κανονισμοι ιστιοπλοιας
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κανονισμοι ιστιοπλοιας

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  • Though B has hailed ‘hold your course’, Y is not bound by that hail and if Y thinks that contact will be occurred, a quick second hail of ‘starboard’ is wise enough to urge B’s action.
  • B is still on port tack not until she passes head to wind and shall keep clear of Y, R10.
  • B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear.
  • Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11.
  • Y is sailing her proper course.
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c).
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c).
  • Even Y now establishes an inside overlap to B and is on starboard tack, R18.2(c) requires Y to keep clear and is not entitled to room.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R. 18.2(c).
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c).
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c).
  • B is on port tack and give way boat, R10. Y is on starboard tack and right-of-way boat.
  • Y is on starboard tack and G and B are on port tack. Y is obstruction to G and B.
  • A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not under R20.
  • A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not under R20.

κανονισμοι ιστιοπλοιας κανονισμοι ιστιοπλοιας Presentation Transcript

  • Yellow (Y) is clear astern of Blue (B) because her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of B’s hull and equipment in normal position. Yellow (Y) is the clear astern boat. Blue (B) is the clear ahead boat. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
  • Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) overlap because neither is clear astern. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
  • Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are also considered to be overlapping each other because neither is clear astern. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
  • Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) overlap because neither is clear astern. Y and Green (G) overlap for the same reason. Y is a boat between B and G, so B and G overlap. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
  • Y and B overlap. Y and G overlap. Y is not a boat between B and G, so B and G do not overlap. B is clear ahead. G is clear astern. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
  • Y and B do not overlap because they are on opposite tack. But, there is exception. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
  • When two boats sail side by side on opposite tacks halfway down the run, they are not overlapped. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
  • But, when they get down near the two-length-zone at the mark as shown, they are considered to be overlapped. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
  • Definition (Leeward and Windward Definition (Leeward and Windward)
  • The windward side is the side near to the wind. The leeward side is the side away from the wind. Wind direction Windward side Leeward side Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
  • Wind direction When Blue and Yellow tack to head to wind, the side which is the windward side before head to wind is their windward side. The other side is their leeward side. Leeward side Windward side Windward side Wind direction Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
  • Wind direction Blue and Yellow are sailing by the lee. The side on which their main sails lie is their leeward side. The other side is their windward side. Windward side Windward side Leeward side Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
  • Wind direction Blue and Yellow are sailing downwind. The side on which their main sails lie is their leeward side. The other side is their windward side. Windward side Leeward side Leeward side Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
  • Wind direction Blue (B) and Green (G) on the same tack overlap. B is the windward boat and G is the leeward boat Yellow (Y) and White (W) on the same tack overlap. Y is the windward boat and W is the leeward boat Windward boat Leeward boat Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
  • Definition (Tack, Starboard or Port) Definition (Tack, Starboard or Port)
  • Port side of a boat Starboard side of a boat Wind direction The wind blows on the port side of Blue (B), B is on the port tack. The wind blows on the starboard side of Yellow (Y), Y is on the starboard tack. Tack, Starboard or Port A boat in on the tack, starboard or port , corresponding to her windward side.
  • If your left hand is near to the mast, you are on the port tack. If your right hand is near to the mast you are on the starboard tack. A easy way to remember! Wind direction Tack, Starboard or Port A boat in on the tack, starboard or port , corresponding to her windward side.
  • Illustration 1 (Upwind Situation) Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the keep clear boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B bears away to keep clear of Y. B keeps clear of Y if Y can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B bears away to keep clear of Y. Y maintains the course not to prevent B to keep clear and has to avoid contact, R14. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat. B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear.
  • B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack and the right of way boat. Blue(B) is on port tack and the keep clear boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack and the right of way boat. Blue(B) is on port tack and the keep clear boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B changes course to keep clear of Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • When after the starting signal, Y and B are crossing each other on opposite tacks, and B is keeping clear of Y, Y shall not change course if as a result B would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear, R16.2. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B passes safely under the stern of Y and fulfills the obligation of keep clear under R10 . Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B passes safely under the stern of Y and fulfills the obligation of keep clear under R10 . Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack. Blue (B) is on port-tack. Since two boats are on opposite tack, Y is the right-of-way boat and B is the give-way boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B shall keep clear of Y even Y is approaching B from astern. Although Y is right-of-way boat, R14 requires Y to avoid contact with B. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on oposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B changes course by luffing up to avoid Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B changes course by luffing up to avoid Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B changes course by luffing up to avoid Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • B keeps clear of Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • Starboard. Hold your course Y is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. B is on port-tack and the keep clear boat. If B intends to cross close in front of Y, normally B will hail ‘Hold your course’ to assure that B knows the presence of Y and shows her intention to cross in front of Y requesting Y not to change any course. Y hails ‘Starboard’ to remind B that she is the right-of-way boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • Starboard. Though B has hailed ‘Hold your course’, Y is not bound by that hail. If Y thinks that contact will be occurred, a quick second hail of ‘starboard’ is wise enough to urge B’s action. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • If it is clear that B is not keeping clear, Y shall avoid contact and consider to take action. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • Protest It is not necessary for Y to hit B to prove that B fails to keep clear. R14 requires both Y and B to avoid contact if reasonably possible. Y is able to change course to avoid contact and she does so to fulfill R14. Y can then protest B for breaking R10. If Y does not change course and hit B, B fails to keep clear of Y under R10. Then both Y and B break R14. If the contact causes damage, Y shall also be penalized under R14. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
  • Illustrations Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
  • Blue (B) is the leeward and the right-of-way boat Yellow (Y) is the windward and the give-way boat. Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are overlap because they are on the same tack and neither is clear astern. B is the leeward boat. Y is the windward boat. Y shall keep clear of B. Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
  • Both Y and B are on starboard-tack. As per definition of overlap, they also overlap. Since Y is on the leeward side of B, Y is leeward boat and B is windward boat. Under R11, Y is right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear. Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
  • Both Y and B are on starboard-tack. As per definition of overlap, they also overlap. It is difficult to know which one is the leeward boat when boats are on much different angles of sail. In this situation, Y is leeward boat since Y will be hit on her own windward side. Under R11, Y is right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear. Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
  • Both Y and B are on starboard-tack and overlap. Since Y is on the leeward side of B, Y is leeward boat and B is windward boat. Under R11, Y is right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear. Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
  • Yellow (Y) is clear astern of Blue (B) because her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of B's hull and equipment in normal position. B is clear ahead. (See definition of Clear Astern and Clear Ahead.) B is the right-of-way boat and Y shall keep clear of B, R12. Rule 12: ON THE SAME TACK, NOT OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and not overlapped , a boat clear astern shall keep clear of a boat clear ahead .
  • Illustration 4 Exception 1 – Passing an Obstruction Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .`
  • Room to tack Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack and Green (G) and Blue (B) are on port tack. G and B shall keep clear of Y under R 10. Y is an obstruction to G and B. B and G are on the same tack and B is leeward and right of way boat. B has the option to choose either path, passing below Y or tack, to keep clear of Y. In this situation, B chooses to tack. Under R19.1, when safety requires a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, she shall hail for room to do so. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
  • You tack. Under R19.1(b), G responds and immediately reply ‘You tack’. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
  • In this situation, B shall tack as soon as possible and G shall give room. It is another exception that a boat is not prevented from tacking since R19.1(b) states that R13 does not apply in this situation. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
  • B continues to tack and G continues to give B room. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
  • B continues to tack and G continues to give B room. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
  • B continues to tack and G continues to give B room.
  • G shall keep clear of both B and Y under R10. Y shall keep clear of B under R11.
  • G shall keep clear of both B and Y under R10. Y shall keep clear of B under R11.
  • Illustration 5 Exception 2 - At the starting line Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .`
  • The race is not yet started. Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are in the pre-start side approaching the starting line to start on starboard tack. Green (G) is on the course side.
  • The race is started. G shall sail completely to the pre-start side of the line under R29.1. Bang
  • Y is under the leeward side of B and wind shadow of B.
