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NFC Seminar report

NFC Seminar report



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NFC documation NFC documation Document Transcript

  • A Technical Seminar Report On “NFC TECHNOLOGY” Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING from JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD by M.SAIPRASAD (10TK1A0462) Under the esteemed guidance of Mr. CH. RAMESH BABU M. Tech Asst. Professor E.C.E DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SVS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad & ISO 9001:2008 certified) BHEEMARAM(V), HASANPARHY(M),WARANGAL (Dt). A.P. India -506015 Ph: 0870-2453900, 6560833 (2010-2014) SVS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad & ISO 9001:2008 certified) BHEEMARAM(V), HASANPARHY(M),WARANGAL (Dt). A.P. India -506015
  • 1. INTRODUCTION Near Field Communication is a new short-range wireless connectivity technology that evolved from a combination of existing contactless identification and interconnection technologies. It was jointly developed by Sony and NXP Semiconductors (formerly Philip). NFC operates in a frequency range centered at 13.56 MHz and offers a data transmission rate of up to 424 kbit/s within a distance of approximately 10cms. NFC is backward compatible with the Smart Card infrastructure based on ISO/IEC (International Organization for Standardization/ International Electrotechnical Commission) 14443 A and ISO/IEC 14443 B as well as with the Sony FeliCa card. For the exchange of information between two NFC devices, a new protocol was developed which is defined in the standards ECMA (European Computer Manufacturers Association) 340 and ISO/IEC 18092 . The NFC Forum was founded in the year 2004 by NXP, Sony and Nokia to work towards the development and deployment of NFC. The NFC forum develops Specifications which ensure interoperability of NFC units and services. Fig. 1.1 Evolution of NFC technologies
  • Currently, devices such as Nexus S, Galaxy Nexus, Samsung Galaxy Note, Sony Xperia ZR, Nokia 6131 NFC etc. provide NFC facility to its users. Some applications of NFC are Google Wallet (US), A Little World (India) for mobile payments, China Unicom for mobile transport ticketing (China) etc. 1.2 Comparison with Existing Technologies Table 1.1 shows the comparison of various existing wireless technologies with NFC and its benefits over the others. Table 1.1 Comparison of NFC with various existing technologies. Sr. No Concept NFC Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1) WiFi (IEEE 802.11) RFID Zigbee (IEEE 802.1.5.4) 1 Range <0.1m (generally 10cm) 10m 100-150m 3m 30-100m 2 Throughput 106, 212, 424kbps 721kbps 6Mbps Varies 100Vkbps 3 Operating Frequency 13.56Mhz ISM band 2.4Ghz to 2.485Ghz 2.4Ghz Varies 862Mhz, 915Mhz, 2.4Ghz 4 Latency <0.1 sec 6 sec 1.5ms < 1 sec 20 ms 5 Cost Low Moderate High Low Moderate 6 Power Consumption Moderate to low Low High Low Moderate 7 Security Fairly secure PIN 64bit, 128bit (Less secure than WiFi) More secure than bluetooth Secure 128-bit AES
  • Hence, NFC has good speed of operation for close proximity. It is suitable for crowded areas. It uses ISM band of frequency which is available worldwide. NFC is affordable, has good throughput and low latency. Since transactions are done at a small range at which signals are not much susceptible to interception, NFC is highly secure. Thus, NFC can be a very beneficial wireless mode of communication for short ranges and can be used for fast transactions eg. Money transfer etc. NFC occurs between two NFC devices in a close proximity range (within a few centimeters). These two NFC devices can operate in several modes as described in chapter 2.
