2 bookend model


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2 bookend model

  1. 1. The Hebrew Calendar Issue THE QUESTION : Does the lunar month begin at the conjunction or the sighting of the first crescent moon?
  2. 2. What is at stake? <ul><li>What is at stake is the importance of following and observing all the “ moed ” or appointed times on the appointed days correctly as commanded in Torah by Yahuwah in Leviticus 23. </li></ul><ul><li>We know from scripture that Father’s ways of Measuring Time are different from man’s current ways of calculating time. </li></ul><ul><li>A day does not end and a new day begin at 12 midnight, but after sunset. ( and there was evening, then morning the first day ) If a day is divided by darkness, then why not a month? </li></ul><ul><li>A new year doesn’t begin on Jan 1st, but on the first day of the month of Abib. (Exodus 12:2 You are to begin your calendar with this month; it will be the first month of the year for you ) The Aramaic word Adar ( 12 th mo ) means “ darken eclipse ” which implies the new year comes out of darkness into light, the way a day ends and begins, so, why not the same for a month? </li></ul><ul><li>Each month does not begin according to the Gregorian calendar calculated by the earth revolving around the sun, but by the rotation of the moon around the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Gen 1:14 And Elohim said, &quot;Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons, ( moed ) days and years… </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Conjunction looks like this
  4. 4. The First Waxing Crescent looks like this <ul><li>Picture taken 5/15/2010 shortly after sunset of 1 st waxing crescent before nightfall and is untouched. Does this look like twilight to you? </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1 ST Waxing Crescent 6/13/2010 at 8:05PM 6 min after sunset!
  6. 6. Conjunctionist or Crescentist who is right and who is wrong? <ul><li>In the Messianic Faith movement today we have primarily two different belief systems on when a lunar month should end and when the lunar month should start. </li></ul><ul><li>The Conjunctionists believe that on the precise solar day that the Conjunction occurs on, should be proclaimed as both the last day of the old month and the 1 st day of the new month. </li></ul><ul><li>The Crescentists believe that on the evening the Crescent moon is sighted in Israel in the sky after sunset, that the count for the first day of the lunar month should begin forward from that evening, thus proclaiming the 1 st day of the new month. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the purpose of this presentation to prove that both theories miss the mark by isolating one another and leaving out critical pieces of the puzzle in an effort to build their doctrine. </li></ul><ul><li>We will present both sides of this issue and their faults and how the “ BOOKEND MODEL ” uses both the Conjunction and the sighting of the 1 st Crescent to determine the correct 1 st day of the month. Please do not considered this to be a new calendar. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>This issue has separated believers solely because of the importance of timing when to celebrate Yahuwah’s feast days. </li></ul><ul><li>We all agree the timing to celebrate the moed is very important and must be resolved if believers are to dwell together in unity. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible itself does not give any instruction as to what exactly, should constitute the &quot;new moon” , so let us keep an open mind and look at all the puzzle parts that we have and see if we can fit them all together for a clear picture and solve the riddle. </li></ul><ul><li>If we try to draw from Biblical history as to how Israel determined the first day of the month, it can be difficult but not impossible, because neither historians or the bible has been completely clear on the subject. There is certainly NO Biblical text mentioning the Crescent Moon as the beginning of the month, but we will take the WITNESSES we have, and use the spiritual discernment we have today to confirm what is truth. One witness is the Hebrew word Chodesh . </li></ul><ul><li>The Hebrew word Chodesh for MONTH or New Moon comes from the root word Chadash which means to be renewed , or repaired . The word chodesh has nothing to do with sighting the crescent. At the sighting of the first crescent, the moon has been waxing up to 1½ to 2 solar days from the timing of the Conjunction therefore the time of its renewal has passed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Crescentists and Conjunctionists have separated to each side of the pendulum on the calendar issue, each side taking pieces of truth, but neither side using all the pieces at their disposal. Each side is guilty of leaving parts of the puzzle out. </li></ul><ul><li>Lets keep in mind that we live in a time where the gift of knowledge has increased substantially, just as prophesied in Daniel 9, and our Messiah promised that the Holy Spirit would guide us into ALL truth, and I believe He desires to do that. </li></ul><ul><li>We live in a marvelous time period when we are all witnessing first hand a divine move of the Holy Spirit worldwide that is causing believers to finally understand who we are in Messiah; part of the common wealth of the House of Israel, as we look upon a tremendous enlightenment that is falling on our brethren, the House of Judah, as they come into believing in Y'shua as the Messiah in vast numbers never seen before. </li></ul><ul><li>All this is not mere coincidence. It is divine providence as we are getting ready to return to the land and fulfill prophecies our forefathers have been waiting to see for thousands of years. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>I said all that to remind us that in order to solve this riddle on the Hebraic Calendar, we not only need to gather accurate pieces from the past, but we need to take those puzzle pieces and match them up with the knowledge we have been given today and what the spirit is revealing to us now, in our generation, and see what picture comes into focus. </li></ul><ul><li>The final answer to this riddle should bring ALL the witnesses we have on this puzzle to the table to fit them tightly together, both past, and present, leaving nothing out. </li></ul><ul><li>What are those witnesses we call pieces of the puzzle? </li></ul><ul><li>We have the witness of the book of Enoch, and the witness of the historian Philo. We have the Torah, and we have both math and astronomy of today. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Let us start with some foundational understanding on Astronomy
  11. 11. A Brief History Lesson from Andrew Roth <ul><li>The Persians set up the zodiac based on 4 main stars in 3000 BCE and the Zodiac was the standard tracker of the solar year--in fact the most accurate measure of the year available until we could measure time from the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. </li></ul><ul><li>Meton developed the 19 year lunar cycle adapted by the Rabbinic calendar in 432 BCE. Hipparchus discovered the precession of the equinoxes in 128 BCE.  Aristarchus of Samos, wrote that the sun was the center of the solar system 2000 years before Copernicus.  </li></ul><ul><li>Eratosthenes accurately calculated the earth shape and circumference around 250 BCE.  And Ptolemy had his masterpiece on astronomy, the Almagest, as an ancient bestseller whose accuracy would not be superseded until Newton's &quot;Principia&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Where were all these classics? IN THE LIBRARY AT ALEXANDRIA--PHILO's home town.  Continued… </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Philo read all these things I mention. He is the only Jew to be well versed both in Hebrew mysticism and priestly secrets that he so frequently alludes to AND the best of the Greek knowledge which is itself derived partly from Egyptian, Persian and Babylonian systems before it. </li></ul><ul><li>Basically even pre-civilization stellar observances of polar stars would have suggested a practical 360 day year which we can track in the earliest civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt and elsewhere.  </li></ul><ul><li>The 360 day year with leap months at the end of 6 years was done by the Persians.  The Persians and Babylonians both anciently inter-calculated the years and tracked the equinoxes and conjunctions.  So did Egypt, which had 12 months 30 days each with 5 &quot;between the year days&quot; and a floating system that took 1460 years to balance by the Sothis ( Sirius ) star. </li></ul><ul><li>The Babylonians and the Persians were also the source of the &quot;Magi&quot;--Zoroastrian priests who tracked the star of Bethlehem otherwise known as Jupiter, but that's a long story.  Cont…   </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>So even if you could make an argument that ancient Israel was the dumbest of all people--simple farmers who couldn't track stars and what not--they were held captive by nations who imposed their calendar on them that they would have gotten used to.  </li></ul><ul><li>That's what Josephus and Philo both tell us, &quot;for thus they learned to order their months from Egypt&quot;--as Josephus says when dating the flood. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar burned the library in Alexandria by accident about 40 BCE, but he re-stocked it from copies at Rome and Philo read all these things I mention.  </li></ul><ul><li>So now Philo gets his chance to put ALL THIS STUFF together and what do we get? Exactly what we see in the writings he has left us, which matches perfectly with Biblical math. </li></ul><ul><li>Guesswork? Hardly!  Easy?  Far from it. </li></ul><ul><li>Words from Andrew Roth author of the Aramaic English New Testament </li></ul>
  14. 14. If you look directly across from the Full Moon you find both the Ending and the Beginning Point of the moons lunar cycle. This is called the Astronomical NEW MOON . This cycle completes between 29 and 30 solar days which averages 29.53 each month.
