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Desktop Support engineer interview questions with answers

Desktop Support engineer interview questions with answers

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  • 1. Interview Questions for Desktop Support Technician/AnalystGeneral QuestionsQ. What desktop operating systems are you familiar with?A. Before you answer this question, you should have some background information on what operatingsystems are used within the organization you are interviewing with. Undoubtedly, you will be asked toelaborate on your skill set with each of these operating systems so it’s best to tailor your elaboration tothe operating systems that are relevant to the hiring manager. This being said, don’t leave out mentioningexperience in other operating systems. You never know whether the company may be evaluating themigration to a different OS.Q. Have you used imaging software before? How do you find these tools useful?A. Automation tools are an important part of your job as a desktop support technician. Elaborate on thetools that you’ve used. Hiring managers want to assess your in-depth knowledge and experience withusing these tools. This means talking about how you use their various feature sets. (If you have anopinion, you probably know the product pretty well.)Q. What are the pitfalls of using imaging software?A. This question is meant to assess how well you know these products. For example, discussing theimportance of testing the image demonstrates that you use these tools on a regular basis.Q. Have you used any software distribution tools? If so, which ones and how were they used?A. Like imaging software, software distribution tools are an important part of your job. Hiring managersare looking for knowledge that these tools exist and how they can be used to support your organization.Q. What do you like most about desktop support?A. Hiring managers are looking for what motivates you. Hopefully your answer will match thecharacteristics of the job: being busy, working with different people, and the challenges of learning newoperating systems and configurations.Q. What do you like least about desktop support?A. The hiring manager is testing whether you will fit in with the existing team. An appropriate answer herewould be not being able to resolve a problem in a timely manner for reasons outside your control, such ashardware failure. Stick to things outside of your control for the best response.Q. When solving a desktop problem, do you prefer to work with the end-user, your peers, or onyour own?A. This is another question to determine your fit within the organization. Hiring managers understand thatto be successful as a support technician you will have to work in a team environment. This means workingwith other employees, vendors, and end-users on a constant basis.Q. Can you describe a situation where you have had to deal with a difficult person? How did youhandle it? Would you do anything differently?A. Desktop support can be very demanding some days. End-users only see their own priority needs andoften are not interested in other demands on your time. This question explores how you deal with adifficult end-user by understanding their problem, assessing priorities, and communicating a timeframe
  • 2. for resolution. Often good communication can help both sides come to an agreement. Make sure youhave an example with a successful outcome.Q. How would you say you are able to handle stress?A. Hiring managers are looking to see what coping techniques you can draw on to deal with stress.Sometimes from the answer, they can also determine whether you are prone to stress. When responding,some techniques for handling stress that you may want to talk about include continually evaluating what’son your plate and prioritizing, communicating with your manager on what your priorities are, and makingsure that you take a break to reenergize, particularly at lunch time.Q. What do you see yourself doing two or three years from now?A. Hiring managers want you to stick around. They realize that you will not be in this position forever, andthey want to make sure there’s a desire to move up within the organization as well as the right fit. Theyask this question to see whether there’s a growth path for you possible within the organization. As adesktop technician, natural growth paths are team leads, quality assurance, engineering positions, andentry-level development. Be honest about where you want to be in two to three years, and ask theinterviewer whether they see your career path as a possibility.Q. How do you learn new technologies?A. Learning is an inherent part of the job. Hiring managers are looking for someone who enjoys learningtechnology on their own and who has the foresight to look for training opportunities. Besides thetraditional books and manuals, don’t forget to include user groups, eLearning subscriptions, and ITprofessional sites such as CramSession.Q. How do you prioritize tasks and manage your time?A. What hiring managers want to know is whether you have time-management skills. Everyone managestheir time differently, but think about how you handle e-mail, when you check voice mail, how yourespond to pages, when you research and document, and how you pick up new trouble tickets.Q. Imagine the following situation: you receive three simultaneous calls from threevicepresidents who need assistance immediately. How do you manage these conflictingpriorities?A. Obviously this is a trick question. What the hiring manager is trying to assess is how you setexpectations with each of the individuals, knowing very well that you won’t be able to assist all of them atthe same time. They are also looking for how you will prioritize each of these incidents, including seekingassistance from peers and supervisors in order to meet user expectations. Don’t allow the “tyranny of theurgent” to divert you from managementestablished support priorities.Q. How would you handle a user who continually misdiagnoses their PC issues?A. By asking this question, the hiring manager is assessing your customer service skills. In this situation,you may want to discuss that the key is to not offend the user and turn them off to your support services.In handling this situation, you would pay particular attention to ways you can build trust with the user andlead them to the right resolution to their problem.These components may include: Acknowledging the user’s diagnosis Asking the user to reproduce the problem Finding a solution that works
  • 3. Q. How do you handle setting up new employees?A. This question is used by the hiring manager to assess your knowledge of common practices within theIT department, such as setting up new users. Obviously, the IT department plays a critical role in theproductivity of the new employee. The role of the desktop technician is to help ease the new employeeinto the resources available to them and get them up to speed quickly. In responding to this question,you may want to talk about some of the tools you’ve used inthe past to help users acquaint themselves with their new environment. Some tools that help are: A new-user welcome letter that is customized to the specific user with all their relevant information including telephone extension, how to access voice mail, and how to log in. It might also include a FAQ on getting help. A “Getting to Know Your Helpdesk” document that provides an orientation to helpdesk service, such as how to contact the helpdesk, its hours of operation, what is and what is not supported by the helpdesk, and answers to common new-user questions.Technical QuestionsQ. What questions would you ask to help isolate a user’s problem?A. This question is used by the hiring manger to assess your problem-solving abilities. The followingrepresent some of the common questions that you would ask the end-user to help diagnose a situation: When did the problem first start? Has the system ever worked properly? What was the last thing done to the system prior to the failure? Is the issue intermittent or ongoing/constant? Are there any error messages? If so, what are the specific error messages? Has any new hardware been added to the system? Has any new software been added to the system, including downloads from the Internet? Has anything changed with the system (for example, has it been moved) since the issue presented itself? Has anyone else had access to the system? Are there any environmental factors that could be causing the issue? Have you done any troubleshooting on the system on your own? Have you checked all the cables/connections for a tight fit?Q. What are the main differences between the following operating systems?A. Unfortunately, most companies have not been able to standardize the operating systems used by users.It’s always critical that you know more than just the current version because there will always be a userwho has a problem with an older version. By asking this question, the hiring manager is actually testingyour knowledge of different operating systems that you may need to support. The following provides aconcise summary of some of the major differences.Windows 2000 and XPOverall, XP is a minor update with Windows 2000 designed to get Windows 2000 technology into thehands of consumers. The major changes include the following:
  • 4. Device driver rollback Remote control (single-user terminal services) New Start menu, control panel, and user interface elements Fast user switching Encrypted file system support for redirected folders Better support for roaming wireless networking Enhanced policies Credential Manager Personal firewallQ. What are typical virus sources and how do you prevent virus attacks?A. This is virus protection 101 just to ensure that you understand the basics of protecting against viruses.Possible virus sources include e-mail attachments, Internet downloads, and infected floppy disks. Toprevent virus infections: Use anti-virus software. Perform regular updates to the virus software definition files and scan engines. Verify updates have succeeded. Perform regularly scheduled virus checks. Configure software to check all files, not just program files. Educate users on virus attacks, their consequences, and how to prevent them. Know where all software came from. Do regular backups. Develop reporting mechanisms to inform server administrators of observed desktop infections and how these could impact the server environment (such as deletions or corruption of files on public shares, hidden payload files that might have been uploaded to servers, and so on).Q. What are some of the guidelines you would recommend for implementing security at the userlevel?A. Security is a major part of the desktop technician’s day-to-day responsibilities. As the closest point ofcontact to the end-users, technicians need to be savvy on the different methods for enforcing security.Some of the top techniques are included below.Anti-virus software: Ensure that all users install and regularly use anti-virus software on their PCs. Instruct users to immediately notify the helpdesk when they suspect they’ve contracted a virus.Password security: Instruct users not to give out their passwords. Instruct users not to write down their passwords. Instruct users to make sure their password cannot be easily guessed by using a combination of alphanumeric characters, including special characters (~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) + = [ ] { } / ? < > , ; : | ` ’ ” .). Instruct users to change their password if they think there is even a slight chance someone knows it.
  • 5. Instruct users to ensure their password is at least eight characters long. Instruct users not to use a variation of their user ID. Regularly change passwords on Administrator accounts on PCs (NT, Windows 2000 and XP)Desktop security: Instruct users not to leave their workstation logged in overnight. Instruct users to enable screen savers that automatically lock their PC when there is no activity on it for more than five minutes.Microsoft Active Directory Questions. What is Active Directory?Active Directory is Microsofts trademarked directory service, an integral part of the Windows 2000architecture. Like other directory services, such as Novell Directory Services (NDS), Active Directory is acentralized and standardized system that automates network management of user data, security, anddistributed resources, and enables interoperation with other directories. Active Directory is designedespecially for distributed networking environments. What is LDAP?Short for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, a set of protocols for accessing information directories.LDAP is based on the standards contained within the X.500 standard, but is significantly simpler. Andunlike X.500, LDAP supports TCP/IP, which is necessary for any type of Internet access. Because its asimpler version of X.500, LDAP is sometimes called X.500-lite. Can you connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services? Name a fewoptions?Yes. Microsoft Identity Integration Server (MIIS) is used to connect Active Directory to other 3rd-partyDirectory Services (including directories used by SAP, Domino, etc).Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) : This service is ideal if you are required tosupport directory-enabled applications. AD LDS is a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)compliant directory service.Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS) : This service augments an organization’ssecurity strategy by protecting information through persistent usage policies. The key to the service is thatthe right management policies are bound to the information no matter where it resides or to where it ismoved. AD RMS is used to lock down documents, spreadsheets, e-mail, and so on from being infiltratedor ending up in the wrong hands. AD RMS, for example, prevents e-mails from being accidentallyforwarded to the wrong people.The Application Server role : This role supports the deployment and operation of custom businessapplications that are built with Microsoft .NET Framework. The Application Server role lets you choose
  • 6. services for applications that require COM+, Message Queuing, Web services, and DistributedCoordinated Transactions.DHCP and DNS : These two roles install these two critical network service services required for everynetwork. They support Active Directory integration and support IPv6.Fax Server role : The fax server lets you set up a service to send and receive faxes over your network.The role creates a fax server and installs the Fax Service Manager and the Fax service on the server.File Server role : This role lets you set up all the bits, bells, and whistles that come with a Windows fileserver. This role also lets you install Share and Storage Management, the Distributed File System (DFS),the File Server Resource Manager application for managing file servers, Services for Network FileSystem (NFS), Windows File Services, which include stuff like the File Replication Service (FRS), and soon.Network Policy and Access Services : This provides the following network connectivity solutions:Network Access Protection (NAP), the client health policy creation, enforcement,and remediationtechnology; secure wireless and wired access (802.1X), wireless access points, remote access solutions,virtual private network (VPN) services, Radius, and more.Print Management role : The print services provide a single interface that you use to manage multipleprinters and print servers on your network.Terminal Services role : This service provides technologies that enable users to access Windows-basedprograms that are installed on a terminal server. Users can execute applications remotely (they still run onthe remote server) or they can access the full Windowsdesktop on the target server.Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) : UDDI Services provide capabilities forsharing information about Web services. UDDI is used on the intranet, between entities participating onan extranet, or on the Internet.Web Server role : This role provides IIS 7.0, the Web server, ASP.NET, and the WindowsCommunication Foundation (WCF).Windows Deployment Services : These services are used for deployment of new computers in mediumto large organizations.Hyper-V Role : A Hypervisor platform to host and manage virtual machines in an efficient way. Introduced in Windows 2008. Applying SQL Server SP3 Failed, How to fix it? 1. This is a common error we will get regularly in SQL clusters. 2. If you trying to install the SP3 on the active node, make sure that there is nobody logged on to the passive node. Why because when
  • 7. the active node tries to install the SP3 on passive node remotely, it will try to look for some processes. Soat that time if nobody on the passive node, it will install without any errors.3. If any locked files found while you installing the SP3, ignore them and continue with installation, youcan reboot both nodes one at a time later.4. Finally after rebooting the both nodes, check the versions of the application on them. Make sure theversion should be same on both nodes. Thats it we are done.Note : This applies to SQL Server 2005 Edition only.Thank you for your support, keep visiting my blog.How to RENAME a Windows 2003 Domain ?Guys,Domain renaming is a new future included in Windows server 2003. We can rename the domain withoutmaking it down. That is the beauty of Windows 2003. In some situations, one company acquires the otherlike Sun Microsystems was acquired by Oracle. In this type of cases, if they want to rename all thedomains in Sun Microsystems to Oracle corporation how they will do it. Its just an example, i am nottelling those guys are following this. But here what i am trying to explain is that, the Microsoft hasreleased a standard procedure to rename the domains that are in production environment.Please follow the steps from the below document carefully to rename your prod domain.How to reset TCP/IP in Windows or How to delete TCP/IPentries from Registry ?Resetting TCP/IP solves many problems. So how to reset it ?Actually all the parameters of the TCP/IP for every interface is stored in Windows Registry Database. Itsnot stored in a single location, but in many locations. So finding all the values and deleting them manuallyis not at all possible. It may disturb our system configuration if you edit the registry manually. My sincererequest is backup your system registry before you modify anything, otherwise you will get lot of issues. :)So to simplify this situation, we have a command in windows, which takes care of everything in resettingtcp/ip. Finally the beautiful command is ―netsh‖. It really helps us in many conditions. And it can beavailable as a download from microsoft.com for older machines.How to work with it ?1. Apply command netsh at the command prompt.