  • 2. OPERATION OF NFC There are two different roles that a device can play in NFC which can be illustrated as a “request and reply” concept as shown in Fig. 1.2. The initiator (or polling device) sends a request message to a target and the target (or listening device) replies by sending a message back to the initiator. In this case the role of the initiator is to start the communication. The role of the target is to respond to the requests coming from the initiator . Fig. 2.0 Initiator (Polling device) and Target (Listening device) device 2.1 Basics of Data Transmission with NFC NFC is based on inductive coupling, where loosely coupled inductive circuits share power and data over a distance of a few centimeters . Similar to the transformer principle, the magnetic near-field of two conductor coils is used to couple the polling device (initiator) and listening device (target) as shown in Fig. 1.2. The operating frequency is 13.56 MHz, and a bit-rate of 106 kbit/s (also 212 kbit/s and 424 kbit/s) is used. Modulation schemes are amplitude on/off keying (OOK) with different modulation depth (100 % or 10 %) and BPSK. This is summarized in Table 1.2
  • Table 2.1 Modulation and coding schemes based on device type and data rate. Speed Active Device Passive Device 106 kbps Modified Miller, 100% ASK Manchester, 10% ASK 212 kbps Manchester, 10% ASK Manchester, 10% ASK 424 kbps Manchester, 10% ASK Manchester, 10% ASK Power Transmission and Data Transmission from a Polling Device For transmission to a passive system such as an NFC phone in passive card emulation mode (described in chapter 2), the passive system uses the 13.56 MHz carrier signal of the polling device as energy source. Modulation scheme of the polling device is ASK. For NFC peer-to-peer mode, both directions are modulated and coded like a polling device. However less power is necessary because both NFC devices use their own power supply and the carrier signal is switched off after end of transmission. Data Transmission from a Listening Device Due to the coupling of the coils of initiator and target, a passive target also affects the active initiator. A variation in the impedance of the target causes amplitude or phase changes to the antenna voltage of the initiator, detected by it. This technique is called load modulation. Load modulation is carried out in target mode using an auxiliary carrier at 848 kHz which is modulated by the baseband and varies the impedance of the target device. Fig.1.3 shows the spectrum with load modulation. The modulation scheme
  • Is ASK (ISO/IEC 14443 A) or BPSK (ISO/IEC 14443 B) . Modulation Schemes used by NFC are ASK (100% and 10% modulation depths) and BPSK. Also, NFC uses Modified Miller and Manchester Coding schemes depending upon the type of communication used, i.e., Type A (normal) or Type B (banking/short range). Fig. 2.1 Modulation Spectra showing Load modulation Time Domain Frequency Domain Fig 2.2 Visualization of load modulation Fig. 1.4 visualizes load modulation for ASK modulation with Manchester Coding.
  • 2.2 NFC OPERATING MODES In the previous chapter we discussed how basic data transmission takes place in NFC. In this chapter we discuss the classification of devices used in NFC. Building upon the basics learned in chapter 1, we move towards the study of various operating modes of NFC devices and discuss their usage models. 2.2.1 Mobile Interaction Techniques When mobile devices are used to interact with smart objects in the environment, additional components are required where when a user interacts with a smart object using an interaction technique. Fig. 2.1 shows the available interaction techniques that the mobile devices use, which are called mobile interaction techniques, are touching, pointing, and scanning. The NFC technology interaction technique is touch based. Fig 2.2.1 Mobile Interaction Techniques 2.2.2 Active vs. passive devices An active device is one that is powered by some power source, e.g. battery, so that it generates its own electromagnetic field. On the other hand, a passive device is one that does not have any integrated power source. In NFC, the energy to the passive device is supplied
  • by the active device. To summarize, an active device powers the passive device by creating the electromagnetic field. 2.2.3 INITIATOR vs. TARGET DEVICES NFC always occurs between two parties, so that one party is called the initiator, and the other party is called the target. The initiator is the one that initiates the communication; the target responds to the request that is made by the initiator. An initiator always needs to be an active device, because it requires a power source to initiate the communication. The target, on the other hand, may be either an active or a passive device. If the target is an active device, then it uses its own power source to respond; if it is a passive device, it uses the energy created by the electromagnetic field which is generated by the initiator that is an active device. Table 2.1 shows the summary of the NFC devices. Table 2.2.3 Summary of NFC devices. Devices Initiator Target Active Yes Yes Passive No Yes Now, we move towards the discussion of various operating modes of NFC. The three existing operating modes are the reader/writer, peer-to-peer and card emulation modes. The reader/writer mode enables NFC enabled mobile devices to exchange data with NFC Forum mandated NFC tags. The peer-to-peer mode enables two NFC enabled mobile devices to exchange data with each other. In the card emulation mode, the user interacts with an NFC reader in order to use her mobile phone as a smart card such as a credit card. Each operating mode has different use case scenarios and each provides various underlying benefits to users.
