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Yellow (Y) is  clear astern  of Blue (B) because her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from th...
Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) overlap because neither is clear astern.  Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap   One boat is  cle...
Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are also considered to be overlapping each other because neither is clear astern.  Clear Astern an...
Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) overlap because neither is clear astern.  Y and Green (G) overlap for the same reason.  Y is a boa...
Y and B overlap.  Y and G overlap.  Y is not a boat between B and G, so B and G do not overlap.  B is clear ahead.  G is c...
Y and B do not overlap because they are on opposite tack.  But, there is exception. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap ...
When two boats sail side by side on opposite tacks halfway down the run, they are not overlapped.  Clear Astern and Clear ...
But, when they get down near the two-length-zone at the mark as shown, they are considered to be overlapped. Clear Astern ...
Definition (Leeward and Windward Definition (Leeward and Windward)
The windward side is the side near to the wind.  The leeward side is the side away from the wind. Wind direction Windward ...
Wind direction When Blue and Yellow tack to head to wind, the side which is the windward side before head to wind is their...
Wind direction Blue and Yellow are sailing by the lee.  The side on which their main sails lie is their leeward side.  The...
Wind direction Blue and Yellow are sailing downwind.  The side on which their main sails lie is their leeward side.  The o...
Wind direction Blue (B) and Green (G) on the same tack overlap.  B is the windward boat and G is the leeward boat  Yellow ...
Definition (Tack, Starboard or Port) Definition (Tack, Starboard or Port)
Port  side of a boat Starboard side of a boat Wind direction The wind blows on the port side of Blue (B), B is on the  por...
If your left hand is near to the mast, you are on the  port tack. If your right hand is near to the mast you are  on the  ...
Illustration 1 (Upwind Situation) Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite  tacks , a  port-tack  boat shall ...
Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the keep clear boat.  Rule 10: ON ...
B bears away to keep clear of Y.  B keeps clear of Y if Y can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action. Rule 1...
B bears away to keep clear of Y.  Y maintains the course not to prevent B to keep clear and has to avoid contact, R14. Rul...
B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposi...
Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite  tacks , a  port-tack  boat shall  keep clear  of a  starboard–tack ...
B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposi...
B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposi...
Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack and the right of way boat. Blue(B) is on port tack and the keep clear boat.  Rule 10: ON O...
Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack and the right of way boat. Blue(B) is on port tack and the keep clear boat.  Rule 10: ON O...
B changes course to keep clear of Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite  tacks , a  port-tack  boat sha...
When after the starting signal, Y and B are crossing each other on opposite tacks, and B is keeping clear of Y, Y shall no...
B passes safely under the stern of Y and fulfills the obligation of keep clear under R10 . Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When...
B passes safely under the stern of Y and fulfills the obligation of keep clear under R10 . Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When...
Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack. Blue (B) is on port-tack. Since two boats are on opposite tack, Y is the right-of-way boa...
B shall keep clear of Y even Y is approaching B from astern. Although Y is right-of-way boat, R14 requires Y to avoid cont...
B changes course by luffing up to avoid Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite  tacks , a  port-tack  bo...
B changes course by luffing up to avoid Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite  tacks , a  port-tack  bo...
B changes course by luffing up to avoid Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite  tacks , a  port-tack  bo...
B  keeps clear of Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite  tacks , a  port-tack  boat shall  keep clear  ...
Starboard. Hold your course Y is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. B is on port-tack and the keep clear boat.  ...
Starboard. Though B has hailed ‘Hold your course’, Y is not bound by that hail.  If Y thinks that contact will be occurred...
If it is clear that B is not keeping clear, Y shall avoid contact and consider to take action. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS ...
Protest It is not necessary for Y to hit B to prove that B fails to keep clear.  R14 requires both Y and B to avoid contac...
Illustrations  Rule 11:  ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same  tack  and  overlapped , a  windward  boa...
Blue (B) is the leeward and the right-of-way boat Yellow (Y)  is the windward and the give-way boat. Blue (B) and Yellow (...
Both Y and B are on starboard-tack.  As per definition of overlap, they also overlap.  Since Y is on the leeward side of B...
Both Y and B are on starboard-tack. As per definition of overlap, they also overlap.  It is difficult to know which one is...
Both Y and B are on starboard-tack and overlap.  Since Y is on the leeward side of B, Y is leeward boat and B is windward ...
Yellow (Y)  is clear astern of Blue (B) because her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the...
Illustration 4 Exception 1 – Passing an Obstruction Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall  k...
Room to tack  Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack and Green (G) and Blue (B) are on port tack. G and B shall keep clear of Y u...
You tack. Under R19.1(b), G responds and immediately reply ‘You tack’. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to...
In this situation, B shall tack as soon as possible and G shall give room.  It is another  exception that a boat is not pr...
B continues to tack and G continues to give B room. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall  k...
B continues to tack and G continues to give B room. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall  k...
B continues to tack and G continues to give B room.
G shall keep clear of both B and Y under R10. Y shall keep clear of B under R11.
G shall keep clear of both B and Y under R10. Y shall keep clear of B under R11.
Illustration 5  Exception 2 - At the starting line Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall  ke...