  • 8. 2. Type interface command at netsh> prompt3. Type ip command at netsh interface> prompt4. Type reset reset.txt command, to reset the tcp/ip.But here what is reset.txt, we are just sending the output details to that file, if anything goes wrong youcan get back to your previous config from this file.5. Go and look at your tcp/ip properties tab, you will set to ―Obtain Automatically Mode‖, surprised!!!6. This command is used in situations like follows…. sometimes DNS servers information will not erase from the registry sometimes virtual ip settings also not erase from the registry sometimes configuration changes doesn’t takes placeWhat is Clustering? How it works?What is Clustering?Clustering is a technology in which one or more computers work together as a single instance by sharingtheir resources. Clustering is used mainly for redundancy of the services hosted on it. In other words, in acluster all the hosts are work together, if one of the host fails all the services hosted on it comes onlineimmediately on to another host with out any downtime. Apart from the redundancy a cluster is used forload balancing also, in this case what ever the load comes to the cluster is shared by all the hosts in it.What are the types of Clusters and How do we configure them ?Clustering is two types, Active/Active and Active/Passive.Active/Active : In this scenario all the hosts configured in the cluster takes all the load comes to thatcluster, and if any one of the host fails the remaining hosts share the requests to make it online all thetime. If you have same copies of application configured on multiple hosts this type of clustering isapplicable.Active/Passive : In this scenario load balancing is not works, as at any point of time only one hostreceives all the requests, and if any of the host fails the remaining hosts takes those services and makethem available online. That means, only one host is active at any point of time and the other one ispassive.What are the requirements to configure a cluster and How it works?
  • 9. There are so many requirements to configure the cluster, but all those requirements are inter dependableon each other. And these requirements (we call them as resources in clustering), are shared between allthe hosts, that means these should be available to all the hosts in the cluster. for example, SAN storageresource, the storage which configured in network and is accessible by all hosts (Click here for SANInformation). In the same way all the resources are accessible by all the hosts in a cluster. If one of thehost fails, all these resources are moved to another host. In detail, at a particular time one host isaccessing these resources, at that time those are locked by that particular host, whenever this host fails,the lock was released and those resources are locked by another host. But in active/active clusters theseresources have multiple copies as multiple instances on all hosts.See the below video for better understanding.What is Cloud Computing? How it works ?Cloud computing…the word which is been in the industry from past few years. The technology becamevery popular now a days. so what is the secret behind it and what makes this technology successful? Maybe these are the questions which are currently in your mind. Let me explain this emerging technology insimple way.Generally what we all do is, we install whatever the required apps like MS Office, Photoshop, AcrobatReader etc on to our machine once after the OS installation is finished. But here in this case, these appsare running on a specific hardware and OS. They are having some limitations, along with those limitationsthey are having some performance issues because they are dependent on Hardware and OS.If we take the same scenario with cloud computing, a cloud is a collection or grid of computers withdifferent hardware and OS’s installed on them and acting as a single virtual computer. So what happenswhen we install/run a website or an application on to this cloud, it takes all the advantage of the totalhardware. And these applications (ex: Google docs) are OS independent also. So with all the resourcessponsored by all the machines the applications runs faster. If the demand for that application is increasedyou can simply add some more machines to this cloud without disturbing the application and currentcloud.Advantages:You can access the application from anywhere in the worldAs it is accessed from the web, you can run it on any of the OS & HardwareNo need to install applications on to your machineBest Live Example : Cloud Computing - ITaS - CloudshareFor better idea how the cloud apps works, go and take a look at the below web sites.Photoshop Like App = Splashup (www.splashup.com), Pixlr (www.pixlr.com)MS Office Like App = Google Docs (docs.google.com)Messenger App = Meebo (www.meebo.com)
  • 10. OS like interface = beta.cloudo.com (simple) , www.oos.cc (resembles windows), www.eyeos.info (with lotof apps)Read this article for better understandingCloud Computing : ITaS (Infrastructure as a Service)How to fix Remote Desktop Connection Problems in WindowsServer 2008?Remote desktop is a piece of software which comes with all the windows operating systems which isuseful the manage windows machines remotely.To configure this on a Windows Machine we need to follow below steps.1. Configure the machine with correct network settings and make it is pinging from other computers. 2. Check the firewall options to allow the Remote Desktop Connection. 3. Right Click on My Computer, Select Properties and go to Remote Tab. Enable Remote Desktop option. If you want to specify a specific users on the machine to connect remotely through Remote Desktop click on Select Remote Users and add the users to the list. 4. Try to access this machine using the mstsc client from another machine. If it connects perfectly everything OK. 5. Again do these steps another machine to get practiced. Thats it. NOTE : IN WINDOWS 2008 IF THE FIREWALL SERVICE IS STOPPED THE SERVER WILL NOT ACCEPT THE REMOTE DESKTOP CONNECTIONS. MAKE SURE IT IS RUNNING AND IF YOU WANT TO STOP THE FIREWALL, JUST CLICK IT OFF IN WINDOWSFIREWALL OPTIONS.Interview : A quick view of yourselfSee these videos first before reading the content… so informative and sofunny… Video1: An Ugly Answer, Video2: A Bad Answer, Video3 : A Good AnswerIn my experience Interview is nothing but ―Marketing Yourself‖, the word changes your confidence level.This has been told to me by my brother Krishna Prasad(May be he read it some where else). Opportunitycomes only one time, and that is the only door to your success in the career. When the opportunity is inyour hand, try until it goes of from you. So try hard to market yourself in every possible way.The Power of Support
  • 11. A best example for this is, i got job in AT&T when the entire world is in a very deep financial crisis. Thatmeans what ever happens, what may goes down the support industry will never stop. Why because ifsupport stops, everything will be paused. For example, if the customer care for your mobile will notrespond or if they dont provide customer support, their business will get lose lot of customers. In thesame way we will provide our support to various companies around world. Those companies need oursupport, because they need to provide support to various customers around world. If a company haswebsite about its products, what makes that company profitable? First thing, the website needs to be runcontinuously, obviously it is dependent on servers, hardware and network etc etc.. so may be so manypeople providing their support to make it available continuously in the back ground. That is the reason ican say, we are in the correct place, we have lot of opportunities. Only thing we need to get succeed inthis industry is having optimized skill set.Get PreparedWhen an opportunity is in your hands, get prepared to achieve it. That is your ultimate target, if you losethis opportunity, you even don’t know when the next one comes. So Handle with Care. All you need to dois, prepare well in your area of practice. Be confident, Be Frank, Say no idea to unknown answers, BePositive, Be Interactive, Be Proactive. :) lot of things right. All these qualities are in you. Try to developthem, try to bring out them when the time comes, try to expose them. Success is yours.“Plan the Implementation, Implement the Plan”Interview RequirementsWell prepared Resume – It should resemble your career, dont include/repeat unnecessary things.Well prepared Mindset – Ultimately this is required for those who has interview phobia like me.Positive Attitude – Life will never stop if this goes of from your hand, but try your level best to get it.Interaction – Need to interact with the interviewer to market yourself, Keep eye contact with him.Confidence – I noticed so many times, my confidence will get decreased whenever i am going for aninterview, this happens to so many. It makes you a loser. Avoid thinking about the interview andinterviewer to get rid of this problem. Meditation is the best practice i suggest.“ Your life today is the result of your attitudes and choices in the past. Your life tomorrow will be the result of your attitudes and the choices you make today.”This post is useful or not, i don’t know. But these are the things i understood from my experiences and iwant to share them with you.Understanding DNS : Domain Naming ServerHi Friends,First of all thanks for visiting my blog. I added ―Search‖ option for my blog, you can easily search for aparticular topic using Google Search. If you are facing any issues, or if you have any questions pleasemail me atcharan@isupportyou.net Thanks.
  • 12. Coming into the Topic…………….What is DNS?DNS stands for Domain Naming Server, it is a standard of naming domains in any operationalenvironment (Windows,Linux,Solaris,Any environment). It is a server which contains a database of all thedomains and all the servers which are associated with those domains.Why it is Used?Its a service dedicated to identify all the machines (domains & member servers) in a network. To makethis possible, every machine has to be registered in the authoritative DNS server of that network. Thatmeans every operational network should have a dedicated DNS server to enable identification andcommunication between the machines.How it works?As i said, it is dedicatedly used for identification, in technical words for “name resolution”. Everymachine in a network has a dedicated IP address & hostname as its identity. Whenever a machine triesto communicate with another machine on the network it should first identify the second machine, thatmeans it should know the ip address of that particular machine. After knowing the identity (i.e ip address),it will directly communicates with the second machine. So to speak, a machine should know the ipaddress of the another machine, with which its going to communicate before it starts. Another question…Why the hostnames are used, if the machine already have an identity in the terms of IP address?Hostname is an English word which is useful for Human remembrance. It is impossible for a human beingto remember lots of IP addresses, but it is possible to remember English names of the same hosts (aswe configure the hostnames generally with employee name or department name or location name etc).For example we can rememberwww.yahoo.com but not its ip address, because we are not having onlyone website on the internet. To sum up Hostnames and IP addresses both are used to identification andcommunication between two machines in a network. But machines are only able to communicate with theIP addresses and which are impossible to remember for Humans (Keep in mind machines nevercommunicate with hostnames). To solve this situation DNS was implemented. It basically contains adatabase of host records in a network. A host record contains ―Hostname : IP address‖, see the imagebelow for better under standing. Out Internet is purely depended on DNS, when we access a particularwebsite we will give its English name, when we press ENTER immediately the machines starts finding theIP address of the website using the DNS server configured on it. I will explain the name resolutionprocess in details. And one more thing about the DNS is, it is the only largest database on the internetwhich changes every second. If this database goes down by a chance, we must remember all the ipaddresses to access the internet. hahaha it will not happen, why because we have so many backupsolutions already implemented.
  • 13. How the name resolution takes place?I will explain this concept with internet as an example. Before that i want you to check some settings onyour machine. Check the TCP/IP properties and see whether DNS server is configured or not. If you areseeing obtain automatically option, open command prompt and type ―ipconfig /all‖ and press Enter. Youwill get DNS servers information along with your machine’s IP address. Now lets talk about the scenario,When you try to open a website like www.google.com, what happens next? how your machine gets IPaddress of the www.google.com. Here it goes….1. The request sent to the DNS server which is configured on your machine.2. The DNS server checks for the host record of www.google.com in its database, if it contains a recordforwww.google.com, it will directly send response with the IP address of www.google.com. Otherwise itstarts requesting another DNS server.3. Before it goes to another DNS server, how it identifies which DNS server is responsible for this request? It checks the entire hostname (it is called as FQDN : Fully Qualified Domain Name), i.e in google’scase www.google.com. (note the FQDN ends with a period, and this period is called as root domain). 4. Every DNS server contains a roothint file associated with it, and the same will be used to identify the responsible DNS server. Root hint file contains Master DNS servers information. Here you go it looks like this. These are the master DNS servers for .com, .net, .edu, .org domains etc. 5. So in your case, the domain is .com, DNS server sends request to .com master DNS server (for ex: assume it as 198.41.0.4), the .com master DNS server contains nameserver records for all machines ending with .com . That means it definitely contains DNS server IPaddress for google.com. In the same way it contains all .com servers yahoo.com, microsoft.com & so on.6. It does not contain the IP address of google.com, it contains DNS server IP of google.com.7. So then the request is forwarded to google.com DNS server, in that server you will have a host recordwith the name www and its IP address. Finally you reached it. With the found IP address the requestcomes back as a response in the same reverse way to the DNS server which is configured in yourmachine, that DNS server tells the IP address ofwww.google.com to your machine.