  • In order to get clear wind, Y intends to tack to port.
  • G sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line shall keep clear of Y under R20. When R20 applies between G and Y, Section A rules do not.
  • Even Y tacks and passes head to wind, G shall still keep clear of Y since R13 (Section A rule) does not apply in this situation. It is another exception that a boat is not prevented from tacking.
  • G shall still keep clear of Y until G is completely on the pre-start side.
  • Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT
  • Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage. Illustration
  • Starboard. Y is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. B is on port-tack and the keep clear boat. Rule 10 applies. Although Y is not obliged to hail ‘starboard’, it is wise to do so to remind B’s obligation. Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage.
  • Starboard. A right-of-way boat need not act avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear. In this situation, Y hails ‘starboard’ for the second time and starts to consider to act avoid contact. Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage.
  • If it is clear that B is not keeping clear, Y shall avoid contact with B if reasonably possible. In this situation, Y luffs up to avoid contact. Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage.
  • B is late to take action to keep clear of Y and breaks R10.
  • Y takes action to avoid contact with B and does not break R14.
  • END Main Menu Rule 15 Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage.
  • Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY
  • Illustration 1 Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Y and B are on port-tack, overlap and on a converging course. B is leeward right of way boat and Y is windward give way boat under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Y gybes and at the same time keep clear of B under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Y gybes to starboard-tack and becomes right of way boat because Y and B are on opposite tack under R10. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • When Y acquires right of way, she shall initially give B room to keep clear under R15 . In this situation, B is given enough room to keep clear and B now alters course to keep clear under R10. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • B gybes to starboard-tack. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • When B gybes to starboard, she is still the give way boat since she is windward boat under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • B luffs up to keep clear and complies R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • B is keeping clear of Y under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Illustration 2 Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Y and B are on port-tack, overlap and on a converging course. B is leeward right of way boat and Y is windward give way boat under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • When the distance becomes closer, Y starts to gybe. At this position, Y is still keeping clear of B under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Instead of altering course to keep clear of B which is a leeward boat, Y quickly gybes to starboard. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Now Y and B is on opposite tack and Y becomes right of way boat under R10. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • In order to keep clear of Y, B can only gybe to starboard. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • When Y acquires right of way, she shall initially give B room to keep clear under R15. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • When B immediately alters course to keep clear of Y, there is contact between B and Y. In this situation, Y does not initially give B room to keep clear. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Y then breaks R15. B also breaks R11 since she fails to keep clear of a leeward boat and R14 for failing to avoid contact but is exonerated under R64.1(b) since Y has compelled B to break the rules. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Y is leeward right of way boat and B shall keep clear under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Illustration 3 Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Y and B are on starboard-tack. B is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Y is the give-way boat under R12. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action. Y and B are on starboard-tack. B is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Y is the give-way boat under R12.
  • B luffs above close hauled and becomes overlap to the leeward of Y. B is still the right of way boat under R11 and Y shall continue keep clear. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • B passes head to wind and R13 applies. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • B shall keep clear of Y under R13. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • B tacks in front of Y. Now they are on opposite tack. Y becomes the right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear under R10. In this situation, Y does not need to initially give B room to keep clear because Y acquires right of way because of B’s action. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Although B tries to avoid contact by luffing up, there is still contact since B tacks so close. B breaks R10 for failing to keep clear a starboard-tack boat and R14 for failing to avoid contact. Y does not break R14 since she cannot reasonably avoid the contact. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
  • Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE
  • Illustration 1 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue(B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. B is keeping clear of Y since they are not on a converging course. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
  • B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
  • B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
  • When the distance becomes closer, Y changes course toward B. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
  • In response to Y’s changing course, B bears away to keep clear of Y in a seamanlike manner. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
  • There was contact between B and Y. Since Y, a right-of-way boat, does not give B room to keep clear when she changes course, Y breaks R16.1. She also breaks R14 for failing to avoid contact. B breaks R10 and R14 but is exonerated under R64.1(b) since Y’s breaking of a rule compels B to break a rule. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
  • Illustration 2 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Although Y and B is on a converging course, B is slightly ahead and keeping clear of Y. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • When the distance becomes closer, B can safely cross in front of Y. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Y suddenly luffs up to hunt B. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • When Y finds that contact will likely be occurred, Y immediately resumes her original course before B takes any action. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Both boats break no rule. B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Y does not break R16. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Illustration 3 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue(B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • B is slightly ahead of Y and at this position, B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Wind direction At this position, B is keeping clear of Y since B can safely cross in front of Y. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • New wind direction When there is a wind shift coming from the right, both Y and B respond to the new wind direction and there is contact. Although Y is still on her close hauled course, Y has changed course (either changing compass bearing or direction) . Since Y does not give B room to keep clear, she breaks R16.1. In addition, Y can reasonably avoid contact but fails to do so and thus breaks R14. B breaks R10 for failing to keep clear a starboard-tack boat but is exonerated under R64.1(b). B does not break R14 since she cannot avoid the contact because of Y’s action.
  • Illustration 4 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Both Y and B are running parallel on port-tack. B is leeward overlap with Y and right-of-way boat. Y is windward and give-way boat under R11. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Y is keeping clear of B under R11. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Y is keeping clear of B under R11. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • B sheets in her sails but still maintains the course direction. Y shall be careful of B’s action. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • B gybes without changing course. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Now B gybes to starboard. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • B is now on starboard-tack and her boom is releasing to normal sailing position. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Both B’s and Y’s booms touch with each other. Y breaks R10 for failing to keep clear of B which is on starboard. R15 and R16.1 do not apply since B is always the right-of-way boat and does not change course during the maneuver. Both B and Y break R14 for failing to avoid contact and B will be penalized if the contact causes damage.
  • Illustration 5 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Blue(B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Y and B are about to cross each other on opposite tack. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • B is keeping clear by bearing away to comply with R10 and can pass safety under the stern of Y if Y does not change course. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • When after the starting signal, if the port-tack boat B is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat Y, R16.2 requires Y not to change course if as a result B would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear. In this situation, B has to immediately change course again to continue keeping clear of Y though Y gives B room to keep clear. Y complies with R16.1 but breaks R16.2. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Illustration 6 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Y and B are running in parallel, i.e. not about to cross or crossing each other. B is keeping clear of Y.
  • Y changes course by luffing up. Y complies with R16.1 since she gives B room to keep clear when she changes course. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • B keeps clear by gybing and complies with R10. Though B has to change course immediately to continue keeping clear of Y, Y does not break R16.2 since before Y changes course they are not about to cross nor crossing each other. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • B gybes to starboard to continue keeping clear of Y under R11 since B now becomes the windward boat. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
  • END Main Menu Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear . Rule 17.1
  • Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE
  • Illustration 1 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Yellow (Y) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is the clear astern and the give way boat, R12. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B is sailing faster and will catch up to the leeward of Y. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within two of B's hull length and becomes right-of-way boat, R11, but B shall initially give Y room to keep clear under R15. Y becomes a keep clear boat because she is now a windward boat. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Y is keeping clear of B. B cannot luff up to sail above close hauled because R17.1 requires her not to sail above her proper course, i.e. close hauled at this stage, since B falls into the limit of R17.1 when she establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • R17.1 still applies when the overlap remains. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Now B breaks the overlap by sailing faster, she becomes the right-of-way boat, R12. Y is now becoming keep clear boat because she is clear astern. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Now the overlap is established again but by the action of Y coming astern, B is not limited by R17.1 by sailing above proper course, i.e. close hauled at this stage, provided B shall give Y room to keep clear when B changes course, R16.1. B now can legally luff Y. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Even B is sailing above proper course, Y shall keep clear of B because Y is a windward boat, R11, provided every time B changes course, she gives Y room to keep clear. Rule 17.1: If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Illustration 2 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Blue (B) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Yellow (Y) is clear astern and give-way boat, R12. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Y establishes a windward overlap with B and is still give way boat, R11. B is still right-of-way boat because she is a leeward boat. In addition, she is not limited by R17.1 and can legally luff Y provided she gives Y room to keep clear when she changes course, R16.1. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Even B luffs above close hauled, Y shall keep clear under R11 provided B gives Y room to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff until head to wind and Y shall respond to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Illustration 3 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Yellow (Y) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat, R12 Blue (B) is clear astern and the give way boat. She tries to establish a leeward overlap from clear astern. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Now Y and B are overlap. Since B establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern with more than 2 boat length, R17.1 does not limit B by sailing above proper course. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B can now luff up above close hauled and Y shall keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear even the distance between B and Y becomes less than 2 boat length. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B can now luff up above close hauled and Y shall keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear even the distance between B and Y becomes less than 2 boat length. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . B can now luff up above close hauled and Y shall keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear even the distance between B and Y becomes less than 2 boat length.