  • 2.3 Reader/Writer Mode In reader/writer operating mode, an active NFC enabled mobile phone initiates the wireless communication, and can read and alter data stored in NFC tags. In this operating mode, an NFC enabled mobile phone is capable of reading NFC Forum mandated tag types, such as NFC smart poster tags. This enables the mobile user to retrieve the data stored in the tag and take appropriate actions afterwards. This is shown in Fig. 2.3 Fig. 2.3 Reader/Writer Mode The reader/writer mode’s RF interface is compliant with ISO/IEC 14443 Type A and Type B. NFC Forum has standardized tag types, operation of tag types and data exchange format between components. The reader/writer operating mode usually does not need a secure area. The process consists of only reading data stored inside the passive tag and writing data to the passive tag. The protocol stack architecture of the reader/writer operating mode, the (NFC Data Exchange Format) NDEF and record types are explained in the following sections. PROTOCOL STACK ARCHITECTURE OF READER/WRITER MODE fig. 2.3.1 shows the protocol stack architecture of reader/writer mode. 2.4 Peers-to-Peer Mode
  • In peer-to-peer mode, two NFC enabled mobile phones establish a bidirectional connection to exchange information as depicted in Fig. 2.6. They can exchange virtual business cards, digital photos, and any other kind of data. Peer-to-peer operating mode’s RF communication interface is standardized by ISO/IEC 18092 as NFCIP-1. Due to the low transfer speed of NFC if large amounts of data need to be sent, peer to peer mode can be used to create a secondary high speed connection (handover) like Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. Fig. 2.4 Peer-to-peer mode This mode has 2 standardized options: NFCIP-1 and LLCP. NFCIP-1 takes advantage of the initiator-target paradigm in which the initiator and the target devices are defined prior to starting the communication. However, the devices are identical in LLCP communication. After the initial handshake, the decision is made by the application that is running in the application layer. On account of the embedded power to mobile phones, both devices are in active mode during the communication in peer-to-peer mode. Data are sent over a bi-directional half duplex channel. Meaning that when one device is transmitting, the other one has to listen and should start to transmit data after the first one finishes. The maximum possible data rate in this mode is 424 kbps.
  • PROTOCOL STACK ARCHITECTURE OF PEER-TO-PEER MODE Fig. 2.4 shows the protocol stack architecture of peer-to-peer mode. Fig. 2.4 Protocol Stack of peer-to-peer operating mode 2.5 Card Emulation Mode In card emulation mode, the NFC enabled mobile phone acts as a contactless smartcard. Either an NFC enabled mobile phone emulates an ISO 14443 smart card or a smart card chip integrated in a mobile phone is connected to the antenna of the NFC module. As the user touches her mobile phone to an NFC reader, the NFC reader initiates the communication. The communication architecture of this mode is illustrated in Fig. 2.5. In this mode, the NFC device appears to an external reader much the same as a traditional contactless smart card. This enables contactless payments and ticketing by NFC devices without changing the existing infrastructure. Mobile devices can even store multiple contactless smart card applications in the smart card. Examples of emulated contactless smart cards are credit card, debit card, and loyalty card .
  • Fig. 2.5 Card Emulation mode PROTOCOL STACK ARCHITECTURE OF CARD EMULATION MODE Fig. 2.5.1 Protocol stack of Card Emulation Mode
  • 3. NFC SECURITY Security is the degree of protection against an intentional or accidental misuse or action. So far we have discussed the working of NFC. This chapter gives analysis of security with respect to NFC. It lists the threats, which are applicable to NFC, and describes solutions to protect against these threats. All of this is given in the context of currently available NFC hardware, NFC applications and possible future developments of NFC. 3.1 Threats and Solutions A possible danger that has the potential to cause an unfair benefit to the unauthorized people or to cause harm by exploiting vulnerability is called a threat. Threats may be either intentional or unintentional. The threats involved are eavesdropping, data corruption, data modification, data insertion, man-in-the-middle attack etc. NFC by itself cannot protect against eavesdropping. It is important to note that data transmitted in passive mode is significantly harder to be eavesdropped on. NFC devices can counter data corruption because they can check the RF field, while they are transmitting data. If an NFC device does this, it will be able to detect the attack. The power which is needed to corrupt the data is significantly bigger, than the power which can be detected by the NFC device. Thus, every such attack should be detectable. Protection against data modification can be achieved in various ways. By using 106k Baud in active mode it gets impossible for an attacker to modify all the data transmitted via the RF link. This means that for both directions active mode would be needed to protect against data modification. But this has the major drawback, that this mode is most vulnerable to eavesdropping. Also, the protection against modification is not perfect, as even at 106k Baud some bits can be modified. NFC devices can check the RF field while sending. This means the sending device could continuously check for such an attack and could stop the data transmission when an attack is detected . Data insertion attack can be avoided by the answering device by answering without delay.