  15. 15. When the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun and all 3 are lined up, this is called the Conjunction , because two celestial bodies are conjoining at their closest points. There are 28 Moonrises and Moonsets during this complete cycle (4 sets of 7).
  16. 16. When the “true” Full Moon is completely 100% FULL of light, just like the conjunction when the moon appears dark, it only lasts for a moment, although it seems to last much longer. This happens on average, on the 14 th and 15 th solar day, on the lunar calendar.
  17. 17. It takes the Moon an average of 29.53 solar days, to circle the earth from conjunction to conjunction with the Sun ( synodic period ). From the Moon’s viewpoint with the Stars, it only takes 27.32 solar days to return to the point it started( sidereal period ).
  18. 18. Synodic and Sidereal Period of Moon Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fLhxF6cnUoQ
  19. 19. The moment the moon moves OFF the conjunction, a crescent immediately starts to form. This waxing moon cannot be seen from earth as it rises and sets with the sun for up to 18 hours without modern infrared cameras because of the suns brightness.
  20. 20. The 1 st solar day the Conjunction happens on does not affect the calendar immediately because that day must finish its 24 hours at sundown. The following solar day is recorded as the 1 st day on the lunar calendar, unless the Conjunction happens “ after ” sunset.
  21. 21. The Hebrew lunar calendar’s timing is set by Israel’s time clock. If the Conjunction happens after sunset Israeli time, then an extra day is added to the calendar. Amazingly when this happens it is always on the 29 th , so the 30 th day is added to the lunar calendar.
  22. 22. The Conjunction is not to be confused with a lunar eclipse. This takes place when the Full Moon is on the opposite side of the earth and passes through the earth’s shadow in perfect alignment and the earth’s shadow blocks out the moon for several minutes.
  23. 23. When the Conjunction is lined up perfectly on the ecliptic plane a solar eclipse is caused during the day, when what we call a “Dark Moon” occurs blocking out the sunlight during the day by casting its shadowy foot print on parts the earth, but not the whole earth.
  24. 24. During the Conjunction the moon appears to be in darkness but the reason the moon cannot be seen from earth for up to 36 hours is because it is hidden by the brightness of the sun, as it rises and sets in unison with the sun during the course of up to 3 solar days.
  25. 25. NASA put on an Extreme Lunar Crescent Contest in 2007 and this was one of Martin Elsasser winning pictures taken in Germany just over 4 hours after the Miracle of the Conjunction.
  26. 26. The pictures were taken on a mountain in Austria and this is the special tracking equipment and infrared camera Martin used to take the award winning pictures in 2007.
  27. 27. In 2008 Martin set a world record in Munich Germany by taking pictures minutes before the Conjunction. This is the new special tracking equipment and baffle system, infrared camera he used.
  28. 28. Martin’s infrared picture taken minutes before the Conjunction just before the lunar month comes to an end . It is at the moment of the Conjunction on the Feast of Trumpets that the Messiah will return, raising the dead and catching up those who remain, with Him.
  29. 29. Martin was delayed taking pictures immediately after the Conjunction due to clouds. According to ancient historian's at the moment of the Conjunction the lunar month comes to an end.
  30. 30. Martin took this 44 minutes after the Conjunction. The New Moon Crescent actually forms moments after the Conjunction. If this were to take place after sunset, Israel time, an addition day would be added to the calendar before the 1 st day could be declared.
  31. 31. The Problems with Conjunctionist and Crescentist Lunar Calendars
  32. 32. Lets Identify the Puzzle Pieces
  33. 33. Lets Identify the Puzzle Pieces
  34. 34. Lets Identify the Puzzle Pieces
  35. 35. Lets Identify the Puzzle Pieces
  36. 36. Lets be clear from the start… <ul><li>There is probably NO current Lunar Calendar in use today that clearly uses all these puzzle pieces. If they were honest and looked at all these pieces to the puzzle they would see the faults in their calendar. </li></ul><ul><li>Most everyone that follows a lunar calendar has been led to believe that there is primarily only two belief systems, and that is, either the Conjunctionist or the Crescentist interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one lunar calendar that uses all these witnesses and that is the Bookend Model which is the only calendar the Levite Priest could have used to determine the correct 1 st day of the month so that the “lunar” day comes to an END at the conjunction, as ancient witnesses claim and so the feast days which fall in the middle of the month on the 14 th and 15 th will also have the glory of the Full Moon at that time. This is NOT a NEW Calendar but it is the sacred calendar finally resurrected. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Conjunctionists have a problem when starting and ending their month on the same day of the conjunction because: </li></ul><ul><li>1. each lunar month must have either 29 or 30 days, no more, no less. By ending and starting their count from conjunction to conjunction, the lunar calendar will NEVER have 29 solar days but will oscillate between 30 and 31 solar days. </li></ul><ul><li>2. a lunar year should only average 354.37 solar days. At the end of the year Conjunctionist will have on average 366 solar days. That is more days than the Gregorian’s calendar of 365 ! </li></ul><ul><li>3. their full moon will fall on average, either on the 15 th or 16 th of their month instead of the 14 th and 15 th . According to Philo the Full Moon should fall on Passover in the spring, on the 14 th and on the 15 th in the fall for Tabernacles. The Conjunctionist Full Moon would be on the 16 th for Passover and the same for Tabernacles the full moon falling on their 16 th of their month. </li></ul><ul><li>4. this theory also ignores the purpose of sighting the Crescent, which historians declare was factual and had a purpose. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Even if Conjunctionists want to claim their month ends on the day before the Conjunction occurs, they will still be in error because a day ends after sunset, and they will be proclaiming, from that evening their 1 st day of the month up to 12 hours before the occurrence of the Conjunction the following day. This is like celebrating Sabbath 12 hours before the sunsets on Friday evening. Even if the Conjunction happens after sunset and they add an extra day this doesn’t clear up their problems because this will inadvertently give them 31 days in a month. </li></ul><ul><li>All this proves is the 1 st day cannot start on the calendar on the same day the Conjunction falls on because it does not go along with the lunar math or the witness of ancient historians. </li></ul><ul><li>We know from the book of Enoch, as well as ancient historian’s that the lunar month, and the counting must come to an end at the Conjunction. But remember, the day the Conjunction occurs on cannot immediately affect the lunar calendar because that solar day must have time to come to an end at sundown. </li></ul><ul><li>So, what purpose does the Conjunction serve? We will see… </li></ul>
  39. 39. Figures below from the Conjunctionist Calendar for 2010 . Please notice that their calendar NEVER has a full moon on the 14 th but only on the 15 th and 16 th and twice on the 17 th and there is never a month with 29 solar days. This year also ends with 366 days. <ul><li>Jan 30 th F.M. ( 16 th Shevat Full Moon F.M.) a 31 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 28 th F.M. ( 15 th of Adar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>March 30 th F.M. ( 16 th of Abib Passover F.M.) a 31 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>April 28 th F.M. ( 15 th Iyar F.M.) a 31 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>May 28 th F.M. ( 15 th Sivan F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>June 26 th F.M. ( 15 th Tamuz F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 th F.M. ( 16 th Av F.M.) a 31 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>August 24 th F.M. ( 15 th Elul F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>September 23 rd F.M. ( 16 th of Tishrei F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>October 23 rd F.M. ( 17 th of Cheshvan F.M.) a 31 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>November 21 st F.M. ( 16 th of Kislev F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>December 21 st F.M. ( 17 th of Tevet F.M.) a 31 Day Month </li></ul>