  • Illustration 4 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give way boat. Rule 10 applies Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B begins to tack and still on port tack and shall keep clear of Y, R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B is still on port tack not until she passes head to wind and shall keep clear of Y, R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B is now tacking and shall keep clear of Y until she is on close hauled course, R13. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Before B reaches the close hauled course, Y establishes a leeward overlap and still is the right-of-way boat, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Y can now luff up to above proper course provided she gives B room to keep clear under R16.1 since R17.1 does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by R13 to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Provided Y gives B room to keep clear, once Y luffs up until head to wind, B shall respond to keep clear under R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Illustration 5 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Yellow (Y) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat Blue (B) is the clear astern and the give-way boat. Rule 12 applies. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern with Y and becomes a right-of-way boat, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern with Y and becomes a right-of-way boat, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Even B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within 2 boat length from clear astern as limited by R.17.1, B can even luff up to above close hauled if as a result she promptly sails astern of Y. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Illustration 6 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Both Blue (b) and Yellow (y) are on starboard tack. B is clear ahead and Y is clear astern. Y shall keep clear of B under R.12. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Y establishes a leeward overlap from coming astern and becomes the right-of-way boat. B shall now keep clear of Y under R.11 and Y shall initially give B room to keep clear under R15. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Though B shall keep clear of Y under R11, Y is limited by R.17.1 not to sail above her proper course. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Y gybes to port tack and shall keep clear of B under R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Now B and Y are on opposite tack and Y shall keep clear of B under R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Y gybes again. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Y gybes to starboard tack with the same tack of B and is leeward to B. Y now becomes right-of-way boat again. R11 requires B to keep clear but Y shall initially give B room to keep clear, R15. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Since Y now establishes a leeward overlap by gybing twice quickly, she is not limited by R17.1 and is legal to sail above proper course, i.e. to luff B. But before Y changes course by luffing up, she shall give B room to keep clear, R16.1. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B responds to keep clear under R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Illustration 7 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Around 20 seconds before start Before start, Yellow (Y) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat, R12. Blue (B) is clear astern and the give way boat but sails faster. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within 2 boat length and becomes right-of-way boat, R11 but has to initially give Y room to keep clear. Y becomes give way boat and need to start taking action to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B luffs up and has to give Y room to keep clear when B changes course, R16.1. Y has to keep clear under R11 . Rule 17.1: If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff up and Y continues to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff up and Y continues to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1: If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so sh promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff up and Y has to keep clear even she is above close hauled. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . B is allowed to sail above close hauled until head to wind provided she gives Y room to keep clear. R17.1 does not apply since there is no proper course before start. Y has to keep clear even she has to pass head to wind (R13) or cross the starting line prematurely.
  • B is allowed to sail above close hauled until head to wind provided she gives Y room to keep clear. R17.1 does not apply since there is no proper course before start. Y has to keep clear even she has to pass head to wind (R13) or cross the starting line prematurely. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Bang When the race starts, B immediately bears away to close hauled, i.e. sails not above proper course because R17.1 applies. B still maintains the right-of-way boat if the overlap still exists, R11. Y continues to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B is leeward and right-of-way boat, R11. Y is windward and give way boat. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Illustration 8 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Around 20 seconds before start Before start, Yellow (Y) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat, R12. Blue (B) is clear astern and the give way boat but sails faster. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within 2 boat length and becomes right-of-way boat and has to initially give Y room to keep clear, R11. Y now becomes give way boat and starts to take action to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B luffs up but has to give Y room to keep clear when she changes course, R16.1. Y has to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Now it is now about to start but B is a little bit below the lay line to pass the port end. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Bang The race starts. B continues to luff up and Y has to keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear. Though R.17.1 applies that it requires B not to sail above proper course, B does not break the rule since at that stage, B's proper course is to sail above close hauled to pass the port end. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff up until head to wind or pass the port end provided she gives Y room to keep clear even Y has to pass head to wind. B is still sailing her proper course. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B continues to luff up until head to wind or pass the port end provided she give Y room to keep clear even Y has to pass head to wind. B is still sailing her proper course. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • When B passes the port end, she immediately bears away to close hauled, i.e. not to sail above her proper course. Since the overlap still maintains, Y continues to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • B is leeward and right-of-way boat, R11. Y is windward and give way boat. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • END Main Menu Rule 17.2 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
  • Rule 17.2
  • Illustration 1 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat. Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. She shall also keep clear of B, R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat. Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. She shall also keep clear of B, R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat. Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. She shall also keep clear of B, R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat. Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. She shall also keep clear of B, R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Illustration 2 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Both Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are sailing on a free leg, i.e. not on a beat to windward. Y is clear ahead of B. B shall keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Since the distance between Y and B is more than 2 hull lengths, R17.2 does not limit Y to sail below her proper course. B shall keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y. She is also less than two of Y's hull length. Y is now limited by R 17.2 not to sail below her proper course. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y and is less than two of Y's hull length. Y is limited by R 17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She has to resume her proper course by luffing up towards the mark. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y and is less than two of Y's hull length. Y is limited by R 17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She has to resume her proper course by luffing up towards the mark. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y and is less than two of Y's hull length. Y is limited by R 17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She has to resume her proper course by luffing up towards the mark. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Y is now sailing her proper course complying with R 17.2. B continues to keep clear of Y under R12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Illustration 3 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except n beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below `er proper course. Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Illustration 4 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg more than two of her hull lengths from Blue(B), a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of Y, so Y is not limited by R17.2. B is clear astern and shall keep clear of Y under R12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Since Y is not limited by R.17.2, she can sail below her proper course. B continues to keep clear of Y Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • B becomes overlapped more than two of her hull lengths to leeward of Y on the same tack. She is not limited by R17.2 and can sail above her proper course. However, Y becomes a give way boat and shall keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Since Y is not limited by R.17.2, she can sail below her proper course but shall also keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Since Y is not limited by R.17.2, she can sail below her proper course but shall also keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Now Y is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat, Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. On the other hand, though the distance between B and Y is less than two of B’s hull length, the overlap still maintains and B is not limited by R17.1. In addition, Y continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Illustration 5 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Blue (B) is clear ahead of Yellow (Y). She is neither a leeward boat nor a boat clear astern so if she steers a course to the leeward of Y though less than 2 hull lengths of Y, Y is not limited by R 17.2. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Since Y is not limited by R 17.2, she can sail below proper course but shall keep clear of B under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, wile a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Since Y is not limited by R 17.2, she can sail below proper course but shall keep clear of B under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Since Y is not limited by R 17.2, she can sail below proper course but shall keep clear of B under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Illustration 6 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Blue (B) is not limited by R 17.2 since Yellow (Y) is neither a leeward boat nor a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of B. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Illustration 7 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Blue (B) is not limited by R 17.2 since Yellow (Y) is neither a leeward boat nor a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of B. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Illustration 8 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
  • Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are broads reaching and overlapped on starboard tack. Y shall keep clear of B under R11. While Y is less than two of her hull lengths from B, a leeward boat, Y shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes under R17.2. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are broads reaching and overlapped on starboard tack. Y shall keep clear of B under R11. While Y is less than two of her hull lengths from B, a leeward boat, Y shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes under R17.2. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Now Y is sailing below her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Y is sailing below her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Y does not break R17.2 by sailing below her proper course because Y gybes. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • B is on starboard tack and right of way boat. Y is on port tack and give way boat under R10. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
  • Rule 18.1: When This Rule Applies
  • Rule 18.1: When This Rule Applies Rule 18 applies when boats are about to round or pass a mark they are required to leave on the same side, or an obstruction on the same side, until they have passed it. However, it does not apply (a) at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time the boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them, or (b) between boats on opposite tacks , either on a beat to windward or when the proper course for one or both of them to round or pass the mark or obstruction is to tack. Illustration 1 (At a starting mark)
  • Around 2 minutes before start Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are approaching the start line to start. Y is the windward and the give way boat, R11. B is the leeward and the right-of-way boat
  • Y and B are still overlapped.