  • 3.2 Standardised NFC Security Protocols Security protocols of NFCIP-1 are standardized in ECMA 385 as NFC-SEC (NFC Security) and ECMA 386 as NFC-SEC-01 .These security protocols are used in peer- to- peer operating mode. NFC-SEC provides security standard for peer-to-peer NFC communication. Protocols that are included within NFC-SEC are defined to be used on top of NFCIP-1 protocol . NFC-SEC-01 is standardized in ECMA 386 which specifies cryptographic mechanisms for key agreement, data encryption and integrity . NFC-SEC describes two different protocols as summarised in Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Summary of security services provided by various protocols. Protocol Security Services NFC-SEC Eavesdropping, Data modification NFC-SEC-01 -Diffie-Hellman key exchange (192 bit) -Key derivation and confirmation (AES 128 bit) -Data encryption (AES 128 bit) -Data integrity (AES 128 bit) NFC by itself cannot provide protection against eavesdropping or data modifications. The only solution to achieve this is the establishment of a secure channel over NFC using NFC-SEC protocols. This can be done very easily, because the NFC link is not susceptible to the Man-in-the-Middle attack. This resistance against Man-in-the-Middle attacks makes NFC an ideal method for secure pairing of devices.
  • 4. NFC APPLICATIONS This chapter is about developing NFC applications for mobile phones. There are various NFC development platforms and languages. Example, for mobile phones with Android operating system, Android SDK is used for NFC development . NFC is used for a wide range of applications which can be divided into three categories as shown in Fig. 4.1: Fig. 4.1 Range of applications of NFC The several of applications of NFC can be shown in Fig. 4.2. Fig. 4.2 Applications of NFC
  • 5. CONCLUSION Near field communication can be extremely beneficial in the modern era of technology. NFC is an extremely simple and convenient technology because the data exchange can be done by just bringing two NFC enabled devices together. It is interactive and secure which does not require any special software to run on. The underlying standards of NFC follow universally implemented ISO, ECMA and ETSI standards. It also does not require any manual configuration or settings which make it easier for consumers. Thus, NFC is a new technology and like other technologies it is hard to make it mainstream as of now because of technological limitations. But it’s fast growing and it will be successful once the strict security measures are set in place.
  • 5. REFERENCES [1] Vedat Coskun, Kerem Ok and Busra Ordenizci, “Near Field Communication from Theory to Practice”, 1 st Edition. New York: Wiley, 2012. [2] NFC Forum, Analog, Technical Specification, Version 1.0, July 2012. [3] M. Csapodi, A. Nagy, “New applications for NFC devices”, Proc. of 16th IST Mobile and Wireless Communications, Budapest, Hungary, IEEE, 2007, pp. 245- 249. [4] ECMA 340: Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1), 3 rd Edition, June 2013. [5] ECMA 352: Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-2), 3 rd Edition, June 2013. [6] Rukzio E., Callaghan V., Leichtenstern K., and Schmidt A. (2006), “An Experimental Comparison of Physical Mobile Interaction Techniques: Touching, Pointing and Scanning”, Proc. of Eighth International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, CA, USA, 17–21 September 2006, pp. 7–104. [7] NFC Forum, NFC NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF), Technical Specification, Version1.0, July 2006. [8] NFC Forum, NFC NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF), Technical Specification, Version1.0, July 2006. [9] NFC Forum, Logical Link Control Protocol, Technical Specification, Version 1.0, December 2009. [10] Tuikka T. and Isomursu M., “Touch the Future with a Smart Touch”, VTT Tiedotteita – Research Notes 2492, Espoo, Finland, 2009. [11] B. Ozdenizci, M. N. Aydin, V. Coskun, K. Ok, “NFC Research Framework: A Literature Review and Future Research Directions”, Proc. 14th IBIMA International Business Information Management Conf., Istanbul, TURKEY, 2010, pp. 2672-2685. [12] Vedat Coskun, Kerem Ok and Busra Ordenizci, “Current Benefits and Future Directions of NFC Services”, Proc. of 2010 International Conference on Education and Management Technology (ICEMT), Cairo, Egypt, 2–4 November 2010, pp. 334–338.
  • [13] E. Haselsteiner, K. Breitfuß, “Security in Near Field Communication (NFC)”, in Workshop on RFID Security, 2006. [14] ECMA 386: NFC-SEC-01: NFC-SEC Cryptographic Standard using ECDH and AES, June 2010. [15] ECMA 385: NFC-SEC: NFCIP-1 Security Services and Protocol, June 2010. [16] Franssila H., “User Experiences and Acceptance Scenarios of NFC Applications in Security Service Field Work”, Proc. of the 2010 Second International Workshop on Near Field Communication, Monaco, 20–22 April 2010, pp. 39