  • 14. 8. This process happens in milliseconds in the background. i.e by the time you will get ―Website foundwaiting for reply‖ message in the status bar of your internet explorer.9. Oh my god!!!! Is that simple? Yes it is. The same process occurs in corporate networks also. But therequests are handled by their local DNS servers only.DHCP : Dynamic Host Configuration ProtocolHi Friends,Let’s support our organizations using simple way of IP Management. DHCP stands for Dynamic HostConfiguration Protocol.Dynamic = AutomaticHost Configuration = Basic Network ConfigurationProtocol = Rules which needs to be followed to make this happen.DHCP is an application which is either installed on Windows Server Operating system or on UNIX OS toservice an enterprise in the aspect of IP configuration and management. Its main goal is to provide &configure the client computers with specific ip configuration to enable identification and communication inthe network. Prior to DHCP another protocol have been used, it is called BOOTP. BOOTP(Boot Protocol)has only one future that is Reservation. So the administrators who are worked with BOOTP, need to getall the MAC addresses and write them on a notepad to enable the use of BOOTP. After writing all theMAC addresses, the same need to be added to BOOTP table with corresponding IP addresses. Thatmakes lot of work for administrators, even though its an automated process, but admin’s need to work alot to get the MAC addresses of all the machines in the network. Later it has gained lot of improvementsto serve the network and became DHCP.How to Install and Configure DHCP?It very simple and straight forward process. First you need to install the application from Add/RemoveWindows Components. After installing you will have a console in the Administrative Tools. I think insteadof giving lot of steps.. i will post a simple video of 7mins, just watch it for better understanding of thisconcept.Video LinkNow you are ready with your DHCP server installed and configured. so lets talk about why and how it isused? As i said previously it is used for Automatic assignment of IP addresses to client computers whichare in the same network with DHCP server. This is the way it will be used. Whenever a computerpowered on, it will check itself for the network configuration, if it is configured with manual ip address, themachine broadcasts a message that it was powered on. If it is configured to get the ip automatically, thenthe machine broadcast a message in search of DHCP server. Then starts the process. It is simply calledas ―DORA‖ process.D = Discovery – Request for discovering DHCP server from client machine.O = Offer – Respective DHCP server Offers the IP Configuration.R = Received – Client receives the IP configuration.A = Acknowledgement - Client Acknowledges that it has received the IP configuration.Once the client gets the IP configuration, it will then broadcasts another message to all other clients in thenetwork with its identity.Interview Questions related to DHCP1. Explain the DORA process2. What is an exclusion range and reservation?An exclusion range is a range of IP addresses which needs to be excluded from DHCP scope, so thatthese IP’s never assigned automatically. A reservation is an IP address will be reserved for a server everytime it boots up and it has been done using the MAC address of that server. Before configuringreservations, we need to exclude them from DHCP scope.3. How do you configure the AD Server, DNS Server, IIS Server and FTP Server using the DHCPserver?Using the reservations only, so that every time the same address will be assigned to the server. If youtake a DNS server, it should have same IP all the time, because it is responsible for name resolutions in
  • 15. that network. If the IP address getting changed every time, its very difficult to the clients which arerequesting name resolutions. That is the reason, it should have same IP all the time, we can do thatautomatically using reservations.4. What is DHCP relay agent?DHCP relay agent, is an option configured on DHCP server. Which enables the client machine requeststo go through the routers. That means, if the DHCP server is in one network and the client is in anothernetwork, these networks are connected by routers. By default the routes will never allow the DHCPpackets through them, by configuring this option, these requests will pass between two networksActive Directory : Behind the DirectoryHi Friends,As you know Active Directory is the main database for Centralized Administration of EnterpriseEnvironment, i want to share something with you about this extra-ordinary directory service. Active Directory will be installed on a stand alone Windows Server 2000/2003/2008 operatingsystems when we run dcpromo command. It is an integrated module which resides hidden until we rundcpromo. Active Directory stores all most all information about an enterprise. Which includes user accounts,computer accounts, user groups, group policies, shared folders, network printers, etc. All this informationis stored in the Active Directory Database. The files associated with the Active Directory database arelocated under C:WindowsNTDS and the files are as follows…ntds.dit This is the main file for Active Directory. All the AD information will be stored in this file.edb.log When a change is triggered to AD database, first the information will be written to this file, and the same will be then written to ntds.dit. The AD performance depends on how fast the updates will be transferred from edb.log to ntds.ditres1.log & Initial size of these files will be 10MB each, used as reserved space forres2.log AD updates, in case of Low disk space issues the same files will be used to save the AD updates.edb.chk The checkpoint file (edb.chk) records transactions committed to the AD database (ntds.dit) during shutdown. A "shutdown" statement is written to the edb.chk file when we shutdown the AD server. Then, during a reboot, AD determines that all transactions in the edb.log file have been committed to the AD database. If, for some reason, the edb.chk file doesnt exist on reboot or the shutdown statement isnt present, AD will use the edb.log file to update the AD database.temp.edb This is a scratch pad used to store information about in-progress transactions and to hold pages pulled out of Ntds.dit during compaction. The file extension .DIT stands for Directory Information Tree. The file extension .CHK stands for Check Point file. If the DNS is Active Directory Integrated, its data also stored with AD Database.
  • 16. Using System State option in NTBACKUP we can take the back up of Active Directory. When we promote the secondary domain controller all this data from these files will be replicatedto its database. Active Directory uses Kerberos Authentication. LDAP(Light Weight Directory Access Protocol) is the Protocol used to query the NetworkDirectories like Active Directory. It uses port number TCP 389 to query AD. In Windows 2008 Active Directory comes as a Service, to decrease reboot frequency. AD Users and Computers, AD Sites and Services & AD Domains and Trusts are the threeconsoles which are used to maintain AD database in GUI.How to join a computer to the domain which is in differentnetwork(VLAN)?This is a real time environment requirement. Let’s see how can we achieve this. Make sure both VLAN’s are communicating Disable windows firewall on the AD machine and Add exceptions to the following ports. Open required ports for DNS, NetBIOS, RPC, LDAP and ICMP in both ways from source todestination. Set the AD gateway as the default gateway for client machine.Ensure that all the required firewall ports are open to enable communication between domain controllerand client which are in different networks.Active Directory : ReplicationHi Friends,Welcome Back !!!! :)In the previous post i discussed something about Active Directory and the files associated with it. In thispost i want to tell you about the magic behind Active Directory replication.What is meant by Replication?Replication is the process of making a replica (a copy) of something. A replication is a copy. Usingreplication process we can copy the active directory database from one site to another site. This processis initiated when we create additional domain controller for the existing domain. That means we are creating a backup/secondary copy of the original domain controller to make sure it is available in the case of failures. How the Replication happens in Windows Server? After replica of Active Directory implemented, from there on every change that is being made to Primary copy will be replicated to Secondary. When you are trying to implement a replica for the first time, in the process of implementation all the objects from Primary Domain Controller will be copied over to the Secondary Domain controller. At this point both DC’s are in
  • 17. sync state. But when a new object created or deleted in/from the Primary DC, the same will be copied toSecondary DC immediately. Remember in Windows 2003/2008 the Secondary DC are always read-onlycopies. In the situation of failure of the Primary DC, we can change the Secondary DC as read/write copy.When the Secondary DC acting as Read-Only copy, it will not allows us to create or delete objects. It onlyupdates it’s information from the Primary DC. This was implemented in this way to avoid conflicts in theobjects. Every object has an property called USN (Update Sequence Number), depending on thisattribute the Secondary DC identifies whether the updates are available or not. For example, for a userobject if the USN is 124 on Primary DC, and the same is 123 on Secondary DC, then the secondary DCrequests the Primary DC to send the updated information. In this way both DC’s are in sync all the time. Ifone of the DC goes down, we still have updated information in the Other.If you are creating the replica in same location as the Primary, there is no issue at all in the process ofreplication, but if you are creating the replica in branch office location there might be some problemsassociated with the design. You can manage the inter-site (between sites) or intra-site(same site)replication using the AD Sites and Services. A site is a collection of computers which are working togetherin the same IP Subnet. Replication is controlled by the Site Link objects created in between the sites. Wecan schedule the replication process and replication interval using the Site Link Properties. The Site Linksare ―automatically generated‖ using the ISTG(Intra Site Topology Generator). KCC (KnowledgeConsistency Checker) is the part of ISTG which generates Site Link objects in Inter-Site replication. If inany case if the automatically generated site links are not working for some reason, we can create themmanually usingrepadmin /kcc command.If you have multiple domain controllers (multiple copies)in each site, replication process consumes high amountof bandwidth. To avoid this, every site must have onlyone domain controller acting as the replication partner.It is called as Bridgehead server. This bridgeheadserver again sends the updates to the other DC’s whichare located in its site. In the image, the server in Russiaacting as Bridgehead for Server in Germany(Think it asRussia Second server).By Right clicking on a site link and by selecting ―replicate now‖ you can initiate replication between thedomain controllers in same site or different sites.
  • 18. Blue screen deathAsked By: tshepisobo | Asked On: Sep 20th, 2011 11 answersWhat is a blue screen of death ? How do you trouble shoot the computer in such situation ?Answered by: Maz on: Oct 5th, 2012In most cases blue screen is there for few seconds and system keeps rebooting. First of all you need toget to the error message. A very good feature of win xp is to press F8 on startup and select do...Answered by: Ravinra Kulkarni on: Feb 18th, 20121) First check blue screen error number, is it Application Or Hardware2) Generally this problem comes when problem in RAM so First check computer start with another RAMAnswer Question Select Best AnswerIe browser redirectAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 7 answersA user calls and every time he launches internet explorer he gets the page cant be displayed right beforethis his virus software had detected virus...What could be causing this problem you checked the settingsin ie and its has the correct homepageAnswered by: Abhishek Sharma on: Oct 1st, 2012The system is affected with M a l w a r e. The only only solution to remove is to boot with bootableantivirus rescue disk.Answered by: Mandar Mench on: Jul 26th, 2012Due to your network firewall or due to old internet explorer u r using on that pc this problem may beoccur so you can do one thing reset all setting to default delete all cookies and upgrade your browseryour problem may be solved .Answer Question Select Best AnswerWhat is the difference between outlook & outlook express?What is ip range innetworking side? How we will troubleshoot outlook?How we will configure ldapon outlook?Asked By: rajeevsoniji | Asked On: Aug 1st, 2007 17 answersAnswered by: Salik on: Sep 30th, 2012Guys have done a gr8 job, nothing else left to be answered..I just wanna say:Gilbert, Hitesh & Syed_nrpt has provided wrong set of answers.Everyone else (Upto my this post/msg) is right about IP range.Answered by: Yogesh Kumar on: Apr 30th, 2012Outlook is the edition of Microsoft Office (Outlook file Extension is .pst) & Outlook Express is the editionof Internet Explorer (Outlook Express file Extension is .dbx).Answer Question Select Best AnswerHow do you backup emails on ms outlook?Asked By: SiziRose | Asked On: Apr 26th, 2011 4 answersAnswered by: Umesh Raghav on: Sep 28th, 2012Go to control panel open the mail option then open the data file after that select the personnel folder andclick on open folder copy that .pst and close all the options which were open and then paste that .pstbackup where you want to place that backupAnswered by: shashi021 on: Jun 23rd, 2011
  • 19. install PST Sync (http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?displaylang=en&id=9003) and setup Backup path for the respective PST.Answer Question Select Best AnswerSpool serviceAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 9 answersHow can I tell if the print spool in running and where is it located? Where does it store spooled printjobs?Answered by: vikara on: Sep 26th, 2012DHCP: Port 546 (DHCP Client port for IPv6) should not be used by any other process while roguedetection is enabledAnswered by: rakesh reddy on: Sep 23rd, 2012type services.msc and search for print spooler service and make sure it is set to automatic, and now tryto print hope your issue should be fixed by now.Answer Question Select Best AnswerWhat is the difference between language and technology?Asked By: jeevan | Asked On: Aug 19th, 2011 2 answersAnswered by: Rajan Choudhary on: Aug 19th, 2012Technology is the way in which a current problem statement is Resolved. and Language by the way inwhich the technology has been Implemented. e.g Silverlight is technology which comes from Microsoft...Answered by: Nikhil on: Sep 4th, 2011Launguage is used to programing to develop applications.Technology is set of programmes to find a new way of solving current systems backlogs.Answer Question Select Best AnswerConnectivity troubleshootingAsked By: kalahari | Asked On: Sep 26th, 2010 9 answersA user in a corporate network contacts service desk saying he/she has lost network connectivity: how willyou troubleshoot the issue? What are the steps to followed?Answered by: praveen on: Aug 2nd, 2012!st check thee cable...and immediate click on network connectivity...go to run cmd den ipconfig /releasethen..ipconfig /renew den refresh2 to 3 times on desktop...definitely..it should works...Answered by: Vinit on: Jul 26th, 2012If youre getting an error message limited activity by right clicking on the connectivity icon on the taskbar, use ipconfig /release then ipconfig /renew commands refresh the desktop and check. If th...Answer Question Select Best AnswerRemote connectionAsked By: ras2008 | Asked On: Jun 7th, 2008 17 answersIf you have client in a different location and want to access that client from server, what is the best wayto access that client from server?Answered by: praveen on: Aug 2nd, 2012domain and remote option...must be there or vnc(virtuval net computing)its the solutionsAnswered by: khojem praymaswala on: Aug 2nd, 2012best way to go throgh VNC.and also remote desktop.