  40. 40. Ancient Witnesses Testify… <ul><li>Book of Enoch Section III: 78:13…on the side whence the light of the moon comes forth, there again she wanes till all the light vanishes and all the days of the month are at an end , and her circumference is empty, void of light . </li></ul><ul><li>Philo: (178)...the two young bulls since there are two motions of the MOON as it continually runs its double-course- -the motion of waxing until full MOON and the motion of waning until its CONJUNCTION with the sun; one ram since there is one principle of reason by which the MOON waxes and wanes in equal intervals , both as it increases and diminishes in illumination ; the seven lambs because it receives the perfect shapes in periods of seven days--the half- MOON in the first seven day period after its CONJUNCTION with the sun, full MOON in the second; and when it makes its return again, the first is to half- MOON , then it ceases at its CONJUNCTION with the sun . </li></ul><ul><li>If a day is divided at darkness, then why wouldn’t a month? </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Below Philo is describing a period of time  during the beginning of the month, not a specific day . We must balance out ALL of Philo’s statements, not just one. </li></ul><ul><li>XXVI. (140) Following the order which we have adopted, we proceed to speak of the third festival, that of the new moon . First of all, because it is the beginning of the month , and the beginning, whether of number or of time , is honourable. Secondly, because at this time there is nothing in the whole of heaven destitute of light. (141) Thirdly, because at that Period ( of time ) the more powerful and important body gives a portion of necessary assistance to the less important and weaker body; for, at the time of the new moon , the sun begins to illuminate the moon with a light which is visible to the outward senses, and then she displays her own beauty to the beholders . Italics mine </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot have the counting of the month END at the Conjunction, as Philo and Enoch state, and then have a one to two “0” day or days before counting forward for the first day of the month when the Crescent finally appears. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Crescentists have a real problem ending and starting a month at the First Sighting of the Crescent Moon in Israel because: </li></ul><ul><li>1. it completely ignores any verbiage from historian's that the month comes to an END ( stops the count ) at the Conjunction . </li></ul><ul><li>2. although starting and ending the count from crescent to crescent will always give you correctly a 29 or 30 solar day month, the problem is that 6 to 7 times each year the Full Moon will come and go on their 14 th of the month, falling prematurely on their 13 th . Another words, their 14 th of the month only lands properly on the Full Moon 4 to 5 times each year, the rest of the time the Full Moon lands on their 13 th each month. Do you want to follow a calendar that the timing of their Full Moon neither confirms the math but also ignores the witnesses of Historian‘s by not falling regularly on the 14 th and 15 th each month? </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Hebrew meaning of the word chodesh to renew couldn’t take place at the crescent sighting because the moon started waxing moments after the conjunction up to 2 days earlier. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Figures below are the Crescentist Calendar for the year 2010 . Notice their calendar has only 1 full moon on the 15 th the rest on the 13 th and 14 th and 7 months the Full Moon falls prematurely including Sukkot. <ul><li>Jan 30 th F.M. ( 14 th Shevat Full Moon F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 28 th F.M. ( 13 th of Adar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>March 30 th F.M. ( 13 th of Abib Passover F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>April 28 th F.M. ( 13 th Iyar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>May 28 th F.M. ( 13 th Sivan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>June 26 th F.M. ( 13 th Tamuz F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 th F.M. ( 13 th Av F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>August 24 th F.M. ( 13 th Elul F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 23 rd F.M. ( 14 th of Tishrei F.M. Sukkot ) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>October 23 rd F.M. ( 14 th of Cheshvan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>November 21 st F.M. ( 15 th of Kislev F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>December 21 st F.M. ( 14 th of Tevet F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul>
  44. 44. Now lets look at the Hebrew Karaite Calendar for 2010 from Abib to Adar . The Full Moon falls prematurely 6 times on the 13 th and twice on the 15 th , thus falling correctly only 6 months during half of their year and off by one day for Passover and Sukkot . <ul><li>2010 March 30 th F.M. ( 13 th of Abib Passover) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>April 28 th F.M. ( 13 th Iyar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>May 28 th F.M. ( 13 th Sivan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>June 26 th F.M. ( 13 th Tamuz F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 th F.M. ( 13 th Av F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>August 24 th F.M. ( 13 th Elul F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 23 rd F.M. ( 14 th of Tishrei F.M. Sukkot ) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>October 23 rd F.M. ( 14 th of Cheshvan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>November 21 st F.M. ( 15 th of Kislev F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>December 21 st F.M. ( 14 th of Tevet F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>2011 Jan 20 th F.M. ( 15 th of Shevat F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>February 18 th F.M. ( 14 th of Adar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul>
  45. 45. Figures below are the Crescentist Calendar for the year 2011 . The Full Moon will fall early on their 13 th 5 times and only once on their 15 th . This is NOT a balanced calendar. Being off 24 hours is close but causes us to celebrate feast days off by one day. <ul><li>Jan 19 th F.M. ( 15 th Shevat Full Moon F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 18 th F.M. ( 14 th of Adar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>March 19 th F.M. ( 14 th of Abib Passover F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>April 18 th F.M. ( 14 th Iyar F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>May 17 th F.M. ( 13 th Sivan F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>June 15 th F.M. ( 13 th Tamuz F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>July 15 th F.M. ( 13 th Av F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>August 13 th F.M. ( 13 th Elul F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 12 th F.M. ( 13 th of Tishrei F.M. Sukkot ) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>October 12 rd F.M. ( 14 th of Cheshvan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>November 10 th F.M. ( 14 th of Kislev F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>December 10 th F.M. ( 14 th of Tevet F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul>
  46. 46. Now lets look at the Hebrew Karaite Calendar for 2011 from Abib to Adar . The Full Moon falls prematurely 5 times on the 13 th and once on their 15 th thus falling correctly only 7 months during their year and off by 2 days for Sukkot but the year only has 353 days. <ul><li>2011 March 19 th F.M. ( 14 th of Abib Passover) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>April 18 th F.M. ( 14 th Iyar F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>May 17 th F.M. ( 13 th Sivan F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>June 15 th F.M. ( 13 th Tamuz F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>July 15 th F.M. ( 13 th Av F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>August 13 th F.M. ( 13 th Elul F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 12 th F.M. ( 13 th of Tishrei F.M. Sukkot ) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>October 12 rd F.M. ( 14 th of Cheshvan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>November 10 th F.M. ( 14 th of Kislev F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>December 10 th F.M. ( 14 th of Tevet F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>2012 Jan 9 th F.M. ( 14 th of Shevat F.M.) a 29 Day month </li></ul><ul><li>February 8 th F.M. ( 15 th of Adar F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Geza Vermes, the premier Dead Sea Scrolls researcher explains that the non-sectarian Jewish calendar was regulated by the lunar movements with monthly variations of 29 or 30 days. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a 354 -day, 8 hours, 48’ 38” year, or 354 ¼ that needed to be adjusted by adding an additional 29 day month every 36 lunar months (or 3 years), or six times in a 19 year cycle a 13 th month is added to adjust the calendar which will keep the seasons on track because a solar year comprises of 365 days, 5 hours, 48’ 48”. The difference between a lunar year and a solar year amounts, to 10 days 21 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>A kesidrah year (&quot;regular&quot; or &quot;in-order&quot;) will have 6 months of 29 days and 6 months of 30 days totaling 354 ¼ solar days, no more, no less. There is a near-repetition every 247 years, except for an excess of 50 minutes (905 parts). </li></ul><ul><li>The Crescentist calendar is unstable and unbalanced in their math concerning their timing of the Full Moon falling irregularly on the 13 th and 14 th and rarely on the 15 th . For the Hebrew calendar year of 2011, Abib/Adar, the year only had 353 days. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Philo’s Witness of Sukkot, Full Moon on the 15 th <ul><li>  (189) On the FIFTEENTH day, at full MOON , the feast which is called &quot; the feast of booths &quot; is celebrated for which the supplies of the sacrifices are more numerous . (155)…and this feast is begun on the fifteenth day of the month, in the middle of the month, on the day on which the moon is full of light , in consequence of the providence of God taking care that there shall be no darkness on that day. (Spe 2:155 PHE) </li></ul><ul><li>Also: (210) Again, the beginning of this festival is appointed for the fifteenth day of the month, on account of the reason which has already been mentioned respecting the spring season, also that the world may be full, not by day only but also by night, of the most beautiful light, the sun and moon on their rising opposite to one another with uninterrupted light, without any darkness interposing itself between so as to divide them. (Spe 2:210 PHE) </li></ul><ul><li>Remember in the winter the Crescentist’s 15 th of the month falls AFTER the Full Moon ! Their math isn’t consistent ! </li></ul>
  49. 49. Philo’s Witness of Passover beginning on a Full Moon on the 14 th of the Month <ul><li>(224) Accordingly, in this month, about the fourteenth day of the month, when the orb of the moon is usually about to become full , the public universal feast of the Passover is celebrated, which in the Chaldaic language is called Pascha; at which festival not only do private individuals bring victims to the altar and the priests sacrifice them, but also, by a particular ordinance of this law, the whole nation is consecrated and officiates in offering sacrifice; every separate individual on this occasion bringing forward and offering up with his own hands the sacrifice due on his own behalf. (Mos 2:224 PHE) </li></ul><ul><li>Why would Philo say “ about the fourteenth day ”, and “ about to become full ”? Because sometime between twilight on the 14 th and the 15 th the moon WILL BE FULL. That means the timing must be PRECISELY synched to 14-15 for the 1st FULL MOON and NOT the 13-14. Amazingly the moon is first Full on the 14 th if you are following the “ Bookend Model ” Calendar.   </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The fact that Historian’s state the month comes to an END at the Conjunction can imply only one thing. That the counting of the month comes to an END at the Conjunction, period! If you both end and start the month at the sighting of the crescent, this will go against ancient witnesses as well as the timing of the Full Moon falling in the middle of the lunar Calendar on the 14 th and 15 th . The math must also balance out as a witness. To ignore these facts is either ignorance or irresponsibleness. </li></ul><ul><li>Philo of Alexandria writes: &quot; The third [feast] is the New Moon which follows the conjunction of the moon with the sun &quot;. [ tr. by F H Colson (Harvard University Press, Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, MA, 1937); The Special Laws, II, XI,41 ]. </li></ul><ul><li>And in II, XXVI,140 : &quot; This is the New Moon , or beginning of the lunar month, namely the period between one conjunction and the next , the length of which has been accurately calculated in the astronomical schools &quot;. It should be noted that the popular Hendrickson Publishers edition (1993) of C D Jonge’s 1854 translation does not have the same information that the Colson translation gives. The indications are that the conjunctions were the determining factors in deciding the first day of the month . </li></ul><ul><li>Without a doubt, the Conjunction’s role cannot be ignored. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Philo states: 257 And the expression &quot; from &quot; has a double sense . One , that by which the starting point from which it begins is included ; the other that by which it is excluded . For when we say that from morning to evening there are twelve hours, or from the new moon to the end of the month there are thirty days, we are including in our enumeration both the first hour and the day of the new moon . And when any one says that such and such a field is three or four furlongs distant from the city, he clearly means to leave the city itself out of that measurement. (Som 2:257 PHE) </li></ul><ul><li>What is he saying? When you count the 12 hours from morning to evening, the count starts at the beginning of the first hour, at zero, but it is not numbered as ONE until after the first hour is complete. So it is with the new moon happening at the Conjunction but you do not count it as ONE until the close of the solar day. You cannot get 30 days if you start counting after the first sighting of the crescent forward and end at the new moon Conjunction. That would be less than 29 days. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Philo’s witness of the equal halves <ul><li>If you do not start your month on the right day then the orbit of the moon will not be divided equally, thus discounting the math and historical witnesses. Again we hear Philo proclaim: </li></ul><ul><li>(178)…since there are Two Motions of the MOON as it continually runs its double-course --the motion of Waxing until Full MOON and the motion of Waning until its CONJUNCTION with the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>(234) Again, are not the periods of the MOON, as she advances and retraces her course, from a CRESCENT to a full circle, and again, from a complete orb to a CRESCENT, also measured by an equality of distances ? </li></ul><ul><li>101 XXXIV. And the number so produced, is calculated to reproduce the revolutions of the moon, bringing her back to the point from which she first began to increase in a manner perceptible by the external senses, and to which she returns by waning. continued … </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>For she increases from her first crescent-shaped figure, to that of a half circle in seven days; and in seven more , she becomes a full orb; and then again she turns back , retracing the same path, like a runner of the diaulos, receding from an orb full of light, to a half circle again in seven days, and lastly, in an equal number she diminishes from a half circle to the form of a crescent; and thus the number before mentioned is completed . (Opi 1:101 PHE) </li></ul><ul><li>… like the MOON , which from its first rise proceeds in its increase according to an equal number , going onward to its Perfect Fullness of Light , and then again with an Equal Number in its Decrease , returning back to its original state , after having been previously Full ; and in like manner in the case of Divine Chastisements, the Creator preserves a regular order, banishing all irregularity from the divine borders. ( He explains 4 sets of 7’s totaling 28 , from 1 st waxing crescent to last waning crescent. He’s not inferring this to coincide with a calendar count which requires 29 to 30 days ) </li></ul>
  54. 54. If sight alone was the way Israel set their calendar up, then what did they do during the spring and winter rains when the sky remained cloudy for months?
  55. 55. Depending on the authoritative rabbinical opinion you follow, nightfall is defined in the Jewish Talmud as being &quot; the end of sunset &quot; and occurs anytime from 20 min. to 1 hour after sunset , depending on your geographic location when 3 medium size stars are seen, and twilight (dusk) when 2 medium stars can be seen.
  56. 56. The Bookend Model uses the sighting of the first crescent as a marker to close out the first day of the new month. Does this look like this day has ended according to Hebrew reckoning of time?
