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HEALTH AND MEDICINE
A Presentation on
Factors Affecting Health
Have enough sleep
o Problems caused by lack of sleep.
World Health Organization
Alternative medical systems.
What is health?
Health is a state of complete mental, physical and social well being.
Healthy and disease free
Although most of the people use both these terms in the same
context, there is a clear difference in being healthy and disease free.
While healthy means being mentally, physically and socially fit,
disease-free is a state of absence of any body discomfort.
A healthy person can be disease free but a disease free person
cannot be a healthy person.
Factors Influencing Health
A number of other factors are known to influence the health status of
• Health care interventions
• A person's surroundings
• Their background and lifestyle
• Economic and social conditions
• Education and literacy
• Personal health practices and coping skills.
Achieving and maintaining health is an ongoing process, shaped by both the
evolution of health care knowledge and practices, as well as personal
strategies and organized interventions for staying healthy.
There are a number of little things one can do to maintain their health.
1. Control your habits.
All of the major causes of death (such as cancer, heart
disease, stroke, lung disease and injury) can be
prevented in part by making healthy lifestyle choices.
4. Eat healthy.
A healthy diet has many health benefits. Heart disease,
certain cancers, stroke, diabetes and damage to your
arteries can be linked to what one eats. By making
healthier food choices, one can also lower his/her
cholesterol and lose weight.
5. Laugh often.
6. Play sports/ Games.
7. Have enough sleep.
5. Laugh Often
• Laughter is all about playfulness.
• It is considered a visual expression of a number
of positive emotional states, such as joy,
mirth, happiness, relief, etc.
• Laughter causes the dilatation of the inner lining
of blood vessels, and increases blood flow.
• Laughter has also been shown to lead to
reductions in stress hormones.
6. Play Sports/Games.
• Play is an integral part of human nature.
• It is also one of the best sources of amusement and
• Any sporting activity involves physical
exertion and skill, with and individual or
a team engaged in competition with one
• It helps us to develop physically, mentally
and socially too.
7. Have enough Sleep
• Sleep is important to a healthy lifestyle as eating
properly and exercising.
• Getting a good night’s sleep is one of the simplest things
we can do to stay healthy.
• A good night’s sleep means waking up rested and
• Not getting enough sleep can lead to problems in
• Lack of sleep is the reason for many ailments.
• Sleep is crucial for maintaining one’s health
• Without it, we increase our susceptibility to an
astonishing array of health problems like-
Problems caused by lack of sleep
1. Not sleeping enough can compromise our immune system.
• We eat well and exercise in order to keep our immune system
• But if we are not sleeping, we undo all the good work.
• The immune system works best when we are sleeping.
2. It can cause malfunctioning of natural killer cells.
• These cells are produced in the bone marrow and are found in
the blood and lymph.
• They are part of the body’s defence system.
• They do not work properly in the persons who are sleep-
• This leaves our bodies undefended and susceptible to
3. Heart failures.
• There is a higher rate of heart failure
among people with sleep disorders and
• There is an increased evidence of C-
reactive protein, an indicator of heart
disease risk, in people suffering from
4. It causes problem of regulation of
• Chronic sleep loss can reduce the
body’s ability to regulate hormones and
• Sleep disturbances increase the
likelihood of pre-diabetic state of
glucose intolerance and insulin
• Sleep is also important for ensuring a balanced brain
• During sleep, brain neurotransmitters are replenished.
• When we do not sleep well, our brain chemicals become
depleted which leads to emotional disturbances like-
General feelings of sadness
Anger and Irritation
• A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism
• It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific
symptoms and signs.
• It is any condition that causes pain, distress, social problems, or death.
• It sometimes includes injuries, disorders, syndromes, infections or
• There are four main types of disease:
hereditary disease and
° Diseases can also be classified as communicable and non-
World Health Organization
• The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of
the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public
• It was established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva,
Switzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development
• The WHO's constitution states that its objective "is the attainment by
all people of the highest possible level of health."
• Since its creation, WHO has been responsible for playing a leading
role in the eradication of smallpox.
• Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular,
HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.
• Medicine is the field of applied science and
the art of healing
• It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved
to maintain and restore health by prevention and
treatment of illness in human beings.
• The word medicine is derived from the Latin word
medicina, meaning the art of healing.
• National Center for Complementary and Alternative
Medicine (NCCAM) has helped people understand
the many complementary and alternative treatments
by classifying them into five broad categories:
– Alternative Medical Systems
– Mind-Body Interventions
– Biologically-Based Therapies
– Manipulative and Body-Based Methods
– Energy Therapies
Alternative Medical Systems
• Alternative medical systems are built upon complete systems of theory and
• Often, these systems have evolved apart from and earlier than the
conventional medical approach used in the United States.
• Examples of alternative medical systems include:
– Native American healing practices
– Naturopathic medicine
– Tibetan medicine
– Traditional Chinese medicine
boon to life.
• Mind-body medicine uses a variety of techniques designed to enhance the
mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms.
• Some techniques that were considered alternative in the past have become
mainstream (for example, patient support groups and cognitive-
• Other mind-body techniques are still considered alternative, including:
– Art therapy
– Dance therapy
– Guided imagery
– Humor therapy
– Music therapy
– Prayer therapy
• Biologically based therapies in complementary and
alternative medicine use substances found in nature, such as
herbs, foods, and vitamins.
• Some examples include:
– Dietary supplements
– Herbal products
– Megavitamins Aloe breeze: Dietary
Manipulative and Body-Based Methods
• Manipulative and body-based methods in complementary
and alternative medicine are based on manipulation and/or
movement of one or more parts of the body.
• Some examples include:
– Alexander Technique
– Massage therapy
– Therapeutic Touch
• Energy therapies involve the use of energy fields. They are of
– Bio-field therapies
– Bio-electromagnetic-based therapies
1. Bio-field therapies
• These are intended to affect energy fields that purportedly
surround and penetrate the human body.
• The existence of such fields has not yet been scientifically proven.
• Examples include:
2. Bio-electromagnetic-based therapies
• These therapies involve the unconventional use of electromagnetic
• Examples include:
Alternating-current or direct-current fields