  • When entering the 2-length zone, Y and B are still overlapped. However, R18.1(a) states that R18 does not apply at a starting mark (the race committee boat) from the time they are approaching the mark to start until they have passed it.
  • Y has to keep clear of B because she is windward boat.
  • Though Y establishes an inside overlap when entering the 2 length zone, she does not entitle to have room to pass the mark because R18 does not apply. Y shall continue to keep clear of B. B does not need to give Y room to pass the mark and she can pass close under the stern of the mark provided she gives room Y to keep clear when she changes course under R16.1. Water
  • Y is not entitled to have room and has to keep clear, i.e. avoid barging at the back of race committee boat. B can close the gap between her and race committee boat provided she gives Y room to keep clear when changing course under R16.1. No Water
  • Y is not entitled to have room and has to keep clear, i.e. avoid barging at the back of race committee boat. B can close the gap between her and race committee boat provided she gives Y room to keep clear when changing course under R16.1.
  • Y has to keep clear of B because she is now clear astern, R12. Bang
  • Y has to keep clear of B because she is now clear astern, R12.
  • After the race has started, B is still right-of-way boat and Y is give way boat, R12.
  • Illustration 2 (Between boats on opposite tacks) Rule 18.1: When This Rule Applies Rule 18 applies when boats are about to round or pass a mark they are required to leave on the same side, or an obstruction on the same side, until they have passed it. However, it does not apply (a) at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time the boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them, or (b) between boats on opposite tacks , either on a beat to windward or when the proper course for one or both of them to round or pass the mark or obstruction is to tack.
  • Y is the starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat, R10. B is port-tack and give way boat.
  • When B enters the two-length zone, the situation does not change since B and Y are on opposite tacks on a beat to windward and R18.1(b) states that R18 does not apply. B shall still give keep of B, R10.
  • Even B is inside boat within the two-length zone, she is not entitled to have room to pass the mark and shall keep clear of Y under R10.
  • B keep clear of Y under R10 as if the mark is not there.
  • B keeps clear of Y under R10.
  • B keeps clear of Y under R10.
  • B keeps clear of Y under R10.
  • END Main Menu Rule 18.2(a) Rule 18.1: When This Rule Applies Rule 18 applies when boats are about to round or pass a mark they are required to leave on the same side, or an obstruction on the same side, until they have passed it. However, it does not apply (a) at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time the boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them, or (b) between boats on opposite tacks , either on a beat to windward or when the proper course for one or both of them to round or pass the mark or obstruction is to tack.
  • Rule 18.2: Giving Room; Keeping Clear (a) OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE
  • Rule 18.2: Giving Room; Keeping Clear (a) OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule. Illustration
  • Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are about to pass the windward mark. Y is leeward overlap with B and is the right-of-way boat under R11. Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • When entering the two-length zone, the overlap still exists and B is the inside boat. Y, the outside boat, shall then give B, the inside boat, room to pass the mark under R18.2(a). Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • Though B is entitled to room to pass the mark, she shall keep clear of Y which is a leeward boat under R11. Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • If B wants to pass the mark, she has to tack. In rule 18, room is room for an inside boat to pass between an outside boat and a mark, including room to tack or gybe when either is a normal part of the maneuver. Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • Y shall leave room for B to tack. It means that when B starts to tack, her stern will swing towards Y. Y then has to leave enough room for B to do so and avoid contact. Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • Y shall continue to give B room to tack until B passes head to wind. Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • When B passes head to wind, she is on starboard tack and B and Y are now on opposite tack. R18 ceases to apply because of R18.1(b). R13 applies and B shall keep clear of Y. However, when B just passes head to wind and immediately her stern touches Y, B fails to keep clear of Y under R13 and Y also fails to give room as stated in R18.2(a). Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • Not until B is on her close hauled course, she is subject to R13 and shall keep clear of Y. Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • Now B is on her close hauled course, R13 ceases to apply. B is on starboard tack and a right of way boat under R10. Y is on port tack and a give way boat. But B shall initially give Y room to keep clear under R15. Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • B is leeward and right of way boat under R11. Y is windward and a give way boat. Rule 18.2(a): OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule
  • END Main Menu Rule 18.2(b) Rule 18.2: Giving Room; Keeping Clear (a) OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear . Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule.
  • Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear. Illustration
  • Yellow (Y) is the windward and the give-way boat, R11. Blue (B) is the leeward and the right-of-way boat. Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • When Y enters the 2-length zone, Y and B are overlapped and B is the inside boat. Y, the outside boat, shall give B, the inside boat, room to pass the mark, and since the inside boat (B) has right of way the outside boat (Y) shall also keep clear, R18.2(a). Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • When Y enters the 2-length zone, Y and B are overlapped and B is the inside boat. When Y and B are overlapped, Y, the outside boat, shall give the B, the inside boat, room to pass the mark under R18.2(a) and since the inside boat (B) has right of way, the outside boat (Y) shall also keep clear under R11. Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • Y continues to keep clear of B under R11 and gives B room to pass the mark until both have passed the mark under R18.2(a). Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • Y continues to keep clear of B under R11 and gives B room to pass the mark until both have passed the mark under R18.2(a). Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • R18 continues to apply until two boats have passed the mark. Whether B can carry Y to sail beyond the mark depends on how B establishes the overlap since in this situation B is sailing above proper course and R17.1 will limit the action of B if B establishes the leeward overlap with Y by coming astern within two hull lengths. Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • R18 continues to apply until two boats have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • R18 continues to apply until two boats have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • Y shall keep clear of B under R11. Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • Y shall keep clear of B under R11. Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • END Main Menu Rule 18.2(c) Rule 18.2(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the two-length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room . If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boats, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.
  • Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE
  • Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies. Illustration 1 (At Windward Mark – Starboard Tack)
  • Rule 12 applies. Yellow (Y) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat Blue (B) is the clear astern and the give way boat. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • R18 also applies when Y and B are about to pass a mark they are required to leave on the same side. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • When Y enters the 2-length zone, Y is clear ahead of B. R18.2(c) applies. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies. Since Y is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone, the boat clear astern, i.e. B, shall thereafter keep clear even if B overlaps Y afterwards because if there is a conflict of R18.2(c) and R11, rules in Section C take precedence of rules in Section A.
  • Though B now becomes overlapped inside Y, R18.2(c) states that B is not entitled to room. B shall continue to keep clear of Y until they have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Though B now becomes overlapped inside Y, R18.2(c) states that B is not entitled to room. B shall continue to keep clear of Y until they have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • B shall continue to keep clear of Y until both have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • B shall continue to keep clear of Y until both have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • B shall continue to keep clear of Y until both have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • B shall continue to keep clear of Y until both have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • R18 ceases to apply when both have passed the mark. B shall now keep clear of Y under R12. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Illustration 2 (At Windward Mark – Port tack) Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Blue (B) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat Yellow(Y) is the clear astern and the give-way boat. Rule 12 applies. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • R18 also applies when Y and B are about to pass a mark they are required to leave on the same side. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • When B enters the 2-length zone, B is clear ahead of Y. R18.2(c) applies. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies. R18.2(c) requires Y thereafter to keep clear of B even they overlap later. Since there is no conflict between R18.2(c) and R11, R11 still applies. B is the right-of- way boat. Moreover, though Y becomes overlapped inside B, she is not entitled to room.
  • Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies. R18.2(c) requires Y thereafter to keep clear of B even they overlap later. Since there is no conflict between R18.2(c) and R11, R11 still applies. B is the right-of- way boat. Moreover, though Y becomes overlapped inside B, she is not entitled to room.
  • When B changes course to pass the mark, R16 does not apply and Y continues to keep clear of B. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • When B changes course to pass the mark, R16 does not apply and Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c) until B passes head to wind. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • When B changes course to pass the mark, R16 does not apply and Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c) until B passes head to wind. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • R18.2(c) still applies provided B does not pass head to wind and Y shall continue to keep clear. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • B is still holding her position not passing head to wind causing Y has to lose all her speed to keep clear. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • B is still holding her position not passing head to wind causing Y has to lose all her speed to keep clear. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • When B passes head to wind, R 13 applies and R 18.2(c) ceases to apply. But since Y has already lost her speed, B has no difficulty to keep clear of Y. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Since both are subject to R13, Y shall keep clear since Y is on the port side of B. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • B gets her speed to pass the mark and Y is forced to tack again to keep clear and avoid touching the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Y can only gather her way by bearing away to gain speed. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • R10 applies now. B is on starboard tack and the right-of-way boat. Y is on port tack and the give-way boat. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Illustration 3 (At Leeward Mark – Opposite tacks) Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Blue (B) is on port-tack and Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack. B shall keep clear of Y under R10. When two boats are about to pass a mark, R18 applies. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Though B and Y are on opposite tack, B is clear ahead of Y since R18 applies. When B reaches the 2-length zone, Y shall thereafter keep clear under R.18.2(c). R18.2(c) takes precedence and R10 ceases to apply. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Even Y now establishes an inside overlap to B and is on starboard- tack, R18.2(c) requires Y to keep clear and is not entitled to room. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Even Y now establishes an inside overlap to B and is on starboard- tack, R18.2(c) requires Y to keep clear and is not entitled to room. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c). R16 does not apply when B changes course to pass the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c). R16 does not apply when B changes course to pass the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c). R16 does not apply when B changes course to pass the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c). R16 does not apply when B changes course to pass the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R. 18.2(c). R16 does not apply when B changes course to pass the mark. R18 ceases to apply when both boats pass the mark. Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • END Main Menu Rule 18.2(d) Rule 18.2(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE If a boat is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone , the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat she shall also give the inside boat room . If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat she is not entitled to room . If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies.
  • Rule18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS
  • Rule18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat. Illustration 1
  • When Y enters the 2-length zone, Y is clear ahead of B. R18.2(c) applies. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • Since Y is clear ahead at the time she reaches the two-length zone, the boat clear astern, i.e. B, shall thereafter keep clear. Since there is a conflict of R18.2(c) and R11, rules in Section C take precedence of rules in Section A. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • Though B now becomes overlapped inside Y, R18.2(c) states that B is not entitled to room. B shall continue to keep clear of Y until they have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • Though B now becomes overlapped inside Y, R18.2(c) states that B is not entitled to room. B shall continue to keep clear of Y until they have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • B shall continue to keep clear of Y until both have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • Illustration 2 Rule18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • When B enters the 2-length zone, B is clear ahead of Y. R18.2(c) applies. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat. R18.2(c) requires Y shall thereafter keep clear of B even they overlap later. Since there is no conflict between R18.2(c) and R 11 on B, which is the right-of- way boat, R11 applies. Moreover, though Y becomes overlapped inside B, she is not entitled to room.
  • R18.2(c) requires Y shall thereafter keep clear of B even they overlap later. Since there is no conflict between R18.2(c) and R 11 on B, which is the right-of- way boat, R11 applies. Moreover, though Y becomes overlapped inside B, she is not entitled to room. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • When B changes course to pass the mark, R16 does not apply and Y continues to keep clear of B. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • When B changes course to pass the mark, R16 does not apply and Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c) until B passes head to wind. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat. When B changes course to pass the mark, R16 does not apply and Y continues to keep clear of B under R18.2(c) until B passes head to wind.
  • R18.2(c) still applies provided B does not pass head to wind and Y shall continue to keep clear. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • B is still holding her position not passing head to wind causing Y has to lose all her speed to keep clear. Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • Rule 18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat. B is still holding her position not passing head to wind causing Y has to lose all her speed to keep clear.
  • END Main Menu Rule 18.2(e) Rule18.2(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS When rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark , rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.
  • Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS
  • Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply. Illustration 1
  • Both Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are on starboard tack approaching the windward mark. Y is slightly ahead of B. Y is right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear under R12. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • When Y reaches the two-length zone, if there is reasonable doubt that B obtains an overlap in time, R18.2(e) states that it shall be presumed that she did not. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • Even it is now obvious that B establishes an inside overlap with Y, B shall keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). R16 does not apply when Y changes course to pass a mark. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). R16 does not apply when Y changes course to pass a mark. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c). R16 does not apply when Y changes course to pass a mark. R18 ceases to apply after both boats have passed the mark. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • Illustration 2 Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are on starboard tack and overlapped. B is the leeward and the right-of-way boat and Y shall keep clear under R11. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • When Y reaches the two-length zone, if there is reasonable doubt that Y breaks an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not under R18.2(e). Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • Although the overlap is broken after Y has reached the two-length zone, since B and Y were overlapped when either of them reached it, Y, on the outside, shall continue to give B room under R18.2(b). Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • B is entitled to room to pass the mark under R18.2(b). However, since B is now clear astern, she shall keep clear of Y under R12. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • Y may pass the mark in front of B provided she shall not prevent B from passing the mark since B is entitled to have room to pass the mark. B shall not take more room than enough to pass the mark otherwise she is not keeping clear of Y if B remains clear astern under R12. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • Y may pass the mark in front of B provided she shall not prevent B from passing the mark since B is entitled to have room to pass the mark under R18.2(b). If B becomes overlapped with Y to the leeward, B becomes the right of way boat and Y shall keep clear under R11. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • Y shall keep clear of B under R11 and give B room to pass the mark under R18.2(b). Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • Y shall keep clear of B under R11 and give B room to pass the mark under R18.2(b). Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • R18 ceases to apply when both boats pass the mark. Y shall keep clear of B under R11. Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • END Main Menu Rule 18.3 Rule 18.2(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.
  • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
  • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked (a) Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and (b) Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply Illustration 1
  • Both are outside the two-length zone. Rule 10 applies Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Both are outside the two-length zone. Rule 10 applies
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B is luffing towards head to wind and shall keep clear of Y, R10.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B shall keep clear of Y before she passes head to wind, R10. After B passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of Y until she is on a close-hauled course, R13.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B continues to keep clear of Y under R13.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • Since B completes a tack within the two-length zone, R18.3 applies. When R18.3 applies, R18.2 does not apply. B shall not cause Y to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent Y from passing the mark.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • In this situation, B completes her tack but Y has to avoid her either sail above close hauled or bear away. If Y sails above close hauled to avoid B, B breaks R 18.3(a). If Y bears away, she is under the lay line and cannot pass the mark as she does before B tacks. B will also break R18.3(a).
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B breaks 18.3(a) by causing Y to sail above close-hauled to avoid B.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • Illustration 2 Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked (a) Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and (b) Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Both are outside the two-length zone. Rule 10 applies
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • Both are outside the two-length zone. Rule 10 applies Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B tacks by luffing up within the two-length zone. Before B passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of Y under R10.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B tacks by luffing up within the two-length zone. Before B passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of Y under R10.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B passes head to wind and shall keep clear of Y under R13.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B continues to keep clear of Y under R13 until B is on her close hauled course. Y is now getting an overlap inside B.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • When B completes a tack within the two-length zone, Y becomes overlapped inside B. B shall then keep clear of Y under R11. In addition under this situation, R18.3(b) applies which requires B to give Y room and R18.2 does not apply. If Y establishes an overlap from clear astern when B tacks within the two-length zone, R15 does not apply. It means that Y does not need to initially give B room to keep clear.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B shall keep clear of Y and give Y room when Y is passing the mark, R11 and R18.3(b).