  57. 57. <ul><li>The simple truth is, the moment the sun sets, isn’t when the old day slams shut and the new day begins immediately, any more than when the last waning crescent sets out of view on the morning of the 28 th or 29 th just before sunrise doesn’t mean the lunar month has come to an end either, because the period of time called the Dark Moon (conjunction) hasn’t occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Within minutes after sunset, it is possible to view the first waxing crescent in a completely BLUE sky and according to the Talmud you may still be in the same day actually viewing the last closing period of the same day. The first crescent does not actually set until at least one to two hours, after sunset. </li></ul><ul><li>The Babylonian Talmud states : Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: When [only] one star [is visible], it is day ; when two [appear], it is twilight ; three , it is night . It was taught likewise: When one star [is visible], it is day; when two [appear], it is twilight; three, it is night. R. Jose b. Abin  said: Not the large stars , which are visible by day , nor the small ones , which are visible only at night , but the medium sized . </li></ul>
  58. 58. When does a Day End According to Torah? <ul><li>We know from creation that a day ends at evening and is measured from evening until evening as confirmed in: </li></ul><ul><li>Gen 1:8 And there was evening , and there was morning … </li></ul><ul><li>Ex 27:21 Aaron and his sons shall order it from evening to morning before Yahuwah … </li></ul><ul><li>Lev 23:32 on the ninth day of the month at evening , from evening to evening , you shall celebrate your Sabbath . </li></ul><ul><li>According to Hebrew reckoning when does evening begin ? Rabbis have been arguing over this for thousands of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Evening in Hebrew is Strong’s OT:6153 ` ereb (eh'-reb); from OT:6150; dusk (twilight) to night (darkness). </li></ul><ul><li>The Hebrew word nesheph for twilight is that part of time considered to come after sunset called DUSK and before night. </li></ul><ul><li>Evening is the period of time that starts sometime after sunset from either Dusk (twilight) or actual Nightfall , Darkness. So a day ends at the earliest at Dusk/twilight, at the latest Nightfall. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Nehemiah 13:19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the Sabbath , I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the Sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the Sabbath day. KJV </li></ul><ul><li>The word dark in this verse in Hebrew is OT:6751 tsalal (tsaw-lal'); to shade, as twilight or an opaque object: KJV - begin to be dark , shadowing. </li></ul><ul><li>This verse implies that Sabbath did not begin, and consequently the doors of the temple were not closed until twilight fell, which was after sunset . Twilight can begin any time between 20 minutes and 1 hour after sunset when 2 medium size stars can be observed. </li></ul>
  60. 60. A comment from rabbi Reuven Lauffer <ul><li>The END of the day is normally calculated as being about fifteen minutes after sunset however the new day does not begin until nightfall which is normally defined by it being dark enough to see three medium stars in the night sky . </li></ul>
  61. 61. What was Happening During the 2 nd Temple Period? <ul><li>All records for the most part have been lost or destroyed during the 1 st Temple Period, but we do have evidence from the Talmud concerning the loss of Priests who died during the 2 nd Temple Period. We know that after Babylon the Priesthood was corrupt in many ways. The question remains, why were so many Priests dying? Could it be they were entering into the Holy of Holies on Day of Atonement on the WRONG DAY ? Is this why they started tying a cord to the Priests who entered? </li></ul><ul><li>Yoma, 9a. States : “The Second Temple stood for 420 years, ve-shimshu bo yoter mi-shelosh meot Kohanim, and more than 300 served as High Priest over that period.  Take out forty years in which Shimon the Tzaddik was the High Priest and deduct another 80 years in which Yochanan the Kohen Gadol served, and ten more years that Elazar b. Charson served.”  That leaves 300 priests over 290 years.  “Kol echad ve-echad lo hotzi shenato, none of them lived out their year in office.”  continued… </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Soncino Zohar, Vayikra, Section 3, Page 102a states : R. Isaac said: ‘A cord was tied to the feet of the High Priest before he entered the Holy of Holies, so that if he died suddenly within they should be able to draw him out. </li></ul><ul><li>Yoma 9a also states : Rabba bar bar Hana in the name of R. Johanan said: It is written [in Proverbs x. 27]: &quot;The fear of the Lord increases man's days, but the years of the wicked will be shortened.&quot; &quot;The fear of the Lord increases the days&quot;; that refers to the first Temple, during whose existence of four hundred and ten years there were only eighteen high-priests. &quot;The years of the wicked will be shortened,&quot; refers to the second Temple, which existed four hundred and twenty years, and more than three hundred high-priests succeeded each other during that period. Subtract the forty years during which Simeon the Righteous ministered, eighty years of Johanan the high-priest's ministry, ten years of Ishmael b. Favi according to others, eleven years of R. Eleazer b. Harsum--and compute, you will see that not even one high-priest completed his year. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Then comes Hillel the Elder <ul><li>Although it is argued how many priests died as well as what caused their deaths, it is agreed that the troubles of the 2 nd temple period were great for many reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>What is testified to in the Talmud and rabbinic writings is the restoring of the calendar by calculations by Hillel the Elder a Pharisaic leader just before the messiah was born. </li></ul><ul><li>Magid Harakia writes: Establishing the beginning of months (Rosh Hodesh) through sighting the New Moon is an ancient law in Israel. The antiquity of this practice is documented in many early sources, Karaite as well as Rabbanite. The decree of establishing the Rosh Hodesh on the basis of calculations which are unconnected to the appearance of the moon was enacted by the Rabbanite, Hillel the Elder . The method was guarded as a secret to keep the people from knowing about the change and therefore was called by our brothers the Rabbanites “The Secret of Intercalation” (this is testified to in Rabbinite works, of “Magid Harakia” page 35). </li></ul>
  64. 64. In Summary… <ul><li>If you follow the day the Conjunction occurs on, as the first day of the lunar month, the timing of the Full Moon will fall late on their 16 th of the month 7 to 8 times each year, only getting it correct 4 to 5 times each year on their 15 th of their calendar. </li></ul><ul><li>If you follow the day the Crescent is sighted, forward, each month, the timing of the Full Moon will fall prematurely on the 13 th of the month 7 to 8 times each year, only getting it correct 4 to 5 times each year on their 14 th of their month. </li></ul><ul><li>What is correct? The Full Moon must fall regularly on the 14 th and 15 th day, each month to confirm the witness and the math. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Conjunctionist and Crescentist are guilty of ignoring the balance of the math concerning the Full Moon , and the witnesses of historian’s concerning the 14 th and 15 th . </li></ul><ul><li>The Crescentist are guilty of ignoring the witnesses of the month ending at the Conjunction, while the Conjunctionist are guilty of ignoring the importance of sighting the crescent. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>There are TWO SETS of counting going on and we must understand each set and there relationship to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>From the day of the first waxing crescent moon to the last waning crescent moon is 28 days or 4 sets of 7’s. These numbers have nothing to do with the counting on the lunar calendar and this is where the confusion can easily occur. </li></ul><ul><li>The 4 sets of 7’s is merely describing the days that the moon can be seen each month called its quarterly observances . There is 1 to 2 more solar days each month when the moon cannot be seen that must be counted on the lunar calendar for the month to have a total of either 29 or 30 solar days . </li></ul><ul><li>Crescentist want to mix the fixed 28 day quarter lunar count observance with the fixed 29 to 30 solar day calendar count. By starting their count on the calendar from the 1 st sighting of the waxing crescent quarterly moon this will not only affect the witness of the timing of the Full Moon to not fall regularly on the 14 th and 15 th , but it ignores the purpose of the conjunction in its relationship with both the calendar and the lunar cycle. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Yahuwah’s Sacred Calendar <ul><li>The Proper Ancient Hebraic Lunar Calendar </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>So named, the “ Bookend Model ” because like bookends, the Conjunction and the 1 st Crescent comprise a timing of the “ New Moon Period ” that Philo alludes to in XXVI (140) . The Conjunction looks forward, and the Crescent looks backward. </li></ul><ul><li>Early on, the ancients may not have known the “exact” time of the Conjunction, and thus the Hebrew idiom, “ no man knows the hour or the day ” came about, but today, we DO KNOW, down to the minute, when both the Conjunction and the Full Moon takes place. Should we ignore this knowledge? This knowledge can actually help to confirm and tie all the pieces of the puzzle together in our generation if used properly and solve this riddle that has separated brethren. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bookend Model fits everything the ancients have been trying to speak to us in their writings, as well as the Torah, and last but not least, the increase in knowledge, by which, we have been given from computers to confirm all this information with the witness of the MATH. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>The Bookend Model utilizes both the Conjunction and the sighting of the 1 st Crescent. The best of both worlds leaving nothing out but each relying on the other to set the timing of the 1 st day. A system of checks and balances. The ancients may not have known the exact timing of the Conjunction until after the event took place because they may have had to analyze all their information as they were experiencing the event. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, by sighting the 1 st Crescent they would be able to confirm their calculations of when the conjunction happened relative to the observance of the Full Moon. </li></ul><ul><li>They knew for certain the month would either have 29 or 30 days, but anyone who follows the lunar calendar regularly knows there doesn’t seem to be a set pattern as to when they occur. They could only know, that it would be, either a one day dark moon, or a two day dark moon, no more and no less. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the 1 st Crescent confirmed the timing of the Conjunction and set the first day of the month. Today, we can figure out these events in advance with computers. It’s a no brainer! </li></ul>