  • 20. Answer Question Select Best AnswerJava application installersAsked By: Renee | Asked On: Sep 12th, 2011 1 answerWhat are the most common tools to develop the installer of Java applications or applications in general?Answered by: Ketan Chiplunkar on: Jul 29th, 2012you can use the Eclipse software & Net beans software.Eclipse is best for All Java Applications except EJB.EJB you can do in Net beans.Answer Question Select Best AnswerEnable usb portsAsked By: blayne | Asked On: Sep 20th, 2011 8 answersI have disabled all usb ports on my stationary computer, my mouse and keyboard dont work... How do Ienable it back? Please help... i cannot press f2 to get into bios, nothing works... Keyboard or mouse...Answered by: Vinit on: Jul 26th, 2012since youve disabled USB ports pressing F2 will not work if youre using a USB keyboard. I recommendyou to boot your system from a different source and format your system HDD or you can use a non-USBkeyboard to enter BIOS setup and enable USB ports.Answered by: Shamim haider on: Apr 25th, 2012First system restart and press del or F2. after bios inter enable USB keyboard & mouse support,and useps2 keyboard and mouse.Answer Question Select Best AnswerWhat type of problems are associated with operating system like window xp?Asked By: alam | Asked On: Aug 13th, 2007 4 answersAnswered by: Mandar Mench on: Jul 26th, 2012If you installed winxp and windows 7 both operating system in dual boot you can define which system bydefault to be start through editing in boot.ini or from go to start - run -put following command ...Answered by: Khandokar Mahafuz Hassan on: Jun 28th, 2012If you are installedMultiple operating system, select which one you want it (that files Boot.ini)Answer Question Select Best AnswerWhat is difference between win XP and wn 7 technically?Asked By: Dastagir Amir Hamaja | Asked On: Jun 18th, 2011 17 answersAnswered by: Mandar Mench on: Jul 26th, 2012The major difference between win xp and windows 7 is graphics and than it is more secure than winxpand it has inbuilt utility like bitdiffender to encrypt the data on drive which is only accessible i...Answered by: Simasingh on: Jun 16th, 2012windows diffusion in windows 7 provide maxi mam security in operating system but windows xp this isnot future useAnswer Question Select Best AnswerBootloaderAsked By: chetan_01 | Asked On: Dec 7th, 2008 4 answersWhat is bootloader?Answered by: Mandar Mench on: Jul 26th, 2012
  • 21. Actually bootloader is a windows default utility through which when we start our system it check all thedetails related to system boot means on which partion is primery and active as well as where th...Answered by: ajey53 on: Jun 17th, 2012Boot Loader is the part of the OS that enables booting process and loading the particular OS while startup. The function of the Boot Loader is to perform and start up options while the users turn on...Answer Question Select Best AnswerNtldr error meaningAsked By: adpatel33 | Asked On: Apr 7th, 2012 5 answersWhen I boot my computer I have seen on my screen " verifying dmi pool data" and then after secondline is shown "ntldr is missing..." what is this problem and who can I solve it.Answered by: Mandar Mench on: Jul 26th, 2012when ntldr missing message shown than insert the os bootable cd . than go to recovery console bypressing first R and than copy that file from i386 folder from cd to os system 32 folder and than run ...Answered by: Vikas Kumar on: Jun 5th, 2012Yes he is right,You need to copy it from the CD or DVD and than paste it,other wise it will not load theOS from the HDD as it loads the OS from the bootable mediaAnswer Question Select Best AnswerHow will you install operating system in more than 50 pc at a time when the allpcs having same configuration.Asked By: san_pradeep59 | Asked On: Sep 18th, 2007 19 answers Read Best AnswerEditorial / Best AnswerAnswered by: prasad samantAnswered On : Nov 20th, 2007Other way isIf the pcs are on network you can have RIS or WDS setup. Requirement for clients is they should havenetwork bootable NICAnswered by: ritesh on: Jul 14th, 2012we can use another service like RIS (Remote Installation Server).By the help of it we can install o/s to multiple systemsAnswered by: raj on: Jul 1st, 2012ghost is not secured installed WDS (windows deployment services) it is the way for network instillationImprove AnswerRemoval of virusAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 8 answersYou have a virus that loaded several processes every time you stop the process it restarts itself you triedgoing into safe mode but it does the same thing...You found the dll files associated with it but you cantstop or delete them what is the easiest way to repair?Answered by: mukeshg on: Jun 1st, 2012Reinstall the operating system, at the time of installation choose repair option, it repairs all corrupt dllfiles, and keep ur data as it is.Answered by: thilak on: May 12th, 2012First Remove the system from network and run the virus scan. Deleted the file from Quarantine if thesystem scanned fully copy the data in externaml drive and format the syustem
  • 22. Answer Question Select Best AnswerHow to install os from server to all system?Asked By: tejeshwarao | Asked On: Sep 1st, 2011 7 answersAnswered by: Yogesh Kumar on: Apr 30th, 2012We can RIS service in Windows Server 2003SP1 and WDS Services Windows serve 2003SP2 and alsoWDS in Windows server 2008.but we have .inf file of all systems of a network those boot from network.so we can easily install from Server.Answered by: Himanshu dihauliya on: Mar 31st, 2012100% we will use WDS. Window Deployment Services Feature, That is Available in Windows 2008....Answer Question Select Best AnswerHow to install operating system in usb pen drive?Asked By: Mohd.Mumtaz007 | Asked On: Mar 9th, 2012 2 answersAnswered by: Shamim Haider on: Apr 28th, 2012First create usb bootable to pen drive, then select first boot device (usb device) from biosAnswered by: rickevans on: Mar 9th, 2012Step 1. Format the USB Flash Disk Run CMD (elevated) and type: 1. diskpart 2. list disk (*now find yourUSB disk number, youll find it by its size) 3. select disk 1 (*if your USB is disk 1)...Answer Question Select Best AnswerWhat is difference between msi and exe file ?Asked By: pkarle | Asked On: May 14th, 2011 7 answersAnswered by: itmanpjs on: Apr 26th, 2012There is no relationship between an MSI file and an .EXE file. An .exe file, like a .com file is producedwhen source code is complied and creates a Windows executable program. An .MSI file is a file...Answered by: Jisthi Khan on: Feb 21st, 2012MSI file is only for installation purpose. EXE file can be anything that executes on windows.Answer Question Select Best AnswerDesktop iconsAsked By: Abdul subahan.H | Asked On: Dec 7th, 2008 6 answersHow to make the desktop icons smaller or lager?Answered by: kam on: Apr 25th, 2012Right click on desktop-> view-> select any option (large/medium/small icons)Answered by: Tahir Khalil on: Dec 19th, 2011You can enlarge desktop icon simply by mouse in Win-7 , that is ( Hold " CTRL Button " and then MoveMouse Scroll To UP ) .. ThnxMobile outlookAsked By: Dastagir Amir Hamaja | Asked On: Jun 18th, 2011 1 answerHow to configure outlook in mobile in exchange 2007 environment?Answered by: chetan on: Apr 4th, 2012you can configure outlook in all type of BlackBerry phone..1st u need create blackberry account from your network provider .then configure that ID in your exchange server to that domain id of user
  • 23. Answer Question Select Best AnswerHow a virus program destabilize ms windows XPAsked By: albrq | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 3 answersWhat is the mechanism of combating those malicious program? Evaluate each techniqueAnswered by: Rahul Sharma on: Mar 7th, 2012Follow these steps1)Run ->Cmd2)Type netsh3)Firewall4)Now type in "set opmode enable" to start firewall and "set opmode disable" to stop fire wall.Answered by: daperfetto on: Feb 24th, 2011By corrupting, or deleting dataAnswer Question Select Best AnswerHow to do a complete refresh of computer using back up discs ?Asked By: dorothy828 | Asked On: Aug 17th, 2011 2 answersAnswered by: Upendra Sabat on: Feb 29th, 2012Firstly You to take the system backup on a External hdd, then You format and load os, then You restorethe data through system backup.. thanx.Answered by: shrikant dongre on: Dec 12th, 2011This using the external hard disk and personal data back up the external hard disk. second thing formatyour computer...;Answer Question Select Best AnswerMicrosoft outlook pst file size limitAsked By: Pravin Bargode | Asked On: Jun 23rd, 2011 7 answersWhat is the pst size limit in outlook97, 2000, 2003, 2007 and 2010?Answered by: Sundar S on: Feb 19th, 2012In Outlook 2002 and earlier, the .pst files are in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) format,and the overall size has a limit of 2 GB. In Outlook 2003 and after, the .pst files are in ...Answered by: Shafi23 on: Sep 6th, 2011MS outlook in 2003 and 2007 is 2GB, in 2010 is 50GBAnswer Question Select Best AnswerA users application on their desktop is not working, explain what you would doto resolve this problemAsked By: ramraje | Asked On: Mar 4th, 2011 3 answersAnswered by: pravin on: Feb 15th, 20121. Go to task manager the partiquer applicatoin right click application and go to process and End Task.2. Then go to Event viewer3. Check applicationAnswered by: AdhamFadel on: Feb 5th, 2012Maybe application is disabled by AntivirusAnswer Question Select Best AnswerReset user passwordAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 6 answers
  • 24. How do you reset the users password give the steps it took to get you to the user account.Answered by: Jayaram. on: Jan 28th, 2012If it is for a domain user go to active directory users and computers. Type username and click search.Below you can see user name. Click mouse right button on user name and click on reset password. T...Answered by: raj_smart on: Jul 3rd, 2009If its domain environment here all the user accounts info will be maintained with some security Questionsadd some security measures. By this tool user account can change his/her password every size l...Answer Question Select Best AnswerWhat is APIpa stand for?Asked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 13 answersWhat does APIpa stand for and how can you tell if your computer is using it? Why would your computerbe using it?Answered by: sunny lohar on: Jan 4th, 2012APIPA stands for automatic private ip address, it is the feature of Windows XP, automatic takes an IPfrom the range 169.254.1.0 to 169.254.255.255, at the time when when DHCP and TCP/IP not able toassign an IP to the local computers.Answered by: saubhagya shakti singh on: Dec 22nd, 2011APIPA - Automatic Private IP Addressing its a feature that used in opereting system. When DHCP isunavailable thenAPIPA provide IP ranging from 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255Answer Question Select Best AnswerUnable to view deleted files in recycle bin (winxp)Asked By: suresh pa | Asked On: Jun 10th, 2008 6 answersI deleted my files, but I didnt see that files in my recycle bin.Pls anybody help me... Read Best AnswerEditorial / Best AnswerAnswered by: bspkumarView all answers by bspkumarMember Since Sep-2007 | Answered On : Jul 25th, 2009Every one is suggesting what to do next time. he is asking how to recover the deleted file now.First step you need to do is stop working on the hard disk in which you have lost the file. Otherwise, thefile will be overwritten by another file.Then run any of the file recovery software.If you have already used the same hard disk, the chances of recovering the file is less.Answered by: sivananduri on: Nov 28th, 2011File deletion will be 2 types. Temporary & Permanent. If the file is deleted without selecting shift button,it will come to recycle bin. Otherwise the file will be deleted permanently. In such cas...Answered by: bspkumar on: Jul 25th, 2009Every one is suggesting what to do next time. he is asking how to recover the deleted file now.First stepyou need to do is stop working on the hard disk in which you have lost the file. Otherwise, th...Improve Answer
  • 25. Going straight to desktop without having to loginAsked By: ups5363 | Asked On: Oct 15th, 2011 3 answersHow do u go straight to your desktop when you reboot rather than having to login every time you rebootor turn on your computer on?Answered by: ravi on: Oct 18th, 2011First you right click on computer and then click on manage.at that time a window appear. Then go tolocal users and groups. Then the total users will appear. Then right click on user name what u r ent...Answered by: rajan on: Oct 17th, 2011By removing the user name or with out user name you can directly log in to the windowsAnswer Question Select Best AnswerHow do you check who are invited for the meetingAsked By: snehaspandana | Asked On: Aug 2nd, 2011 2 answersIf a meeting request is received, how will you check who all are invited in a meeting in outlook?Answered by: RAJ on: Sep 24th, 20111.Open the meeting request or notification. To view your calendar, click Calendar. Note A new meetingrequest will appear as a tentative on your calendar. 2.Do one of the following: Accept, ten...Answered by: vijaya on: Aug 17th, 2011In 2010 if you check meeting tab and open specific meeting appointment you have an option tracking inaccess toolbarAnswer Question Select Best AnswerArtribation processAsked By: rameshrgen | Asked On: Jun 28th, 2009 2 answersWhich layer provides physical link, flow control, artribation process?Answered by: S.Prabu on: Sep 5th, 2011Cable related doing activity called physical layer.Hub is working on physical layer.Answered by: drum4ravi on: Jul 10th, 2009Its the Data Link LayerAnswer Question Select Best AnswerNetwork logon failuresAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 5 answersA user calls you they cant login in said they have tried several times what is the best way to troubleshootthis.Answered by: uma on: Aug 22nd, 20111.Check whether the caps button is on or not and then give user name and password 2.Check whether allthe network cables connected properly 3.Check whether the user is added in domain 4.Can reset the...Answered by: SUMIT GUPTA on: Aug 10th, 2011Just Check the users account in active directory & finally check system is in domain or LAN is workingfine or not.This is the only troubleshooting for that issueAnswer Question Select Best AnswerWhat are the steps to create .Pst in client system ?Asked By: Pramod Dhende | Asked On: Aug 7th, 2011 1 answerAnswered by: Yogesh Dhiman on: Aug 10th, 2011
