was awarded to Gandhi for his services to the British Empire during 1 world war.14. When and by whom was the non-co-operation withdrawn? Why?15. Briefly explain the incident of Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy?16. What was the objective of Swaraj party and when it was formed?17. Why was civil disobedience movement organized? [ to disobey laws made by the British government]18. Write a note on Dandi March in detail, with its impact separately. Reaction of British government.19. When was the second round table conference held?20. Who was known as frontier Gandhi?21. Name three founders of the swaraj party. Its objectives and achievements. Name two congressmen who opposed swaraj.22. What was Simon commission and what were its recommendations, reaction of the masses.23. Mention two provisions of the Nehru Report 1928.24. When and where was resolution for complete independence passed?25. Why did congress boycott the first round table conference?26. Which provision of the communal award made Gandhi to go fast in to death?27. When was the third round table conference held?28. What did the viceroy state in his declaration of 1929? { on 31st October, 1929, the viceroy made a declaration that’ the natural issue of India’s constitutional progress is the attainment of Dominion
  8. 8. Status.} Why is the congress session held at Lahore in 1929, significant in the history of India’s freedom movement? 9. The Quit India Movement and Subhash Chandra Bose1. Which resolution was passed on 8th August, 1942 leading to a mass struggle on non-violent lines? State any two reasons behind the launching of this movement.2. Name the military organization formed by SC Bose.3. Name the party founded by Subhash Chandra Bose. What was its objective?4. Give two reasons for launching the quit India movement.5. What is the historical importance of 26th January 1930?6. What was the objective of INC?7. In which year and by who was the ‚August Offer‛ made?8. What made the league reject the offer made by Cripps?9. When and why did Subhash Chandra Bose resign from the Congress?10. Name the party formed by SC Bose and its immediate objective?11. Who was the first commander –in chief of INA?12. Why could not the INA capture Imphal?13. When did the individual civil disobedience campaign start? What was its objective?14. Name any three countries that recognized the provisional government of free India.15. Who gave the call of ‘Delhi Chalo, Jai Hind, give me your blood I shall get you freedom’?16. What was the Cripps’s proposal? [to grant dominion status to India after war, a constituent making body to be set up] What criticism was leveled against Cripps’s proposal? [Post dated cheque, there proposals were long due and were not relevant now] why did the congress did not accept it? [because17. What was the contribution of INA to the freedom movement?[by making the imperial regime realize that it could not rely on the loyalty of the Indian forces to continue their rule in India]18. Why did the congress ministries resign from the government in1939?19. What made the British to send Sir Stafford Cripps to India in order to propose constitutional reforms?20. State any two provisions of the government of India act 1935. Why were the Indian leaders and princes dissatisfied with the provisions of the act?21. Mention any two proposals contained in the August offer of 1940. Why was the August offer rejected by the congress and the league?22. What service did the congress do to improve the provinces? What was the people response to it?[ they tried to improve the primary and higher education and public services. Gandhiji’s programme to Harijan upliftment was given boost. It gave people self confidence as people saw the jail mates in seats of office. The masses felt that their immediate concerns were attended.
  9. 9. 10. Partition of India1. Name the last viceroy of India. State one of his proposals in regard to princely states.2. Mention two proposals of the Wavell plan.3. What were the two proposals for the princely states I the Mountbatten plan of 1947?4. Mention any two provisions of the Indian independence Act, 1947.5. What is stated about the princely states in the Indian independence act, 1947?6. What was the purpose of sending the cabinet mission to India in 1946? What were the recommendations of the cabinet mission plan regarding the princely states? Mention two reasons why the cabinet mission rejected the Muslim league’s demand for India’s partition. How did the scheduled castes react to the cabinet mission proposals? Why did the Muslim league not accept the cabinet mission proposal? Who did the Sikhs react to the cabinet mission’s proposal?7. Name the persons who constituted the cabinet mission.8. When was the interim government formed? Who was the vice president of it? [Pt. J. Nehru]9. When and what was the historic announcement of Attlee?10. Who replaced lord Linlithgow as the viceroy of India?11. When was Mountbatten plan announced?12. Why did Jinnah become popular in the ruling class during World War II? [absence of Gandhi ]13. Why did league announced direct action day and when?14. When was Indian independence bill passed by the British parliament? When did India become independent? Who became the first Indian governor general of free India? Who was the prime minister of England at the time of the partition of India?15. What led to the failure of Shimla conference in 1945? [the Muslim league demanded independence in appointing members from the Muslim community to new executive council opposed by congress]16. Mention two reasons why the congress finally accepted the partition of India?17. State any two reasons why congress accepted Mountbatten plan?
  10. 10. First World War1. Mention any two aims of League of Nations?2. Name the countries that formed the allied powers and triple alliance and central powers.3. Name the signatory countries of the Triple Entente [1907]4. What made Russia conclude an alliance with France during 1894?5. What was the immediate cause of the First World War?6. Which country came to be known as the sick man of Europe?7. Why did Japan declare war on Germany? [to capture colonies in the far east]8. When did USA declare war on Germany?9. When and where was the Treaty of Versailles signed?10.Why and when and where was the League of Nations established?11.What made Russia to come out and USA to join the First World War?12.Name the leaders who framed the Treaty of Versailles.13.Mention the terms of the treaty of Versailles. Rise of Fascism and Second World War1. Mention any two important consequences of the First World War.2. What was the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo axis? Why did Hitler demand the Danzig corridor from Poland?3. What was the issued between Germany and Poland that was a cause of second World War?4. State any two similarities between Nazism and Fascism.5. State any two reasons why Britain and France followed a policy of appeasement towards Germany in 1930’s.6. Why did America drop the atom bomb on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?7. State two underlying principles of Fascism.8. Name one military alliance formed during the Cold War period in History.9. Mention two leading countries on opposing sides of the cold war.10.When did Mussolini become the prime minister of Italy? What title did he take soon after?11.Name the semi autobiography of Hitler. What aim of his was written in this text?