  69. 69. Figures below are from the Bookend Model for the year 2010 . If you start your calendar off on the right solar day, then it should have and equal number of 29 and 30 day months (6 each), and the Full Moon should fall on the 14 th or 15 th with 354 annual days. <ul><li>Jan 30 th 2010 ( 15 th Shevat Full Moon F.M .) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 28 th ( 14 th of Adar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>March 30 th ( 14 th of Abib Passover F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>April 28 th ( 14 th Iyar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>May 28 th ( 14 th Sivan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>June 26 th ( 14 th Tamuz F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 th ( 14 th Av F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>August 24 th ( 14 th Elul F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>September 23 rd ( 15 th of Tishrei F.M. Sukkot) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>October 23 rd ( 15 th of Cheshvan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>November 21 st ( 15 th of Kislev F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>December 21 st ( 15 th of Tevet F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul>
  70. 70. Figures below are from the Bookend Model for the Hebrew Calenda r Abib / Adar year 2010 . It still has an equal number of 29 and 30 day months (6 each), and the Full Moon should fall on average between the 14 th or 15 th with 354 annual days. <ul><li>2010 March 30 th ( 14 th of Abib Passover F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>April 28 th ( 14 th Iyar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>May 28 th ( 14 th Sivan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>June 26 th ( 14 th Tamuz F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 th ( 14 th Av F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>August 24 th ( 14 th Elul F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>September 23 rd ( 15 th of Tishrei F.M. Sukkot) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>October 23 rd ( 15 th of Cheshvan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>November 21 st ( 15 th of Kislev F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>December 21 st ( 15 th of Tevet F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>2011 Jan 20 th ( 16 t h of Shevat F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>February 15 th ( 15 th of Adar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul>
  71. 71. The Bookend Model Hebrew Calendar for 2011 / 2012 is perfect in every detail except for the Full Moon falling one day on the 16 th . Also, again the year has 354 days when you exclude Adar II. <ul><li>2011 March 30 th The V.E. falls after the 14 th so Adar II added </li></ul><ul><li>April 18 th ( 15 th Abib F.M. PASSOVER ) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>May 17 th ( 14 th Iyar F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>June 16 th ( 14 th Sivan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>July 15 th ( 14 th Tamuz F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>August 14 th ( 14 th Av F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>September 13 rd ( 15 th of Elul F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>October 12 th ( 15 th of Tishrei F.M. SUKKOT ) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>November 11 th ( 15 th of Cheshvan F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>December 10 th ( 15 th of Kislev F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>2012 Jan 9 th ( 15 th of Tevet F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>February 8 th ( 16 th of Shevat F.M.) a 30 Day Month </li></ul><ul><li>March 8 th ( 15 th Adar F.M.) a 29 Day Month </li></ul>
  72. 72. Below is a portion of the 2010 Bookend Model Calendar showing if the 1 st day of the month is started correctly then Passover , in the Spring , will fall on the Full Moon , on the 14 th just as Philo indicates. Notice also, how the Full Moon comes and goes on the Karaite Calendar and falls late on the Conjunctionist Calendar.
  73. 73. Again, from the 2010 Bookend Model Calendar, if the 1 st day of the new month starts correctly notice the timing of the Full Moon falls on the 1 st day of the fall Feast of Tabernacles. Also notice again how the Conjunctionist 15 th falls early and the Karaite calendar falls late , two days after the Full Moon. ( all dates were taken from Karaite web site )
  74. 74. <ul><li>Ps 81:3 Blow up the trumpet in the New Moon , in the Time Appointed , on our solemn feast day . KJV </li></ul><ul><li>This text can speak volumes to us in regard to the importance of when the NEW MOON actually occurs. We know the word for New Moon here is Chodesh , which comes from the root word Chadash which means to rebuild , repair , or renew . </li></ul><ul><li>The key is to know when to blow the trumpets at the New Moon , Chodesh/Chadash and the Hebrew word used for Appointed Time , is Kece or Keceh whose root word is Kacah which means to cover , conceal , hide , cloth , secrecy , or overwhelm . Job 26:9 He covers the face of the moon (kacah). </li></ul><ul><li>He is not speaking of a Full Moon as some interpretations allude to. He is speaking only of single event, the new moon and his witness gives us insight as to when the month starts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hebrew says: Blow the trumpet at the New Moon , when the moon is CONCEALED ( kacah ), on our solemn feast day . </li></ul><ul><li>The evidence David has supplied to us is monumental to when the New Moon actually occurs. Clearly, it is when the moon is covered , concealed , hidden , clothed , in secrecy , or overwhelm , at the CONJUNCTION !! </li></ul><ul><li>Pro 12:23  A wise man conceals ( kacah ) knowledge ….. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Conversation between David and Jonathan <ul><li>It was during the time of King Saul that we know for certain they celebrated two days for the New Moon Period of time. This is a strong witness because we know today that there are 2 to 3 days from Conjunction to the 1 st sighting of the Crescent moon. Both Conjunctionist and Crescentist ignore this because both want to ignore the importance of the other, consequently the two day celebration in 1 Samuel means very little. </li></ul><ul><li>Their conversation only supports the Bookend Model’s Math. </li></ul><ul><li>DAY 28 . In 1 Sam 20:5 David said to Jonathan, Look , tomorrow is the New Moon . What were they Looking at ??? It could only have been the last waning crescent on the 28 th day. </li></ul><ul><li>Day 29 . First evening feast, on the DARK MOON DAY. </li></ul><ul><li>Day 1 . The 2 nd evening feast was after sighting of the First Waxing Crescent. If they had not spotted the crescent that day they may have known to add a 30 th day to the calendar depending on their Full Moon calculations. continued … </li></ul>
  76. 76. Conversation between David and Jonathan <ul><li>24 It came about the next day, the second day of the new moon , that David's place was empty; so Saul said to Jonathan his son, &quot;Why has the son of Jesse not come to the meal, either yesterday or today?” </li></ul><ul><li>34 Then Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did not eat food on the second day of the new moon , for he was grieved over David because his father had dishonored him . </li></ul><ul><li>So, you have to ask the question, if the crescent is the first marker, forward, on the Karaite Calendar--why then would they have a feast on the SECOND day of the month? </li></ul><ul><li>The fact is, the only way you reason two feast days is by starting at the conjunction on the 1 st Dark Moon Day. </li></ul><ul><li>The new moon is proclaimed over 2 days. That must bring the conjunction in as marker one and the sighting of the 1 st crescent as marker two looking backward on the day it is seen. </li></ul><ul><li>The Crescent confirms the timing of the conjunction . </li></ul>
  77. 77. Lets make it even clearer…because the importance of this cannot be underestimated <ul><li>How could David and Jonathan know for certain that the next day was the New Moon unless they had observed the last waning crescent and knew of the feast that was planned on the next day? </li></ul><ul><li>Crescentist want to believe that the 2 nd day of the feast fell on Tishrei 2. But what would be the significance of having a costly feast on the second day of any month ? The day to celebrate is the dark moon and the first day of the month which follows. </li></ul>Sept 7 th 28 th Elul Last sighting of waning crescent 1 Sam 20:5 David says to Jonathan, “ tomorrow is the new moon .” Sept 8 th 29 th Elul Conjunction at 1:30 PM 1 Sam 20:24 FIRST evening Feast. DARK MOON Sept 9 th @ 1 st Tishrei 1 st Waxing Crescent sighted at evening . 1 Sam 20:27 SECOND evening Feast. Sept 10 th 2 nd Tishrei 1 Sam 20:12 The THIRD day when David and Jonathan met.