  • 26. we have two option for creation of Archive folder or PST(Personal Storage Template) or personal folder 1.Automatic Archive 2. Manually Archive Manually Archive for 2007 and 2010 For Outlook 2007 ...Answer Question Select Best AnswerBackup of computerAsked By: LAVLEEN SAINI | Asked On: Jul 16th, 2011 2 answersHow to take the backup of computer? After taking backing is there d and f drive programs alsorecovered?Answered by: Kannan Kanna on: Aug 4th, 2011types of backupincremental backup update backup filedaily backup daily fixed time backupnormal backup Copy and past backupfull backup any timE full hdd backupAnswered by: Hamid Ali on: Jul 20th, 2011If you wanna backup your system like D and F drives follow the steps, 1.Click on my computer icon.2.Left click on the drive which you wanna backup and go to properties 3.Go in Tools tab there you wi...Answer Question Select Best AnswerLow level formattingAsked By: parameshg | Asked On: Apr 5th, 2009 3 answersDefine low level formatting?Answered by: Hamid Ali on: Jul 20th, 2011Low-level formatting is the process of outlining the positions of the tracks and sectors on the hard disk,and writing the control structures that define where the tracks and sectors are. This is ofte...Answered by: veda prakash on: Jul 7th, 2011creating new tracks and sectors on the hard diskAnswer Question Select Best AnswerWhat is imap? How does it work?Asked By: Mohammed Saif | Asked On: Jul 14th, 2007 10 answersAnswered by: Hamid Ali on: Jul 20th, 2011The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP) is an Application Layer Internetprotocol that allows an e-mail client to access e-mail on a remote mail server.Answered by: Amit Maurya on: Jul 17th, 2011IMAP is stands for Internet message access protocol, which is used for accessing mails from the serverand this protocol leave not remove the mail from the server but if we POP(Post Office Protocol) it can beremove from the server mails.Answer Question Select Best AnswerDifference between *.Ost and *.PstAsked By: Pravin Bargode | Asked On: Jun 23rd, 2011 2 answersWhat is the difference between *.Ost and *.Pst ? How does it work?Answered by: Hamid Ali on: Jul 20th, 2011
  • 27. Offline folders (.ost) files are stored on your computer and are available even when the network is down.The default location for the .ost is your current Windows folder. Like personal folders (.pst) files, .ost filescan be compacted to save space on your computer.Answered by: Narendra jogani on: Jul 17th, 2011Offline folders (.ost) files are stored on your computer and are available even when the network is down.The default location for the .ost is your current Windows folder. Like personal folders (.pst)...Answer Question Select Best AnswerWindows XP boot optionsAsked By: Shaishav | Asked On: Mar 21st, 2009 5 answersWhat advance boot options are available for windows xp?Answered by: Hamid Ali on: Jul 20th, 20111)Safe Mode 2)Safe Mode with Networking 3)Safe Mode with command Prompt 4)Enable Boot Logging5)Enable VGA Mode 6)Last known Good Configuration(your most recent settings that worked) 7)DirectoryServi...Answered by: Atul Keshri on: Jul 20th, 2011Safe ModeSafe Mode With NetworkingSafe Mode With Command PromptEnable Boot LoggingEnable VGA ModeLast Known Good ConfigurationDirectory Services Restore ModeDebugging ModeDisable automatic restart on system failureStart Windows NormallyRebootReturn to OS Choice MenuAnswer Question Select Best AnswerInstalling printerAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 4 answersYou are required to install a new printer on the print server what are your steps? Remember this will be ashared printerAnswered by: komodosp on: May 25th, 2010To share it on the network, in Control Panel / Printers and Faxes, you can right-click on it, and in themenu, click on SharingAnswered by: syed_nrp on: Apr 30th, 2009First Start--->Control Panel--->Printers---->Add printer--->Local (or) NetworkPrinter--->Choose which brand printer and which one type of printer(if its needed drivers, push the driver CD in that PC)---->Select TYPE (LPT1 or USB)--->Finish.Its ready to use printer. now printer is online.Answer Question Select Best AnswerHow can you view startup itemsAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 4 answers
  • 28. There are a couple of way to view and disable the items that start to the task pain... How would you goabout doing it and give me the full path to get you thereAnswered by: pks07pro on: Jan 7th, 2010To see the most start up item,Go to start>programm>start upTo make any changes, enable or disableGo to Run & type "msconfig"How to take backup of emails on outlook ?Asked By: Charanjeetsingh79 | Asked On: May 7th, 2011 4 answersAnswered by: shashi021 on: Jun 23rd, 2011Other way to take backup install PST SYNC(http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?displaylang=en&id=9003)and set backup path for which pst want to be backup. it,s take much less time as using copying method.Answered by: anshulmehra_2007 on: May 27th, 2011 log in with some user->delete files->tools->options->maintenance->store folder->copy the path- >create new folder->paste the path to the new folder created->import->messages->MS outlook->select the user from where files is deleted->browse folder where the path was pasted->finishAnswer Question Select Best AnswerPrinting problemsAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 3 answersUser sent a job but it is stuck in the local cue how can you delete it? Name a couple ways Read Best AnswerEditorial / Best AnswerAnswered by: syed_nrpView all questions by syed_nrp View all answers by syed_nrpMember Since Apr-2008 | Answered On : Jan 3rd, 2009You first Install the proper printer driver install. Check that printer is on/off status. Then give a test page.The test page is not printing, go ToRUN-->services.msccheck printspooler give stop and start. its work fineAnswered by: Dastagir Amir Hamaja on: Jun 18th, 2011Go to start, setting , priter and faxes, there you will see your printer, double click that printer, you willfind jobs you have printed, right click that job and try to delete it.If not deleting then restart printer spooler services. if not deleting then restart printer and pc.Thanks,DastagirAnswered by: syed_nrp on: Jan 3rd, 2009You first Install the proper printer driver install. Check that printer is on/off status. Then give a test page.The test page is not printing, go ToRUN-->services.msccheck printspooler give stop and start. its work fine
  • 29. Improve AnswerPrintersAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 2 answersHow do you install a pre existing printer on a users desktopAnswered by: pavankumarnagisetti on: May 21st, 2009Go to Start-> Settings -> Printers and FaxesThis opens a new window now click on add a printer from right side panel.Follow the steps.You can add normal as well network printer using this.Answered by: rrsain on: Sep 13th, 2008Go to control panel and then go to add hardware wizard After that read all the options carefully. Whensystem requires software for that, insert the software CD otherwise system will install automatically.Restart the system, if it is not working, tell me, I will give you complete solutionAnswer Question Select Best AnswerDealing with irate customersAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 2 answersYou take a call from a customer who is very upset they cant work how do you deal with this?Answered by: udaykalidindi on: Jun 2nd, 2009This is a common problem faced by a every one working in helpdesk.1st thing dont try to argue withhim. 2ndly try to understand the issues or problems he is facing.3rdly dont promise him heaven and ...Answered by: tintin3011 on: Sep 3rd, 2008Talk politely and try to know the problem, and solve as fast as you can.Answer Question Select Best AnswerFirewire portAsked By: akki4444 | Asked On: Apr 3rd, 2009 3 answersWhat is firewire port? What are its uses?Answered by: khurramjol on: Apr 21st, 2010Firewire port is a form of Serial Port that make use of FireWire Technology to transfer data rapidly fromone electronic device to another.FireWire port has the ability to interact with a number of&nb...Answered by: delhi.itsupport on: May 22nd, 2009Firewire generally ports are genereally comes with laptop & apple desktop/laptops. You can connectvarious external hardware with this. e.g HDD, CDROM, Cameras etc. the transfer rate ofa FireWire port can reach up to 400 Mbps.Answer Question Select Best AnswerVirtual memoryAsked By: punitgoyal88 | Asked On: Jan 27th, 2011 2 answersHow to improve virual memory of pc?Answered by: Dastagir Amir Hamaja on: Jun 18th, 2011Go to system propert--> Advanced Tab--> click on setting of performance--> Advanced Tab--> Click onChange 0f Virtual memory--> now here you can increase virtual memoryDastagirAnswered by: srbnew on: Feb 4th, 2011
  • 30. just right click on my computer iconselect propertiesgo to advancego to performanceselect virtual memoryselect how much u wantapply and click okthatz itzAnswer Question Select Best AnswerRestore windows XPAsked By: krabhilas | Asked On: Sep 23rd, 2008 4 answersHow to restore windows XP in command mode.Answered by: ashi786 on: Aug 18th, 2009To start System Restore Windows XP first you create a system restore point by following steps:1. Clickstart and go help and support options on right hand side you see under pick a task options.2. C...Answered by: mahadeva83 on: Apr 7th, 2009To start System Restore using the Command prompt, follow these steps: Restart your computer, andthen press and hold F8 during the initial startup to start your computer in safe mode with a Commandpr...Answer Question Select Best AnswerPxe useAsked By: walker233 | Asked On: Jan 14th, 2011 2 answersWhat is pxe used for? What dependencies does it have to be useful?Answered by: sharmavivek096 on: Jun 2nd, 2011The Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE, also known as Pre-Execution Environment; sometimespronounced "pixie") is an environment to boot computers using a network interface independently ofdata stora...Answered by: s.pandilwar on: Jan 28th, 2011Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) :- When we are trying to boot system from network we need toenable PXE boot device from BIOS. It is helpful to install OS from network & it will pick IP addressautomaticaly. It is helpful in large network were we cannot install OS manualy.Answer Question Select Best AnswerHome foldersAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 3 answersUser has a home folder setup in ad when he logs in it maps the u drive which point to the share on theserver.. He accidenTALLY deleted it what is the fastest way to get it back from a command line?Answered by: khurramjol on: Apr 20th, 2010Re-mapping will restore the home folder, and we can do in Command line asnet use u: serverhomeAnswered by: taiwolasile on: Jun 2nd, 2009Reboot the PC to re-load the roaming profileAnswer Question Select Best AnswerLdap on outlookAsked By: saahil4u | Asked On: Sep 10th, 2008 2 answers
  • 31. What is the ip range in networking side? How do we troubleshoot outlook? How do we configure ldap onoutlook?Answered by: Ushadavuluri on: Jul 29th, 2009I am hoping I am submiting the correct answer. IP range in netwroking side is related to DHCP andAddress pools. Ex: 192.168.0.10 to 192.168.0.200 -> Can be defined as address range allowed to dist...Answered by: Ushadavuluri on: Jul 29th, 2009From Microsoft OutlookSelect: Tools->Account settings->AddressBook->New Address book-> selectInternet Directory Service(LDAP) radio button-> Next step will take you to the window of se...Answer Question Select Best AnswerSet ip address from cmd promptAsked By: dreamcast | Asked On: Apr 27th, 2010 3 answersHow do you set the ip address by using the command prompt?Answered by: arunbathery on: Aug 5th, 2010There are Two ways to Set the IP address from CMD Prompt1. Go to start, select run, type CMD, and inCMD Prompt type the command C:>netsh interface ip set address name="Local A...Answered by: lila123 on: May 28th, 2010Set IP address from CMD prompt :type cmd in run type following command in sequence like IPaddress,Subnet mask, Default Getway, DNS,Wins, ect...exmpl : netsh interface ip set address name="...Answer Question Select Best AnswerWhat is the difference between lcd and tft ?Asked By: vhthakor | Asked On: Nov 5th, 2007 3 answersAnswered by: shashi jadhav on: Sep 26th, 2008A TFT monitor uses thin-film transistor technology. Nearly all LCD monitors today use TFT technology.The benefit of a TFT monitor is a separate, tiny transistor for each pixel on the display. Because...Answered by: SONY & RAVI on: Nov 22nd, 2007LCD Means Liquid crystal display TFT means Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display.What I think youmean is Active and Passive matrix LCD panels. This is where there is a difference in price. A ty...Answer Question Select Best AnswerWhat is the difference between server os and desktop osAsked By: cnchandrashekar | Asked On: Jun 3rd, 2008 6 answersAnswered by: Karimulla Shaik on: Apr 7th, 2011server OS manages Network resources centrally along with its internal resources. desktop OS Managesonly its internal resources(like memory, cpu, i/o, user interface).Answered by: tdpanee on: Jul 30th, 2010Server OS can be used to configure a centralised administration for computer network. Desktop OS canbe used to configure client Machine to SErver.Answer Question Select Best AnswerEnable or disable firewallAsked By: jcsrinath | Asked On: Feb 18th, 2011 1 answerHow would you enable or disable the firewall in windows xp?Answered by: adnanj85 on: Feb 22nd, 2011To enable Windows Firewall, follow these steps:Click Start, click Run, type Firewall.cpl, and then clickOK.On the General tab, click On (recommended).Click OK.------------------------------To disable...Answer Question Select Best Answer