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
    • Shall give room if the other boat ecomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    B shall keep clear of Y and give Y room when Y is passing the mark, R11 and R18.3(b).
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B shall keep clear of Y and give Y room when Y is passing the mark, R11 and R18.3(b).
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
    • Shall give room if the other boat ecomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    B shall keep clear of Y and give Y room when Y is passing the mark, R11 and R18.3(b).
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • B shall keep clear of Y under R11 since both boats have passed the mark.
    • Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark
    • If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked
    • Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and
    • Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • END Main Menu Rule 18.4 Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked (a) Shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark , and (b) Shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Illustration 1
  • Both Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are on same tack. When Y reaches the two-length zone, Y and B are overlapped. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • When Y, an inside right-of-way boat is passing the mark, B shall keep clear under R11 and R18.2(a) and give Y room to pass the mark until both boats pass the mark. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • When Y, an inside right-of-way boat is passing the mark, B shall keep clear under R11 and R18.2(a) and give Y room to pass the mark until both boats pass the mark. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Y is now passing the mark in a seamanlike way, i.e. to execute with reasonable efficiency the handling of her helm, sheets and sails during a rounding. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Y is now passing the mark in a seamanlike way, i.e. to execute with reasonable efficiency the handling of her helm, sheets and sails during a rounding. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Y is now passing the mark in a seamanlike way. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 18.2(a) and R11 if the overlap remains. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Y is now passing the mark in a seamanlike way. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 18.2(a) and R11 if the overlap remains and give room. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Y is now passing the mark in a seamanlike way and B continues to keep clear and give room. Room is room for an inside boat to pass between an outside boat and a mark, including to tack or gybe when either is a normal part of the manoeuvre. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Y is now passing the mark in a seamanlike way and B continues to keep clear and give room. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Y is now passing the mark in a seamanlike way and B continues to keep clear and give room. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Y is now passing the mark in a seamanlike way and B continues to keep clear and give room. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Y is now passing the mark in a seamanlike way and B continues to keep clear and give room. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, B continues to keep clear and give room. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Before both boats have passed the mark, B continues to keep clear and give room.
  • Illustration 2 Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Both B and Y are on the same tack. When Y reaches the two-length zone, she is inside right-of-way boat. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail herproper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. R18.2(a) requires B to keep clear of Y and give room when Y is passing the mark.
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail herproper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Having right of way, Y is entitled to sail a course of her own choice. Y can luff away from the mark a little bit, i.e. to pass the mark in a tactical manner, provided that Y complies with R 18.4 not to pass farther from the mark. R16 does not apply when Y changes course to pass a mark under R18.2(d).
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail herproper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Having right of way, Y is entitled to sail a course of her own choice. Y can luff away from the mark a little bit, i.e. to pass the mark in a tactical manner, provided that Y complies with R 18.4 not to pass farther from the mark. R16 does not apply when Y changes course to pass a mark under R18.2(d).
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Having right of way, Y is entitled to sail a course of her own choice. Y can luff away from the mark a little bit, i.e. to pass the mark in a tactical manner, provided that Y complies with R 18.4 not to pass farther from the mark. R16 does not apply when Y changes course to pass a mark under R18.2(d).
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Having right of way, Y is entitled to sail a course of her own choice. Y can luff away from the mark a little bit, i.e. to pass the mark in a tactical manner, provided that Y complies with R 18.4 not to pass farther from the mark. B shall continue to keep clear under R11 and R18.2(a) and give Y room to pass the mark under R18.2(a).
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Having right of way, Y is entitled to sail a course of her own choice. Y can luff away from the mark a little bit, i.e. to pass the mark in a tactical manner, provided that Y complies with R 18.4 not to pass farther from the mark. B shall continue to keep clear under R11 and R18.2(a) and give Y room to pass the mark under R18.2(a).
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Y now complies R18.4 and gybes to pass the mark. B shall continue to keep clear under R11 and R18.2(a) and give Y room to pass the mark under R18.2(a).
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Y now complies R18.4 and gybes to pass the mark. B shall continue to keep clear under R11 and R18.2(a) and give Y room to pass the mark under R18.2(a).
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. Y passes no farther from the mark to comply R18.4. B continues to keep clear and give room under R 18.2(a). R10 does not apply since it conflicts with R18.
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. B continues to keep clear and give room under R 18.2(a).
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. B continues to keep clear and give room under R 18.2(a).
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. B continues to keep clear and give room under R 18.2(a) until both boats pass the mark.
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. B continues to keep clear and give room under R 18.2(a) until both boats pass the mark.
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. B continues to keep clear and give room under R 18.2(a) until both boats pass the mark.
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. B continues to keep clear and give room under R 18.2(a) until both boats pass the mark.
  • Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course. B continues to keep clear and give room under R 18.2(a) until both boats pass the mark.
  • END Main Menu Rule 18.5 Rule 18.4 Gybing When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.
  • Rule 18.5 Passing a Continuing Obstruction
  • Rule 18.5 Passing a Continuing Obstruction While boats are passing a continuing obstruction rule 18.2(b) and 18.2(c) do not apply. A boat clear astern that obtains an inside overlap is entitled to room to pass between the other boat and the obstruction only if at the moment the overlap begins there is room to do so. If there is not, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear . Illustration
  • Before the start, Blue (B), Yellow (Y) and Green (G) are on starboard-tack. Rule 18.5 Passing a Continuing Obstruction While boats are passing a continuing obstruction rule 18.2(b) and 18.2(c) do not apply. A boat clear astern that obtains an inside overlap is entitled to room to pass between the other boat and the obstruction only if at the moment the overlap begins there is room to do so. If there is not, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear .
  • Before the start, Blue (B), Yellow (Y) and Green (G) are on starboard-tack. Rule 18.5 Passing a Continuing Obstruction While boats are passing a continuing obstruction rule 18.2(b) and 18.2(c) do not apply. A boat clear astern that obtains an inside overlap is entitled to room to pass between the other boat and the obstruction only if at the moment the overlap begins there is room to do so. If there is not, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear .
  • While G and Y are passing B, a continuing obstruction, R18.2(b) and 18.2(c) do not apply. G, a boat clear astern, that obtains an inside overlap is entitled to room to pass between Y and the obstruction (B) only if at the moment the overlap begins there is room to do so under R18.5. Rule 18.5 Passing a Continuing Obstruction While boats are passing a continuing obstruction rule 18.2(b) and 18.2(c) do not apply. A boat clear astern that obtains an inside overlap is entitled to room to pass between the other boat and the obstruction only if at the moment the overlap begins there is room to do so. If there is not, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear .
  • Now G obtains an inside overlap with Y. If there is room for G to pass between B and Y, she is entitled to room from Y under R18.5. If there is not, G is not entitled to room and shall keep clear. Rule 18.5 Passing a Continuing Obstruction While boats are passing a continuing obstruction rule 18.2(b) and 18.2(c) do not apply. A boat clear astern that obtains an inside overlap is entitled to room to pass between the other boat and the obstruction only if at the moment the overlap begins there is room to do so. If there is not, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear .
  • END Main Menu Rule 19.1 Rule 18.5 Passing a Continuing Obstruction While boats are passing a continuing obstruction rule 18.2(b) and 18.2(c) do not apply. A boat clear astern that obtains an inside overlap is entitled to room to pass between the other boat and the obstruction only if at the moment the overlap begins there is room to do so. If there is not, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear .
  • Rule 19.1
  • Rule 19.1 When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Definition of Obstruction
  • The definition of obstruction states that a boat racing is not an obstruction to other boats unless they are required to keep clear. Here Blue (B) and Green (G) are port tack boats and shall keep clear of Yellow (Y). Y is then an obstruction to B and G.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • The definition of obstruction states that a boat racing is not an obstruction to other boats unless they are required to keep clear. Here Blue (B) and Green (G) are port tack boats and shall keep clear of Yellow (Y). Y is then an obstruction to B and G. Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Illustration 1 (Tack as soon as possible) Rule 19.1 When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and Green (G) and Blue (B) are on port-tack. Y is obstruction to G and B.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • When safety requires B, a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction, Y and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat, G, on the same tack, she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat, here is G, time to respond. Room to tack
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • G shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, or (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • In this case, G chooses to tack.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • The hailing boat, B, shall also tack as soon as possible.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible , or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • The hailing boat, B, shall also tack as soon as possible.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible , or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • The hailing boat, B, shall also tack as soon as possible.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible , or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • The hailing boat, B, shall also tack as soon as possible.
  • G becomes leeward overlapped with B and Y which shall keep clear under R11.
  • G becomes leeward overlapped with B and Y which shall keep clear under R11.
  • Illustration 2 (Reply “You tack”) Rule 19.1 When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and Green (G) and Blue (B) are on port-tack. Y is obstruction to G and B.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • When safety requires B, a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction, Y and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat, G, on the same tack, she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat, here is G, time to respond. Room to tack
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • You tack. G shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, or (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’. In this case, G chooses to let B tack. She then immediately reply ’You tack’.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • In this case, the hailing boat, B, shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat, G, shall give room, and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • This is one of the exceptions that a boat is not prevented from tacking. G continues to give B room to tack.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • G continues to give B room to tack.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • G continues to give B room to tack.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • G continues to give B room to tack.
  • G is on port tack and shall keep clear of B and Y under R10. Y shall keep clear of B under R11.
  • G is on port tack and shall keep clear of B and Y under R10. Y shall keep clear of B under R11.
  • Illustration 3 (Not tack as soon as possible) Rule 19.1 When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • When safety requires B, a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction, Y and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat, G, on the same tack, she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat, here is G, time to respond. Room to tack
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • G shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’. In this case, G chooses to tack as soon as possible.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • In respond to G’s action, R19.1(a) requires that the hailing boat, B, shall also tack as soon as possible.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • If B continues to sail and does not tack as soon as possible, she breaks R19.1(a).
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • If B continues to sail and does not tack as soon as possible, she breaks R19.1(a).
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Although B now starts to tack to avoid Y, she has already broken R19.1(a).
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Although B now starts to tack to avoid Y, she has already broken R19.1(a).
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Although B now starts to tack to avoid Y, she has already broken R19.1(a).
  • Although B now starts to tack to avoid Y, she has already broken R19.1(a).
  • Although B now starts to tack to avoid Y, she has already broken R19.1(a).
  • G is leeward right of way boat and Y and B shall keep clear under R11.
  • Illustration 4 (Not tack at all) Rule 19.1 When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and Green (G) and Blue (B) are on port-tack. Y is obstruction to G and B.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Room to tack When safety requires B, a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction, Y and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat, G, on the same tack, she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat, here is G, time to respond.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • G shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • G chooses to tack and she tacks as soon as possible to comply with R19.1(a) which also requires B to tack as soon as possible.
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • If B continues to sail, she breaks R19.1(a).
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Even B bears away to avoid Y, B has already broken R19.1(a).
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • B is keeping clear of Y and has already broken R19.1(a).
    • Rule 19.1: When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either
    • tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or
    • immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • B passes under Y and keep clear under R10.
  • Y shall keep clear of G under R11. B shall keep clear of Y and G under R10.
  • Y shall keep clear of G under R11. B shall keep clear of Y and G under R10.
  • END Main Menu Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 When safety required a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, but cannot tack and avoid another boat on the same tack , she shall hail for room to do so. Before tacking she shall give the hailed boat time to respond. The hailed boat shall either (a) tack as soon as possible, in which case the hailing boat shall also tack as soon as possible, or (b) immediately reply ‘You tack’, in which case the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible and the hailed boat shall give room , and rules 10 and 13 do not apply.
  • Rule 19.2
  • Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not. Illustration 1 (At the Starting Line)
  • Here Blue (B) has trouble to pass between Yellow (Y) and the anchor line of the starting mark. However, since R19.1 does not apply, B cannot hail for room to tack. B cannot claim for room to pass the mark also since R18 does not apply. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not. Illustration 2 (At a mark)
  • Blue (B) is windward and give-way boat. Y is leeward and right-of-way boat. Both B and Y are close hauled approaching the starboard end finishing line. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • B keeps clear of Y under R 11. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • B continues to keep clear of Y under R 11. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • B continues to keep clear of Y under R 11. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • B continues to keep clear of Y under R 11. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • Y is now not at a safety position to avoid the committee boat and intend to claim room to tack at an obstruction (the committee boat) by R 19.1, i.e. to hail B for room to tack. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • If B, the hailed boat, can fetch the mark, R19.2 states that R 19.1 does not apply, i.e. Y cannot claim room to tack. However, Y can luff to head to wind provided she complies with R16 and B shall keep clear under R11. Y does not sail above proper course since it is her proper course by luffing higher to pass the committee boat. Y is also the inside right of way boat and is entitled to pass the committee boat on the same side with B since R18.2(a) applies. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • If B thinks that she can fetch (i.e. pass the mark without tacking) the mark and keep clear of Y before Y passes head to wind, she need not respond to Y and give her room to tack under R19.2. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • If B thinks that she can fetch the mark and keep clear of Y before Y passes head to wind, she need not respond to Y and give her room to tack under R19.2. If Y passes head to wind, R18 ceases to apply and Y shall keep clear of B under R13. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not. If B thinks that she can fetch the mark and keep clear of Y before Y passes head to wind, she need not respond to Y and give her room to tack under R19.2. If Y passes head to wind, R18 ceases to apply and Y shall keep clear of B under R13.
  • If B thinks that she can fetch the mark and keep clear of Y before Y passes head to wind, she need not respond to Y and give her room to tack. Y loses her right of way if she passes head to wind and is subject to R13. Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • B finishes leaving Y behind. If B cannot fetch the mark and has to tack before clearing the finishing line, she breaks R 19.2.
  • END Main Menu Rule 20 Rule 19.2 Rule 19.1 does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them or at a mark that the hailed boat can fetch. When rule 19.2 applies, rule 18 does not.
  • Section D – Other Rules
    • Rule 20 Starting Errors; Penalty Turns; Moving Astern Rule 21 Capsized, anchored or Aground; Rescuing Rule 22  Interfering with Another Boat Rule 22.1  Rule 22.2
  • Rule 20
  • Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not. Illustration 1 (Boat On Course Side)
  • Before the start, Grey 1 is on the course side and approaches the pre-start side on starboard tack. Two port tack boats, Green and Grey 2, are give-way boat and have to keep clear, R10. Grey 1 Grey 2 Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • The race is started. Since Grey 1 is sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line to comply with R.29.1, R20 applies and rules in Section A do not so Grey 1 is now changed to a give-way boat and has to keep clear of the two port tack boats. Grey 1 Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Grey 1 keeps clear by luffing up to avoid the two port tack boats until she is completely on the pre-start side. Grey 1 Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Grey 1 Grey 1 continues to luff up to keep clear of the two port tack boats until she is completely on the pre-start side. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Grey 1 Grey 1 continues to luff up to keep clear of the two port tack boats until she is completely on the pre-start side. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not. Illustration 2 (Boat making penalty turn)
  • Blue (B) is on port-tack. Yellow (Y) is the starboard-tack boat but is doing her penalty turns. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear B. Although Y is on starboard tack, R10 does not apply when R20 applies between B and Y. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Y making a penalty turn shall keep clear of B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Illustration 3
  • Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not. Illustration 3 (Boat moving astern)
  • Before start, Blue (B) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat (R12). Her sail is flapping. Yellow (Y) is clear astern and the give-way boat. She approaches B. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • B is backing her sail. Before moving astern, B is still the right-of-way boat, R12. Y shall keep clear. Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • B is now moving astern by backing her sail. R20 apples and rules in Section A of Part II do not apply. B becomes a give-way boat and shall keep clear of Y. Y now becomes right-of-way boat and need not to give B room to keep clear because Y acquires the right of way because of B's action. For sailboard, R20 is changed to: a sailboard moving astern shall keep clear of other sailboards and boats.