  78. 78. <ul><li>In the parable of the 10 virgins Y'shua says in Matt 25:6 &quot;At midnight the cry rang out: 'Here's the bridegroom! Come out to meet him!” Is Y'shua speaking of 12 midnight? Not really, because it is only 12 midnight in one time zone at a time in the entire world, and at His return the whole world will see Him. </li></ul><ul><li>As messianic believers most of us understand that the Messiah’s return will take place at the last trump as Paul speaks in 1 Cor. 15:52. The event Paul is speaking of is the fulfilling of the Feast of Trumpets on the first day of the 7 th month, which happens in the fall festival, on a day and hour no man knows ( Hebrew idiom ) except the Father. </li></ul><ul><li>What Y'shua is saying is that He, the bridegroom, will come in the middle of the darkness , as in the darkness of the middle of the lunar cycle which falls during the conjunction. </li></ul><ul><li>At the moment the conjunction occurs on the first day of the 7 th month for Feast of Trumpets, Y'shua will return, and every eye will see Him no matter where you are on earth, for His return will be brighter than the noon day sun. Is our Messiah possibly giving us another witness to the timing of His return when he tells this story in Matt 25? </li></ul>
  79. 79. The new moon is also compared to a new birth… <ul><li>Why would this be? The Hebrew word molad means birth and refers to the time during the Conjunction of the new moon. </li></ul><ul><li>With each new month comes a new moon that is birthed in darkness at the conjunction when the waning moon fugitively dies or disappears in seemingly darkness only to born again. </li></ul><ul><li>The answer can be clearer if you simply understand the process of “ when ” the birth process begins with a child. </li></ul><ul><li>The birth actually begins when NO one can see the child, as with the birth of the new moon, both are in complete darkness. </li></ul><ul><li>Life starts in darkness, Father creates something from nothing. </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>When the baby begins its descent down the birth canal NO one can see this but the mother knows the birth has begun . </li></ul><ul><li>Later, once the child’s head Crowns, everyone knows what the mother knew all along: that she had already started giving birth the moment the baby began moving down the birth canal, hidden from sight before anyone could see the child’s head. </li></ul><ul><li>The Crowning of the baby’s head can be compared to the shinning crescent, which we know now actually begins moments after the conjunction takes place. The sighting of the crescent moon confirms that 1 to 2 days earlier, the birth of the new moon actually started , at the lunar conjunction. </li></ul><ul><li>Life starts in Darkness and life ENDS in Darkness! </li></ul>
  81. 81. The Pagan History of the Crescent Moon
  82. 82. <ul><li>Without exception, every ancient pagan culture has used both the Sun and Crescent Moon as religious worship symbols of their faith. A book could be written on just this subject alone. </li></ul><ul><li>The biblical record indicates that the Israelites have NEVER used the Crescent Moon or the Sun as a symbol of their faith. </li></ul><ul><li>The only time the word Crescent is used in the Bible is to describe a round shaped object that was worn to symbolized the crescent moon. In Judges 8:21 So Gideon arose and killed Zebah and Zalmunna, and took the crescent ornaments … NKJV ( Zebah and Zalmunna were pagan Midianites ) </li></ul><ul><li>Gideon destroyed them and melted them down. The crescent ornaments probably looked similar to these ancient artifacts: </li></ul>
  83. 83. Venus of Laussel carved in this rock face <ul><li>Dated thousands of years ago by archaeologist, the pagan mother goddess Venus of Laussel, holds a bison horn, symbol of the Crescent Moon and the hunt. The strikes on the horn may indicate a yearly cycle of thirteen lunar months.   </li></ul><ul><li>The original held traces of red ochre, probably to indicate the color of blood which was venerated as the life fluid. The monthly menstrual cycle of women therefore made them magical in their ability to shed blood and yet live. This mother goddess also seems pregnant, another aspect of femininity obviously seen as miraculous. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Ur of the Chaldees was so devoted to the moon-god that it was sometimes called Nannar in tablets from that time period. A temple of the moon-god was excavated in Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley. He dug up many examples of moon-worship that are now displayed in the British Museum. Notice the crescent moon .
  85. 85. The pre-Islamic moon worshippers had used the “ crescent ” sighting for their first day of the month, and the Islamic Arabs continue in this practice. The three daughters, Al-Lat , Al-Uzza , and Manat are sometimes depicted together with Allah the moon deity on the left. You have got to ask the logical question , “ would Satan lead us in a path that Yahuwah commands us in Torah ? ”
  86. 86. Allah with Crescent Moon on his chest. While they worshipped 360 gods at the Kabah in Mecca, the moon-god was their chief deity. Mecca was in fact built as a shrine for the moon-god who is always symbolized by the Crescent Moon . This is what made Mecca the most sacred site of Arabian paganism.