  • 32. Install operating system on more than 50 pcAsked By: saahil4u | Asked On: Sep 10th, 2008 4 answersHow will you install operating system in more than 50 pc at a time when the all pcs having sameconfiguration.Answered by: Laxman on: Jan 28th, 2011We use image ghost if all PC hardware requirments are same.Answered by: walker233 on: Jan 14th, 2011This depends on your operating system and target hardware.If you are deploying XP then you are boundby the hardware, and are required to make an image of the OS, using ghost or another image capture ...Answer Question Select Best AnswerAdd a user to networkAsked By: charla | Asked On: Sep 15th, 2009 6 answersExplain how will you add a user to network?Answered by: egyptianfalcon on: Jan 20th, 2011This answer is specially for windows 7 and I think it would be usiful in all the kind of windowsfirst go tostart menu-controll panel-user accounts-manage another account-creat new account-then w...Answered by: elmagoal on: Jun 10th, 2010First you need to figure out what role the user is going to have and if there is anyone on that has thecorrect set of permissions as the user. If this is true, on the server or on your desktop if you...Answer Question Select Best AnswerCreate an email account for a user already in adAsked By: saahil4u | Asked On: Sep 10th, 2008 2 answersHow would you create an email account for a user already in ad?Answered by: Anele Takane on: Jan 6th, 2011If the user account has been created with a mailbox (mailbox enabled) you may follow ameetsahasinstructions, but if you need to create an email account (mailbox) you will have to go to your Active d...Answered by: ameetsaha on: Nov 4th, 2008Open Micosoft Outlook if you are using office 2000, and click on "Tools" tab. Go to "Email Accounts".There you can find two option like Email and Directory. Click on "Add a n...Answer Question Select Best AnswerSms updateAsked By: msid82 | Asked On: Nov 6th, 2010 1 answerA pc did not receive an update from sms. What steps would we take to resolve this?Answered by: Prabu2009 on: Dec 17th, 2010If SMS not updated in client system.1. Need to check system getting IPaddress or not.2. Need to check system in domain or not3.Ensure that windows firewall should be off.Above reason SMS will not update to the client system.Answer Question Select Best AnswerTroubleshooting a slow computerAsked By: sanj108 | Asked On: Nov 12th, 2009 8 answers
  • 33. A user calls in and complains that her computer and network is running very slow. How would go abouttroubleshooting it? Read Best AnswerEditorial / Best AnswerAnswered by: smokedragonView all answers by smokedragonMember Since Nov-2009 | Answered On : Nov 18th, 2009I would first ask the user whether every application on the computer is slow or is it just one particularapplication. if it is just one, try and sort that out.If the answer is all applications are running slow, look at common causes like, virus scans scheduled, freedisk space on the home drive, RAM, lastly if the deployment team is rolling out any updates (which shouldnot be done during business hours, but ive seen that happen too ;)If you suspect network latency, a simple ping test from the users computer will tell you how many milliseconds network traffic is taking to reach the server.Answered by: rgawthorne on: Oct 26th, 2010First question, when did the problem start? Is anyone else in the same work group experienceslowness.Does it happen all the time, or is it intermittent, any patterns of timings eg, in the morning ...Answered by: DanielGoad on: Jul 23rd, 2010Slow is a relative question, so first determine what the user is experiencing. Is it slow openingapplications or while working in them? is this a networked application or local? ...Improve AnswerWindows XP firewallAsked By: navaneethreddy | Asked On: Jul 12th, 2010 4 answersHow would you enable or disable the firewall in windows xp?Answered by: rampraveshraju on: Aug 9th, 2010Press window+r key on keyboard than type firewall.cpl than you can easily On or Off firewall.Answered by: Dhamodharan15 on: Aug 5th, 2010Goto Command prompt, type Services.msc, in the services windows search for Windows Firewall /Internet Connection Sharing(ICS) and start the service.Creating email accountAsked By: Big Al | Asked On: May 12th, 2008 2 answersHow would you create an email account for a user already in adAnswered by: tdpanee on: Jul 30th, 2010If you have installed exchnage server, then select the properties of user account and change the mailenable user check box.Answered by: abujibrael on: Apr 20th, 20101- First click the OU that the users resides. 2- Right click the user, with whom you wanna create an emailaccount. 3- Now click Exchange Task 4- Click next to the wizard 5- Choose create mailbox 6- C...Answer Question Select Best AnswerBlackberry synchronizationAsked By: Rrahul Arora | Asked On: Oct 21st, 2009 3 answersIf a customers blackberry stopped syncing their calendar wirelessly, what would you do?Answered by: elmagoal on: Jun 10th, 2010
  • 34. The first step before wiping the Blackberry is to remove the battery for 20 sec. put it back and check thesync again. While all other steps are correct, most BB issues will be resolve by a hard reset.Answered by: mdabid on: Dec 10th, 2009Take Complete Backberry backup using desktop Manager and wipe your handheld, then syncronize bydoing enterprise activation, and restore backup.Regards,Mohammed Abid RazviAnswer Question Select Best AnswerInstall pre-existing printerAsked By: saahil4u | Asked On: Sep 10th, 2008 2 answersHow do you install a pre existing printer on a users desktop?Answered by: komodosp on: May 25th, 2010You may have to install printer hooked to the network. If it has an IP address:1. Control Panel / Printers& Faxes2. Next past Welcome message3. Local Printer attached to this computer, Next4. Cre...Answered by: rrsain on: Sep 12th, 2008Go to control panel and then go to add hardware wizard After that read all the options carefully. Whensystem requires software for that, insert the software CD otherwise system will install automa...Answer Question Select Best AnswerWhat is the difference between windows XP and windows 2000Asked By: cnchandrashekar | Asked On: Jun 3rd, 2008 7 answers Read Best AnswerEditorial / Best AnswerAnswered by: bspkumarView all answers by bspkumarMember Since Sep-2007 | Answered On : Jul 20th, 2008Windows XP Vs windows 2000. OS XP 2000FeatureRelease 2001 2000NT 5.1 5.032/64 bit 32/64 bit 32 bit
  • 35. built-in CD writer support y nRemote Desktop Connection,Internet Connection Firewall,Fast UserSwitching y nWindows Media Player andWindows MessengeFile sys support FAT16,32,NTFS,HPFS (High- FAT16,32,NTFS Performance File System)Answered by: syed_nrp on: Apr 30th, 2009Windows XP has 4 Versions, Windows 2000 has 3 ver. (Win 2000 Pro, Server & AD. Server).Windows XPhas last known good configuration [last used desktop] which is not present in Windows 2000. Remo...Answered by: hezysasson on: Nov 10th, 2008Win. XP has drivers that "recognize" hardware easier and faster with system set up.Improve AnswerLarger desktop iconsAsked By: ghada | Asked On: Feb 22nd, 2009 1 answerHow to make desktop icons appear larger?Answered by: Ravi9 on: Feb 23rd, 2009Right click on desktop. Go to properties and then click on appearance tab. Then further click on effectstab. A window will open. Select the use large option. Then click on apply OK. Thats it.Answer Question Select Best AnswerSteps to secure windowsAsked By: ravila23 | Asked On: Feb 21st, 2008 2 answersDescribe steps you would take to secure windows 2000 server resources and files. Read Best AnswerEditorial / Best AnswerAnswered by: shashi jadhavView all answers by shashi jadhavMember Since Sep-2008 | Answered On : Sep 26th, 2008There are lot of secure option for Windows, You can secure by - Set a difficult password for administrator Disable gust account Give minimum & limit permissions to administrators members
  • 36. Make minimum share folder on your WindowssGive minimum share permission on that folder & full control to trust usersAlways change the administrator passwordInstall third part firewall & set minimum port.Access & deny those users & IP which you dont want to access to your computer.Dont share your password.Answered by: shashi jadhav on: Sep 26th, 2008There are lot of secure option for Windows, You can secure by - Set a difficult password for administratorDisable gust account Give minimum & limit permissions to administrators members ...Answered by: amjad1233 on: Apr 26th, 2008To Secure the windows following steps should be considered :1. Making admistration account and giving only requried rights to child accounts2. Putting some external Anti-Virus to protect from the threats3. Making some registray changes to be help fulland otherImprove AnswerWhat is ldap sserver?Asked By: kaps200 | Asked On: Jul 8th, 2008 2 answers Read Best AnswerEditorial / Best AnswerAnswered by: aravind kalyanView all answers by aravind kalyanMember Since Jul-2008 | Answered On : Jul 15th, 2008LDAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, is an Internet protocol that email and other programs use tolook up information from a server.Answered by: Karthikumaran on: Aug 25th, 2008LDAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, is an Internet protocol that email and other programs use tolook up information from a server.Answered by: aravind kalyan on: Jul 15th, 2008LDAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, is an Internet protocol that email and other programs use tolook up information from a server.Improve AnswerDesktop support & help deskAsked By: Brianseawood | Asked On: Jun 17th, 2008 1 answerWhat is the technical difference between desktop support & help desk ? Read Best AnswerEditorial / Best AnswerAnswered by: radelapenaView all answers by radelapenaMember Since Aug-2008 | Answered On : Aug 24th, 2008
  • 37. The difference between desktop support and helpdesk are the following:1. Desktop support is the one doing the troubleshooting on hand.2. Helpdesk support is the one receiving the call and troubleshoot it remotelyAnswered by: radelapena on: Aug 24th, 2008The difference between desktop support and helpdesk are the following:1. Desktop support is the one doing the troubleshooting on hand.2. Helpdesk support is the one receiving the call and troubleshoot it remotelyImprove AnswerWindows XP core filesAsked By: rrsain | Asked On: Aug 4th, 2008 1 answerWhat are the core files required to boot windows xp? Read Best AnswerEditorial / Best AnswerAnswered by: afal.omarView all answers by afal.omarMember Since Aug-2008 | Answered On : Aug 5th, 2008ntldr, boot.ini, bootsect.dos, ntdetect.com, ntbootdd.sys, ntoskrnl.exe, hal.dll, system, device drivers(s.sys)Answered by: afal.omar on: Aug 5th, 2008ntldr, boot.ini, bootsect.dos, ntdetect.com, ntbootdd.sys, ntoskrnl.exe, hal.dll, system, device drivers(s.sys)How to monitor replication between sites?Hi Friends,In the previous posts i discussed about Active Directory Replication. In this post i wan to talk aboutmonitoring the replication traffic between AD Sites.Active Directory database is made up of 3 naming contexts or partitions.1. Schema Partition :The schema container defines the objects (such as users) and attributes (such as telephone numbers)that can be created in the Active Directory, and the rules for creating and manipulating them. Schemainformation (which attributes are mandatory for object creation, what additional attributes can be set, andwhat attribute data types are used) isreplicated to all domain controllers to ensure that objects arecreated and manipulated in accordance with the rules.2. Configuration Partition :The configuration container includes information about the Active Directory as a whole—what domainsexist, what sites are available, what domain controllers are running in the particular sites and domains,
  • 38. and what additional services are offered. All enterprise domain controllers need this information tomake operational decisions (such as choosing replication partners) so it is replicated to all of them.3. Domain Partition :A domain naming context holds objects such as users, groups, computers, and organizational units. A fulldomain naming context replica contains a read-write replica of all information in the domain—all objectsand attributes. A domain controller holds a full replica of its domain naming context. A partial domainnaming context replica contains a read-only subset of the information in the domain—all objects, but onlyselected attributes. A domain controller thats a global catalog (GC) server contains a partial replica ofevery other domain in the forest (and a full replica of its own domain.)There are some specific tools developed by Microsoft to Initiate, Monitor and Troubleshoot the replicationTraffic. replmon - is a GUI tool, used to monitor replication in the partition level, you can run it fromWindows Resource Kit Tools / Windows Support Tools.