  • END Main Menu Rule 21 Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING ASTERN A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions after her starting signal to complies with rule 29.1 or 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side. A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not. A boat moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
  • Rule 21 CAPSIZED, ANCHORED OR AGROUND; RESCUING
  • Rule 21 CAPSIZED, ANCHORED OR AGROUND; RESCUING If possible, a boat shall avoid a boat that is capsized or has not regained control after capsizing, is anchored or aground, or is trying to kelp a person or vessel in danger. A boat is capsized when her masthead is in the water. Illustration
  • Red (R) is trying to help a person in danger. Though Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack, she should try to avoid R, R21. Rule 21 CAPSIZED, ANCHORED OR AGROUND; RESCUING If possible, a boat shall avoid a boat that is capsized or has not regained control after capsizing, is anchored or aground, or is trying to kelp a person or vessel in danger. A boat is capsized when her masthead is in the water.
  • In fact Y is doing so by tacking Rule 21 CAPSIZED, ANCHORED OR AGROUND; RESCUING If possible, a boat shall avoid a boat that is capsized or has not regained control after capsizing, is anchored or aground, or is trying to kelp a person or vessel in danger. A boat is capsized when her masthead is in the water.
  • In fact Y is doing so by tacking Rule 21 CAPSIZED, ANCHORED OR AGROUND; RESCUING If possible, a boat shall avoid a boat that is capsized or has not regained control after capsizing, is anchored or aground, or is trying to kelp a person or vessel in danger. A boat is capsized when her masthead is in the water.
  • END Main Menu Rule 22.1 Rule 21 CAPSIZED, ANCHORED OR AGROUND; RESCUING If possible, a boat shall avoid a boat that is capsized or has not regained control after capsizing, is anchored or aground, or is trying to kelp a person or vessel in danger. A boat is capsized when her masthead is in the water.
  • Rule 22 INTERFERING WITH ANOTHER BOAT
  • Rule 22.1
  • Rule 22 INTERFERING WITH ANOTHER BOAT Rule 22.1 If reasonably possible, a boat not racing shall not interfere with a boat that is racing.
  • Definition of Racing From the definition of racing above, you are racing from the the preparatory signal (not the starting signal) until you clear the finishing line (not just finish). Racing A boat is racing from her preparatory signal until she finishes and clears the finishing line and marks or retires, or until the race committee signals a general recall, postponement or abandonment .
  • Definition of Finish From the definition of finish above, you finish when any part of your hull, or crew or equipment in normal position (i.e. not capsized or in the course of regaining control after capsizing) cross the finishing line in the direction of the course from the last mark . Finish A boat finishes when any part of her hull, or crew or equipment in normal position, cross the finishing line in the direction of the course from the last mark, either for the first time or after taking a penalty under rule 31.2 or 44.2 or, under rule 28.1, after correcting an error made at the finishing line
  • Illustration There is no illustration for R22.1 because it is self explanatory. The following illustration is to show whether you finish and whether you are still racing.
  • Both Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are approaching the finishing line in the direction of the course from the last mark. B is on port-tack and Y is on starboard-tack
  • Both Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are approaching the finishing line in the direction of the course from the last mark. B is on port-tack and Y is on starboard-tack
  • Y has finished as part of her hull has crossed the finishing line but she is still racing.
  • Instead of maintaining her close-hauled course to clear the finishing line, Y bears away. As she has not cleared the finishing line she is still racing and rules in Part II apply. As a result B bears away to keep clear of Y, R10.
  • B is delayed for finishing. If Y’s act is found to be deliberate, Y does not break R22.1 but she breaks R2 for violating the principles of sportsmanship and fair play.
  • B is delayed for finishing. If Y’s act is found to be deliberate, Y does not break R22.1 but she breaks R2 for violating the principles of sportsmanship and fair play.
  • END Main Menu Rule 22.2 Rule 22 INTERFERING WITH ANOTHER BOAT Rule 22.1 If reasonably possible, a boat not racing shall not interfere with a boat that is racing.
  • Rule 22.2
  • Rule 22.2 A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her. Illustration
  • Yellow (Y) is a leading boat who can fetch the finishing line i.e. she can pass the finishing line without tacking. Boats of the fleet are quite behind. Rule 22.2: A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her.
  • Rule 22.2: A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her. Blue (B) is doing her penalty turns. If she can complete her turns and finish fast, Y’s overall position may be affected so Y deliberately changes course towards B.
  • Blue (B) is doing her penalty turns. If she can complete her turns and finish fast, Y’s overall position may be affected so Y deliberately changes course towards B. Rule 22.2: A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her.
  • Blue (B) is doing her penalty turns. If she can complete her turns and finish fast, Y’s overall position may be affected so Y deliberately changes course towards B. Rule 22.2: A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her.
  • B has to make a wide turn to avoid Y. Rule 22.2: A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her.
  • B has to make a wide turn to avoid Y. Rule 22.2: A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her.
  • As a result many boats finish before B. Y therefore breaks R22.2. She also breaks R2 for violating the principles of sportsmanship and fair play. Rule 22.2: A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her.
  • As a result many boats finish before B. Y therefore breaks R22.2. She also breaks R2 for violated the principles of sportsmanship and fair play. Rule 22.2: A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her.
  • As a result many boats finish before B. Y therefore breaks R22.2. She also breaks R2 for violated the principles of sportsmanship and fair play. Rule 22.2: A boat shall not deliberately interfere with a boat making penalty turns to delay her.
  • END That is all for your leaning of the racing rules. Thank you! Rule 22.2 Μια βάρκα δεν θα παρεμποδίσει σκόπιμα μια βάρκα κάνοντας τις στροφές ποινικής ρήτρας για να την καθυστερήσει.
    • Cyber Learning of Racing Rules Main Menu Select a rule to learn: (By clicking on the definition or rule no.) Definition: Clear Astern and Clear Ahead ; Overlap Leeward and Windward Tack , Starboard or Port Section A – Right of Way A boat has right of way when another boat is required to keep clear of her. However, some rules in Section B, C, and D limit the actions of a right of way boat. Rule 10 On opposite tacks Rule 11 On the same tack , overlapped Rule 12 On the same tack , not overlapped Rule 13 While tacking Section B – General Limitations Rule 14 Avoiding contact Rule 15 Acquiring right of way Rule 16 Changing course Rule 17 On the Same tack; Proper course Rule 17.1   Rule 17.2 Section C – At Marks and Obstructions To the extent that a Section C rule conflicts with a rule in Section A or B, the Section C rule takes precedence. Rule 18 Rounding and passing marks and obstructions  In rule 18, room is room for an inside boat to round or pass between an outside boat and a mark or obstruction, including room to tack or gybe when with is a normal part of the manoeuvre. Rule 18.1 When This Rule Applies Rule 18.2 (a) Giving Room ; Keeping Clear Rule 18.2 (b) Overlapped – Basic Rule Rule 18.2 (c) Overlapped at the Zone Rule 18.2 (d) Changing Course to Round or Pass Rule 18.2 (e) Overlap Rights Rule 18.3 Tacking at a Mark Rule 18.4 Gybing Rule 18.5 Passing a Continuing Obstruction   Rule 19 Room to Tack at an Obstruction Rule 19.1   Rule 19.2 Section D – Other Rules Rule 20 Starting Errors ; Penalty Turns ; Moving Astern Rule 21 Capsized , anchored or Aground ; Rescuing Rule 22  Interfering with Another Boat Rule 22.1  Rule 22.2
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