  87. 87. How easy has it been for pagans to fall into the worship of the Crescent moon and to give it honor as the first day of the month? The Israelites were to give the crescent moon no such place of honor. But if it actually marked the first day, it would have been a temptation to do so and follow after the lust of the eyes. Deut 4:19 And take heed, lest you lift your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun, the moon, and the stars, all the host of heaven, you feel driven to worship them and serve them ... NKJV
  88. 88. <ul><li>Truth in Torah is hidden from the casual observer. The carnal man goes by sight, what he can see, taste and feel in his flesh, but Father's ways are hidden and only given to His children, those who must learn to discern them inwardly by His spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>Staying on subject, a perfect example is that the Conjunction is hidden from man’s eyes, but we know it is happening. </li></ul><ul><li>Even Paul said concerning truth in 1 Cor 2:14 The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of Elohim, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned . </li></ul><ul><li>Yahuah is all about NUMBERS (1,2,3, etc). In fact, NUMBERS are almost as important to Father as they are to the workings of a computer. Without numbers a computer could not function at all. All programming is done with numbers, and in Father’s universe the timing of numbers are an essential part. </li></ul><ul><li>Father is perfect, and His number system and timing is perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be why the perfect language of Hebrew has an assigned number to each letter. Math plays and essential part. This is a basic truth in scripture and the whole universe. </li></ul>
  89. 89. <ul><li>Knowing the approximate timing of the Conjunction is not rocket science but has been ancient knowledge which was guarded. Just as no mortal has ever seen Yahuwah, for He dwells in thick darkness from mankind, the miracle and the power of the Conjunction speaks to us from thick darkness. </li></ul><ul><li>Today we can figure out exactly when the Conjunction and the Full Moon occurs with our planet earth by computers, down to the very minute. Spotting the first crescent sliver of the moon today with air pollution makes it more difficult and even today with all our technology we cannot determine exactly the minute when the crescent will be able to be seen. </li></ul><ul><li>Would Father leave the timing of important events like the new year, and His feast days to solely the possibility of a potentially flawed sighting because of clouds or bad weather ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yahuwah has set up checks and balances. Math plays a key role if it has to do with timing. Logic dictates if you want to know when the month begins simply look at the timing of the FULL MOON and understand that the beginning of the cycle can only be directly across from it, at the CONJUNCTION . </li></ul><ul><li>Thus dividing the Lunar Cycle in PERFECT 50/50 Half Circles . The math has got to add up in order to be a faithful witness and it always does. DO THE MATH! </li></ul>
  90. 90. <ul><li>The Temple was run according to the Conjunction for the ancient calendar which was observed by the Sadducees and the same as was observed by the Samaritans. After the dispersal the rabbinical sects who took over from the Pharisees tried to introduce the postponements and thus the Samaritans are then alleged to have had differing lights for the beacons on the new moons. During the Temple period the beacons were lit as the new moon was always determined by Conjunction which is not an observation system. There is no evidence that the Samaritans ever changed their method of calculation of the New Moon in history either during or after the Second Temple period. They still keep the same system today (cf. the paper God’s Calendar No. (156) (2nd ed.) from the CCG ). </li></ul><ul><li>We know from the writings of Josephus exactly that the Samaritans and the Sadducees both denied any oral tradition and both kept only the written law of the Torah. We should note that the Conjunction, or molad , is the astronomical crossover point from one month to the next and that the determined Hillel Calendar for the New Moon and the molad seldom coincide but has become more inaccurate over time. </li></ul>
  91. 91. <ul><li>Lets consider DARKNESS and what it means. It means a lot to Yahuwah, He created it for a purpose. Darkness is just as important as light. After the sun sets and DARKNESS finally falls, it is equivalent to a DARK MOON , a day is ending and a new day is beginning all from DARKNESS happening. </li></ul><ul><li>Can we deny that? Think about this...do you have to wait for the Sun to come up before the day begins? </li></ul><ul><li>NO, and neither do you have to wait to sight the crescent moon for a new month to begin. </li></ul><ul><li>A new day begins in darkness after the sun sets. So it is with the month. The lunar cycle ends and begins when the moon is fully Hidden in Darkness.  </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot ignore the purpose of Darkness. </li></ul><ul><li>Yah's purpose is fulfilled in all things He creates. </li></ul><ul><li>Isaiah 45:7 I form the light, and create Darkness : I make peace, and create evil: I Yahuwah do all these things. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Remember, Yahuwah’s truth is always hidden from humanity and the casual observer <ul><li>Isaiah 45:3 &quot;I will give you the treasures of darkness And hidden wealth of secret places , So that you may know that it is I, Yahuwah, Elohim of Israel, who calls you by your name. </li></ul><ul><li>1 Cor 2:7 But we speak the wisdom of Elohim in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which Elohim ordained before the ages for our glory... </li></ul><ul><li>Rev 2:177 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes I will give some of the hidden manna to eat. </li></ul>
  93. 93. <ul><li>Job 28:20 &quot;Where then does wisdom come from? Where does understanding dwell? 21 It is hidden from the eyes of every living thing , concealed even from the birds of the air .  </li></ul><ul><li>Proverbs 2:3 if you call out for insight and cry aloud for understanding, 4 and if you look for it as for silver and search for it as for hidden treasure , 5 then you will understand the fear of Yahuwah and find the knowledge of Elohim.  </li></ul><ul><li>Isaiah 48:6 &quot;From now on I will tell you of new things , of hidden things unknown to you .  </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel 2:22 He reveals deep and hidden things ; He knows what lies in Darkness, and light dwells with Him. </li></ul>
  94. 94. <ul><li>We are all too familiar with ministries and believers who have turned their faith over and submitted themselves to the Karaite lunar calendar doctrine based on the sighting of the sliver of the crescent moon, forward. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be a “sign” to us right away if both Islam and the Karaites establish their calendar solely by the sighting of the first crescent moon forward since both religions have denied Y'shua as Messiah and His deity in the Godhead as Creator. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently Yahuwah has sent them a strong delusion in that they will believe a lie as part of the curse rendered upon them for not believing in Y'shua as both Elohim and Messiah. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone or ministry rejecting Y'shua as Messiah is going to have their doctrine hindered greatly, even if they strive to walk only in Yahuwah’s Torah, as the Karaites boast. </li></ul><ul><li>It makes sense that Yahuwah will not allow anyone to walk perfectly in His Torah if they openly deny Y'shua as Messiah and His deity as Elohim, creator! </li></ul><ul><li>This includes the Lunar Sabbitarians too, for the majority of whom deny Y'shua as Messiah and His deity as Creator.  </li></ul>
  95. 95. <ul><li>In Deuteronomy we are commanded in 12:29 &quot;When Yahuwah your Elohim cuts off from before you the nations which you go to dispossess, and you displace them and dwell in their land, take heed to yourself that you are not ensnared to follow them, after they are destroyed from before you, and that you do not inquire after their gods, saying, 'How did these nations serve their gods ? I also will do likewise .' 31 You shall NOT worship Yahuwah your Elohim in that way . NKJV </li></ul><ul><li>Rest assured that if every ancient pagan religion and nation which descended from Babylon is observing the Crescent Moon to determine the beginning of the lunar month, they are wrong ! Satan would never lead a nation or inspire a religion that condones Torah. </li></ul>
  96. 96. Disclaimer <ul><li>The only intention of this information is to balance the historical witnesses writings concerning the proper timing of the first day of the beginning of the new month with the Tanakh. The Bookend Model Calendar is NOT a new calendar. It offers a turning back to the only way to observe a Hebrew lunar month that keeps the full moon happening on the 14 th and 15 th consecutively, and without discounting the importance of both the conjunction and the sighting of the crescent. </li></ul><ul><li>Let us continue to strive to look at all the witnesses on any subject we find ourselves in dispute over, and remember that the most important step we can take is to strive to come out of Babylon and keep the feast of Yahuwah and love one another. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not the intention of this information to put down any person personally but to expose false doctrine and show truth. </li></ul><ul><li>May Yahuwah be Praised for ever more! </li></ul><ul><li>William H Sanford WHSanford@aol.com </li></ul>
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