  • 39. repadmin - is a command line utility to initiate replication, find replicas, create site links etc, youcan run it from Windows Resource Kit Tools / Windows SupportTools. dcdiag – is a command line utility to diagnose communication problems between dc’s (sites)
  • 40. netdiag – is a command line utility to diagnose network problems in a domainenvironment.These tools are very helpful to troubleshoot the replication problems. How To Become A Desktop Engineer Interview Questions ===================A) Tell me something about yourself.Tell about your eductaion, place you belong to, some struggle in life which shows that you havepositive attitude and will to fight the odds.B) Technical Questions are given below:1) What is Active Directory?A central component of the Windows platform, Active Directory directory service provides the meansto manage the identities and relationships that make up network environments. For example we cancreate, manage and administor users, computers and printers in the network from active directory.2) What is DNS? Why it is used? What is "forward lookup" and "reverse lookup" in DNS?What are A records and mx records?
  • 41. DNS is domain naming service and is used for resolving names to IP address and IP addresses tonames. The computer understands only numbers while we can easily remember names. So to makeit easier for us what we do is we assign names to computers and websites. When we use thesenames (Like yahoo.com) the computer uses DNS to convert to IP address (number) and it executesour request.Forward lookup: Converting names to IP address is called forward lookup.Reverse lookup: Resolving IP address to names is called reverse lookup.A record: Its called host record and it has the mapping of a name to IP address. This is the recordin DNS with the help of which DNS can find out the IP address of a name.MX Record: its called mail exchanger record. Its the record needed to locate the mail servers in thenetwork. This record is also found in DNS.To gain in depth knowledge on DNS please download, extract and watch the videos available here.3) What is DHCP? Why it is used? What are scopes and super scopes?DHCP: Dynamic host configuration protocol. Its used to allocate IP addresses to large number ofPCs in a network environment. This makes the IP management very easy.Scope: Scope contains IP address like subnet mask, gateway IP, DNS server IP and exclusionrange which a client can use to communicate with the other PCs in the network.Superscope: When we combine two or more scopes together its called super scope.4) What are the types of LAN cables used? What is a cross cable?Types of LAN cables that are in use are "Cat 5" and "Cat 6". "Cat 5" can support 100 Mbps of speedand "CAT 6" can support 1Gbps of speed.Cross cable: Its used to connect same type of devices without using a switch/hub so that they cancommunicate.5) What is the difference between a normal LAN cable and cross cable? What could be themaximum length of the LAN cable?The way the paired wires are connected to the connector (RJ45) is different in cross cable andnormal LAN cable.The theoritical length is 100 meters but after 80 meters you may see drop in speed due to loss ofsignal.6) What would you use to connect two computers without using switches? Cross cable. 7)What is IPCONFIG command? Why it is used?IPCONFIG command is used to display the IP information assigned to a computer. Fromthe outputwe can find out the IP address, DNS IP address, gateway IP address assigned to that computer.
  • 42. 8) What is APIPA IP address? Or what IP address is assigned to the computer when theDHCP server is not available?When DHCP server is not available the Windows client computer assignes an automatic IP addressto itself so that it can communicate with the network cmputers. This ip address is called APIPA. ITsin the range of 169.254.X.X.APIPA stands for Automatic private IP addressing. Its in the range of 169.254.X.X.9) What is a DOMAIN? What is the difference between a domain and a workgroup?Domain is created when we install Active Directory. Its a security boundary which is used to managecomputers inside the boundary. Domain can be used to centrally administor computers and we cangovern them using common policies called group policies.We cant do the same with workgroup.10) Do you know how to configure outlook 2000 and outlook 2003 for a user?Please visit the link below to find out how to configure outlook 2000 and outlook2003.http://www.it.cmich.edu/quickguides/qg_outlook2003_server.asp11) What is a PST file and what is the difference between a PST file and OST file? What file isused by outlook express?PST file is used to store the mails locally when using outlook 2000 or 2003. OST file is used whenwe use outlook in cached exchanged mode. Outlook express useds odb file.12) What is BSOD? What do you do when you get blue screen in a computer? How do youtroubleshoot it?BSOD stands for blue screen of Death. when there is a hardware or OS fault due to which thewindows OS can run it give a blue screen with a code. Best way to resolve it is to boot the computeris "LAst known good configuration". If this doesnt work than boot the computer in safe mode. If itboots up than the problemis with one of the devices or drivers.13) What is RIS? What is Imaging/ghosting?RIS stands for remote installation services. You save the installed image on a windows server andthen we use RIS to install the configured on in the new hardware. We can use it to deploy bothserver and client OS. Imaging or ghosting also does the same job of capturing an installed image
  • 43. and then install it on a new hardware when there is a need. We go for RIS or iamging/ghostingbecause installing OS everytime using a CD can be a very time consuming task. So to save thattime we can go for RIS/Ghosting/imaging.14) What is VPN and how to configure it?VPN stands for Virtual private network. VPN is used to connect to the corporate network to accessthe resources like mail and files in the LAN. VPN can be configured using the stepsmentioned in theKB:http://support.microsoft.com/kb/30555015) Your computer slowly drops out of network. A reboot of the computer fixes the problem.What to do to resolve this issue?Update the network card driver.16) Your system is infected with Virus? How to recover the data?Install another system. Insall the OS with the lates pathces, Antivirus with latest updates. Connectthe infected HDD as secondary drive in the system. Once done scan and clean the secondary HDD.Once done copy the files to the new system.17) How to join a system to the domain? What type of user can add a system to the domain?Please visit the article below and read "Adding the Workstation to the Domain"http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windowsserver2003/technologies/directory/activedirectory/stepbystep/domxppro.mspx18) What is the difference between a switch and a hub?Switch sends the traffic to the port to which its meant for. Hub sends the traffic to all the ports.19) What is a router? Why we use it?Router is a switch which uses routing protocols to process and send the traffic. It also receives thetraffic and sends it across but it uses the routing protocols to do so.20) What are manageable and non manageable switches?Switches which can be administered are calledmanageable switches. For example we can createVLAN for on such switch. On no manageable swiches we cant do so.
  • 44. ++++++++++++++++++++++IT Helpdesk QuestionsTechnical Questions1. What is NIC?A network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface controller) is a piece of computerhardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network2. What is USB?Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a serial bus standard to interface devices. Devices like Modem,Mouse, Keyboard etc can be connected.3. Dialup vs. BroadbandA broadband connection (ADSL) provides high-speed Internet access over a standard phone line.The advantage of a broadband connection over a standard dialup service, is that Broadband isconsiderably faster, and is "always-on", meaning that once you"re logged on, your PC is online untilthe PC is turned off again.Broadband offer high-speed Internet access and allows telephone calls and a permanent Internetconnection to share a single phone line simultaneously whereas in Dialup connection either Internetconnection or telephone call can made at given time.4. LAN and WANA local area network is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, orgroup of buildingsWide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whosecommunications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). Or, less formally, anetwork that uses routers and public communications links5. Microsoft AccessMicrosoft Office Access, previously known as Microsoft Access, is a relational database
  • 45. management system from Microsoft.6. What is RAS?Remote Access Services (RAS) refers to any combination of hardware and software to enable theremote access to tools or information that typically reside on a network of IT devices.7. Difference between Client Mail and Web Mail?Email clients download your emails onto your computer. Using a specialized email program such asOutlook Express or Apple Mail has the advantage of giving you complete control over your email;every email you receive is placed on your computer and you can keep as many large fileattachments as you want.Checking your email through our webmail is similar to using Hotmail or Yahoo! Mail. You neveractually copy your messages to your computer; in fact, you are looking at them through your webbrowser on somebody else"s computer. When you are not online, you are not able to see your email.8. RAM and ROMrandom access memory, a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, anybyte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most commontype of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers.Pronounced rahm, acronym for read-only memory, computer memory on which data has beenprerecorded. Once data has been written onto a ROM chip, it cannot be removed and can only beread. Unlike main memory (RAM), ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off.ROM is referred to as being nonvolatile, whereas RAM is volatile.9. SpamguardSpam Guard is an Outlook add-in that filters email that arrives in your inbox. If the sender of anymessage cannot be identified then the message is moved into a spam quarantine folder. Messagesdeposited in the spam quarantine folder can be inspected and either deleted or approved at yourleisure.10. Firewall and AntivirusA system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can beimplemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently usedto prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet,especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which
  • 46. examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.Antivirus is a software program which helps protect a computer against being infected by a virus.11. DNSShort for Domain Name System (or Service or Server), an Internet service that translates domainnames into IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they"re easier to remember. TheInternet however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a domain name, therefore, aDNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the domainname www.example.com might translate to 198.105.232.4.12. IPConfigIPConfig is a command line tool used to control the network connections on Windows NT/2000/XPmachines. There are three main commands: "all", "release", and "renew". IPConfig displays allcurrent TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings. Used without parameters, IPConfig displays theIP address, subnet mask, and default gateway for all adapters.13. Trace routeTrace route is the program that shows you the route over the network between two systems, listingall the intermediate routers a connection must pass through to get to its destination. It can help youdetermine why your connections to a given server might be poor, and can often help you figure outwhere exactly the problem is. It also shows you how systems are connected to each other, lettingyou see how your ISP connects to the Internet as well as how the target system is connected.Please find the technical questions:1) What is IP Address ?2) What are the layers of network ?3) What are the different types of network ?4) What is networking ?5) What is the difference between OSI and TCP/IP Model ?6) What is TCP/IP ?
  • 47. 7) What is HTTP?8) What is Protocol ?9) What is communication medium ?10) What is PORT ?11) What is SOCKET ?12) What is the difference between PORT and SOCKET?13) What is wireless networking ?14) What is topology ?15) What are the different types of topology ?16) What is the size of IP Address?17) What is FTP ?18) What is SMTP ?19) What are the different types of protocol ?20) What is Dial-Up connection ?21) What is Broad Band Connection?22) What is the difference between Dial-up and broad band connection?23) What IEEE standard for wireless networking?Ans: 802.11g24) What is IEEE standard ?Ans: Institute of electrical and electronic engineer.They develop standard for networkin Basic information on Active Directory, DNS, DHCP, RAIDDNS:A Domain Naming server is a hierarchical namespace structure designed to provide host to IPaddress name resolution and registration.