  11. 11. 12.With which country did Germany sign the non-aggression pact in August 1939?13.Expand NATO and SEATO14.What was munich pact and name the signatories?15.Between which two nations was the anti comintern pact signed?16.Name nay three nations which became independent at eth end of the second world war. The United Nations-Origin and Purpose and its agencies.1. Where is the headquarters of the WHO located?2. Mention three functions of the international court of justice.3. Explain the composition of the international court of justice.4. Name the permanent member countries of Security Council.5. State the most important reason for the formation of UN.6. Where is the permanent headquarters of the international court of justice located?7. Veto power is enjoyed by the five permanent members of the UN. What is this power?8. Who appoints the Secretary General of the United Nations?9. Give one of the functions of the General Assembly of the UN.10.Mention any two of the aims of the UN.11.State any one reason why the UN promotes disarmament.12.What was the Atlantic Charter? Name its signatories.13.Which day is celebrated as UN Day every year?14.Name the executive organ or enforcement wing of the UN.15.When are the regular sessions of the General assembly held?16.What is the main responsibility of the UN Security Council? Mention any two of its functions.17.What is the term of the non permanent members of the Security Council? How are they elected?18.What is United Nations? Where is the headquarters and who can become the member of the UN and name its official languages and give two principles set by the UN for its members? When was un flag adopted19.How are judges of international court of justice elected? What is the term of office?20.Write the expanded form of the UNICEF and state three functions of this agency.21.Mention any three functions of WHO.
  12. 12. 22.Which agency of the UN looks after the interests of the children in the world? What was the original purpose of setting up this agency?23.State any three functions of the UNDP. Where is its head quarters situated?24.Sate one way in which the UNICEF raises funds.25.Where is the permanent headquarters of the IN Court of Justice located?26.State one important function of the IN Labour Organisation.27. Who is a specialized UN agency devoted to a specific cause. What is the cause?28.Mention the main reason for the establishment of the major agencies of the UN29. Who finances undp project?30. Full form of ILO. When was it founded?31.When is the world health day celebrated?32.When WHO established? Where is its head quarters situated? Three achievements of it.33. Which year is ‚ IN year of the Child‛?34.When was UNESCO established , its head quarters ?35.Write the composition of UNICEF, its objective and when and why was it established? Universal Declaration Of Human Rights1. Name two organizations which fight for Human Rights.2. What is meant by the term ‘Human Rights’?3. What is Aparthied or racial discrimination? Who fought against it in South Africa?4. What did the universal Declaration of Hunam Rights affirm?5. When is the ‘Human Rights Day’ celebrated each year?6. State Aritcle 1 and 27. When was the Human Rights Commission setup?8. What is the term of Human Rights Committee?9. When was the commission on the Status on Women set up?10.Name any two organizations which work for Human Rights?11.Name the world’s largest voluntary organization working for Human rights.12.When and by whom was Amnesty International founded? Mention one function of it.13.Name one NGO Human Rights Monitoring agency.
  13. 13. 14.When did General Assembly adopt the Declaration on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against women and state its objective.15.State the Rights of the Child affirmed by the Declaration.16.When did the UN General Assembly adopt the UDHR?17.What is meant by the right to equality before law?18.State any two achievements of UN Human Rights Commission. Cold War and its consequencesa. Explain the meaning of Cold War. Who used the term ‘cold war’ for the first time? when was the announcement for the end of cold war made? Who made it? What was the objective of the Truman Doctrine? mention the consequences of Truman Doctrine.b. Mention three factors leading to the Cold War.c. Write three consequences of the cold war.d. When was the Yalta conference held?e. When was the NATO, CENTO, SEATO formed? Name the members.f. When was THE AIM OF Marshall plan?g. What is meant by iron curtain?h. What was the purpose of Cominform?i. When was Germany divided in to two states?j. Two events paved the way for the end of the Cold war?k. Meaning of Glasnost and perestroika and name its architect.l. When was paris pact signed and its significance?m. When was the Warsaw pact dissolved and why?n. What was the significance of Fulton Speech‛? Who made it?o. When was Potsdam conference held? Who were its signatories?p. What was the policy of containment? Who passed it?q. What was the Marshall Plan and its purpose and Russian plan to combat it?r. Give two evidences to show that there was a ‘Thaw’ in the cold war.s. How did the commonwealth of independent states come in to existence?t. When did Soviet Union Breakdown? With what result?
  14. 14. The Non Aligned Movementa. Who coined the word ‘Non Aligned’? Who were the architects in the formation of it? Name the three original members of the NAM. First summit of the NAM held.b. Where was the first meeting of the G-15 held?c. What was panchasheel?d.

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