  • 48. DNS ZONE TYPE:Forward lookup zone: resolves names to IP address.Reverse lookup zone:resolves IP addresses to Host names.AD INTEGRATED ZONEAD–integrated DNS enables AD storage and replication of DNS zone databases. Windows 2000 &2003 DNS servers which accommodates storing zone data in AD. When you configure a computeras a DNS server, zones are usually stored as text files on name servers — that is, all of the zonesrequired by DNS are stored in a text file on the server computer. These text files must besynchronized among DNS name servers by using a system that requires a separate replicationtopology and schedule called a zone transfer However, if you use AD integrated DNS you configurea domain controller as a DNS name server, zone data is stored as an AD object and is replicated aspart of domain replication.STUB ZONEA Stub zone is a read only copy of a zone that contains only those resources records necessary toidentify the authoritative DNS servers for the actual zone. A stub zone is used to keep a parent zoneaware of authoritative DNS servers for a delegated zone and thereby maintain DNS name resolutionefficiently. A stub zone is conposed of (A), (NS), (SOA)Types of DNS Records: -A(Host):Represents a computer or device on the network. Arecords are the most common and most usedDNS records.PTR(Pointer):Used for finding the DNS name that corresponds to an IP address. The PTR is found only in thereverse lookup zone.NS(NameServer):The NS RRs facilitate delegation by identifying DNS servers for each zone. They appear in allforward and reverse look-up zones.SOA(Start Of Authority):The first record in any zone file is a SOA. the SOA identifies a primary DNS name server for thezone as the best source of information for the data within that zone and as an entity processing theupdates for the zone.SRV(Service Record):Indicates a network service offered by a host.- CNAME(Alias):an alias is hostname that refers toanother hostname.=========================================DHCP: Is a standard for simplifing management of host IP configuration.SUPERSCOPE: Superscope is a administrative feature of DHCP server that you can create andmanage through the DHCP console. Using a Superscope you can group multiple scopes as a single
  • 49. administrative entity.DHCP Authorize: This procedure is usually only needed if you are running a DHCP server on amember server. In most cases, if you are installing a DHCP server on a computer also running as adomain controller, the server is automatically authorized the first time you add the server to theDHCP console.SCOPE: DHCP scope is a poole of IP addresses which are offered to DHCP clients.=========================================WHAT ARE FSMO ROLES IN ACTIVE DIRECTORY?Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 Active directory follow the multimaster model. Under this modelthere are five roles which which can be held by the DCs (Domian Controllers).The five roles are given below:• Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications tothe schema. To update the schema of a forest, you must have access to the schema master. Therecan be only one schema master in the whole forest.• Domain naming master: The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition orremoval of domains in the forest. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest.• Infrastructure Master: The infrastructure is responsible for updating references from objects in itsdomain to objects in other domains. At any one time, there can be only one domain controller actingas the infrastructure master in each domain.• Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from alldomain controllers in a particular domain. At any one time, there can be only one domain controlleracting as the RID master in the domain.• PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is a domain controller that advertises itself as the primarydomain controller (PDC) to workstations, member servers, and domain controllers that are runningearlier versions of Windows. For example, if the domain contains computers that are not runningMicrosoft Windows XP Professional or Microsoft Windows 2000 client software, or if it containsMicrosoft Windows NT backup domain controllers, the PDC emulator master acts as a Windows NTPDC. It is also the Domain Master Browser, and it handles password discrepancies. At any one time,there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in theforest.What is replication in active directory?REPLICATION Replication is a process of sending update information for data that has changed inthe directory to other domain controllers, as a Part of the AD planning an implementationprocess.*2000/2003 uses MULTI-MASTER replication for the AD.Types of UPDATES which force replication: Add, Modify, ModifyDN, deleteUSN: Update sequence numbersGUID: Globally unique identifierREPLICATION PARTITIONS:
  • 50. Schema Partition: contains object and attribute definitions. In other words it contains a list ofdefinitions that define what objects and attributes for those objects can exist in the AD.Configuration partition: contains information about the physical structure of the AD, such as thesites and domains and where DC resides in the enterprise. It is replicated to all DCs in the tree orforest.Domain partition: contains information about all AD objects that are specific to that domain, such asusers, groups and other resources. All domain partition information is completely replicated to alldomain controllers within the domain.REPLICATION TOPOLOGYKCC: Knowledge Consistency Checker: It builds the topology for the intrasite replication betweenthe DCs. It uses only RPC to communicate with the directory service.Bridgehead server: A point where a replication information leaves or enters a site for intersitereplication.BENIFITS• Optimize replication for speed and bandwidth consumption between domain controllers.• Locatethe closest domain controller for client logon, services, and directory searches.• Direct a Distributed File System (DFS) client to the server that is hosting the requested data withinthe site.• Replicate the system volume (SYSVOL), a collection of folders in the file system that exists oneach domain controller in a domain and is required for implementation of Group Policy=============================================================What is RAID?ANS: Redundant Array of Inexpensive disk is a way to increase capaxity, performance andreliablility.RAID0: (Striping) Not really RAID as it has no fault tolerance, Data is striped across all disks,Excelent read/write performance.RAID1: (Mirroring) Need at least 2 drives, tolerates single drive failure, often used for OS drive orboot volume.RAID5: Requires at least 3 drives, data and parity striped across all disks, can tolerate failure of anyone disk without losing data but performance does degrade.TCP/IP MODEL:Application LayerTransport LayerInternetNetwork InterfaceOSI MODELApplication LayerPresentation layerSession layer
  • 51. Transport LayerNetwork LayerData-link LayerPhysical layerWhat is a switch?A network switch, or bridge, is a specialized device that connects multiple network segments. Its amore modern and efficient form of the ubiquitous (and outdated) network hub. A hub, also known asa repeater, is a simple device that has been used for years to connect all nodes, or computers, on anetwork to a central location. Each node on a network has a unique hardware address called a MACaddress. A hub is known as a repeater because when a packet of data, or frame, is sent through thehub, it is repeated to each and every computer on the network.This means that if a 1 GB video issent to one computer through the hub, the file will also be sent to all of the other computers on thehub. This is very inefficient for bandwidth management. "Hubs have two major drawbacks," says BendeGonzague, a deployment engineer with TopCoder Software, a Glastonbury, Conn.-basedsoftware engineering firm. "First, network bandwidth is consumed as each and every frame is sent toall devices on a network. Second, your network is only as fast as the slowest device. Hubs havebecome obsolete with switching-based networks."A switch-based network is one that utilizesswitches instead of hubs. A switch is a major upgrade to a hub. Instead of sending all network datato each and every network node, the switch will analyze the MAC address and determine where tosend the data. Network bandwidth is not wasted by sending every frame to every port.So when aswitch receives data for a file, if it was addressed to one computer it will only be sent there. Theother computers on the network wouldnt know about it. This means that the network is now muchmore efficient, but its also a step toward being more secure: "Since switches can segregate trafficfrom different nodes," says deGonzague, "this makes it more difficult for anyone to capture packetson your network.What is a router?While switches connect multiple computers, a router is required to connect multiple networks, likeyour LAN to the Internet. Routers work by storing large tables of networks and addresses, then usingalgorithms to determine the shortest routes to individual addresses within those networks. In thisway efficient routers not only facilitate intra-network communications, but also play a role in overallnetwork performance. delivering the information faster.While many consumers are familiar with smallrouters from companies like Linksys, which can be purchased for less than $50 at computerhardware stores, they shouldnt be confused with a proper router for business. "A typical router athome will connect your cable modem or DSL network to your internal network. This is justconnecting two different networks. Routers for businesses on the other hand might have to connectseveral different networks," says deGonzague. Small business routers from vendors like Cisco ofteninclude management software, enabling IT staff to better manage network stability and, ultimately,performance. How to Become a Desktop Engineer Interview Questions ================
  • 52. A) Tell me something about yourself.Tell about your eductaion, place you belong to, some struggle in life which shows that you havepositive attitude and will to fight the odds.B) Technical Questions:1) What is Active Directory?A central component of the Windows platform, Active Directory directory service provides the meansto manage the identities and relationships that make up network environments. For example we cancreate, manage and administor users, computers and printers in the network from active directory.2) What is DNS? Why it is used? What is "forward lookup" and "reverse lookup" in DNS?What are A records and mx records?DNS is domain naming service and is used for resolving names to IP address and IP addresses tonames. The computer understands only numbers while we can easily remember names. So to makeit easier for us what we do is we assign names to computers and websites. When we use thesenames (Like yahoo.com) the computer uses DNS to convert to IP address (number) and it executesour request.Forward lookup: Converting names to IP address is called forward lookup.Reverse lookup: Resolving IP address to names is called reverse lookup.A record: Its called host record and it has the mapping of a name to IP address. This is the recordin DNS with the help of which DNS can find out the IP address of a name.MX Record: its called mail exchanger record. Its the record needed to locate the mail servers in thenetwork. This record is also found in DNS.For in depth learning of DNS, please download, extract and watch the videos available here.3) What is DHCP? Why it is used? What are scopes and super scopes?DHCP: Dynamic host configuration protocol. Its used to allocate IP addresses to large number ofPCs in a network environment. This makes the IP management very easy.Scope: Scope contains IP address like subnet mask, gateway IP, DNS server IP and exclusionrange which a client can use to communicate with the other PCs in the network.Superscope: When we combine two or more scopes together its called super scope.4) What are the types of LAN cables used? What is a cross cable?
  • 53. Types of LAN cables that are in use are "Cat 5" and "Cat 6". "Cat 5" can support 100 Mbps of speedand "CAT 6" can support 1Gbps of speed.Cross cable: Its used to connect same type of devices without using a switch/hub so that they cancommunicate.5) What is the difference between a normal LAN cable and cross cable? What could be themaximum length of the LAN cable?The way the paired wires are connected to the connector (RJ45) is different in cross cable andnormal LAN cable.The theoritical length is 100 meters but after 80 meters you may see drop in speed due to loss ofsignal.6) What would you use to connect two computers without using switches? Cross cable. 7)What is IPCONFIG command? Why it is used?IPCONFIG command is used to display the IP information assigned to a computer. Fromthe outputwe can find out the IP address, DNS IP address, gateway IP address assigned to that computer.8) What is APIPA IP address? Or what IP address is assigned to the computer when theDHCP server is not available?When DHCP server is not available the Windows client computer assignes an automatic IP addressto itself so that it can communicate with the network cmputers. This ip address is called APIPA. ITsin the range of 169.254.X.X.APIPA stands for Automatic private IP addressing. Its in the range of 169.254.X.X.9) What is a DOMAIN? What is the difference between a domain and a workgroup? Domain iscreated when we install Active Directory. Its a security boundary which is used to managecomputers inside the boundary. Domain can be used to centrally administor computers and we cangovern them using common policies called group policies.We cant do the same with workgroup.10) Do you know how to configure outlook 2000 and outlook 2003 for a user?Please visit the link below to find out how to configure outlook 2000 and outlook2003.http://www.it.cmich.edu/quickguides/qg_outlook2003_server.asp11) What is a PST file and what is the difference between a PST file and OST file? What file isused by outlook express?PST file is used to store the mails locally when using outlook 2000 or 2003. OST file is used whenwe use outlook in cached exchanged mode. Outlook express useds odb file.
  • 54. 12) What is BSOD? What do you do when you get blue screen in a computer? How do youtroubleshoot it?BSOD stands for blue screen of Death. when there is a hardware or OS fault due to which thewindows OS can run it give a blue screen with a code. Best way to resolve it is to boot the computeris "LAst known good configuration". If this doesnt work than boot the computer in safe mode. If itboots up than the problemis with one of the devices or drivers.13) What is RIS? What is Imaging/ghosting?RIS stands for remote installation services. You save the installed image on a windows server andthen we use RIS to install the configured on in the new hardware. We can use it to deploy bothserver and client OS. Imaging or ghosting also does the same job of capturing an installed imageand then install it on a new hardware when there is a need. We go for RIS or iamging/ghostingbecause installing OS everytime using a CD can be a very time consuming task. So to save thattime we can go for RIS/Ghosting/imaging.14) What is VPN and how to configure it?VPN stands for Virtual private network. VPN is used to connect to the corporate network to accessthe resources like mail and files in the LAN. VPN can be configured using the stepsmentioned in theKB:http://support.microsoft.com/kb/30555015) Your computer slowly drops out of network. A reboot of the computer fixes the problem.What to do to resolve this issue?Update the network card driver.16) Your system is infected with Virus? How to recover the data?Install another system. Insall the OS with the lates pathces, Antivirus with latest updates. Connectthe infected HDD as secondary drive in the system. Once done scan and clean the secondary HDD.Once done copy the files to the new system.17) How to join a system to the domain? What type of user can add a system to the domain?Please visit the article below and read "Adding the Workstation to the Domain"http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windowsserver2003/technologies/directory/activedirectory/stepbystep/domxppro.mspx18) What is the difference between a switch and a hub?Switch sends the traffic to the port to which its meant for. Hub sends the traffic to all the ports.19) What is a router? Why we use it?Router is a switch which uses routing protocols to process and send the traffic. It also receives the
  • 55. traffic and sends it across but it uses the routing protocols to do so.20) What are manageable and non manageable switches?Switches which can be administered are calledmanageable switches. For example we can createVLAN for on such switch. On no manageable swiches we cant do so.

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