The race is not yet started.  Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are in the pre-start side approaching the starting line to start on ...
The race is started.  G shall sail completely to the pre-start side of the line under R29.1. Bang
Y is under the leeward side of B and wind shadow of B.
In order to get clear wind, Y intends to tack to port.
G sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line shall keep clear of Y under R20.  When R20 applies between G and...
Even Y tacks and passes head to wind, G shall still keep clear of Y since R13 (Section A rule) does not apply in this situ...
G shall still keep clear of Y until G is completely on the pre-start side.
Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT
Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible.  However, a right-of-way b...
Starboard. Y is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. B is on port-tack and the keep clear boat.  Rule 10 applies. ...
Starboard. A right-of-way boat need not act avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear.  In ...
If it is clear that B is not keeping clear, Y shall avoid contact with B if reasonably possible.  In this situation, Y luf...
B is late to take action to keep clear of Y and breaks R10.
Y takes action to avoid contact with B and does not break R14.
END Main Menu Rule 15 Rule 14 :  AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible.  Ho...
Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY
Illustration 1 Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat ...
Y and B are on port-tack, overlap and on a converging course.  B is leeward right of way boat and Y is windward give way b...
Y gybes and at the same time keep clear of B under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat acquires right of way...
Y gybes to starboard-tack and becomes right of way boat because Y and B are on opposite tack under R10. Rule 15: ACQUIRING...
When Y acquires right of way, she shall initially give B room to keep clear under R15 .  In this situation, B is given eno...
B gybes to starboard-tack. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give th...
When B gybes to starboard, she is still the give way boat since she is windward boat under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT O...
B luffs up to keep clear and complies R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat acquires right of way, she shall i...
B is keeping clear of Y under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially...
Illustration 2 Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat ...
Y and B are on port-tack, overlap and on a converging course.  B is leeward right of way boat and Y is windward give way b...
When the distance becomes closer, Y starts to gybe.  At this position, Y is still keeping clear of B under R11. Rule 15: A...
Instead of altering course to keep clear of B which is a leeward boat, Y quickly gybes to starboard. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RI...
Now Y and B is on opposite tack and Y becomes right of way boat under R10. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat ac...
In order to keep clear of Y, B can only gybe to starboard. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat acquires right of ...
When Y acquires right of way, she shall initially give B room to keep clear under R15. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  Wh...
When B immediately alters course to keep clear of Y, there is contact between B and Y.  In this situation, Y does not init...
Y then breaks R15.  B also breaks R11 since she fails to keep clear of a leeward boat and R14 for failing to avoid contact...
Y is leeward right of way boat and B shall keep clear under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat acquires rig...
Illustration 3 Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat ...
Y and B are on starboard-tack.  B is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat.  Y is the give-way boat under R12. Rule 15: AC...
Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat  room  to  kee...
B luffs above close hauled and becomes overlap to the leeward of Y.  B is still the right of way boat under R11 and Y shal...
B passes head to wind and R13 applies. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initi...
B shall keep clear of Y under R13. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY  When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially...
B tacks in front of Y. Now they are on opposite tack. Y becomes the right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear under R10.  I...
Although B tries to avoid contact by luffing up, there is still contact since B tacks so close.  B breaks R10 for failing ...
Rule 16  CHANGING COURSE
Illustration 1 Rule 16  CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat  ...
Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue(B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat.  B is keeping cl...
B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat  room...
B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat  room...
When the distance becomes closer, Y changes course toward B. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall...
In response to Y’s changing course, B bears away to keep clear of Y in a seamanlike manner. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way...
There was contact between B and Y. Since Y, a right-of-way boat, does not give B room to keep clear when she changes cours...
Illustration 2 Rule 16  CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat  ...
Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat.  Although Y and...
B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are ...
When the distance becomes closer, B can safely cross in front of Y. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal...
Y suddenly luffs up to hunt B. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are cros...
When Y finds that contact will likely be occurred, Y immediately resumes her original course before B takes any action. Ru...
Both boats break no rule.  B is keeping clear of Y under R10.  Y does not break R16. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after th...
Illustration 3 Rule 16  CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat  ...
Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue(B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat.  Rule 16.2: In a...
B is slightly ahead of Y and at this position, B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the s...
Wind direction At this position, B is keeping clear of Y since B can safely cross in front of Y. Rule 16.2: In addition, w...
New wind direction When there is a wind shift coming from the right, both Y and B respond to the new wind direction and th...
Illustration 4 Rule 16  CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat  ...
Both Y and B are running parallel on port-tack.  B is leeward overlap with Y and right-of-way boat. Y is windward and give...
Y is keeping clear of B under R11. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are ...
Y is keeping clear of B under R11. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are ...
B sheets in her sails but still maintains the course direction.  Y shall be careful of B’s action. Rule 16.2: In addition,...
B gybes without changing course. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are cr...
Now B gybes to starboard. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing ...
B is now on starboard-tack and her boom is releasing to normal sailing position. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the st...
Both B’s and Y’s booms touch with each other.  Y breaks R10 for failing to keep clear of B which is on starboard.  R15 and...
Illustration 5 Rule 16  CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat  ...
Blue(B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat.  Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Y and B are abo...
B is keeping clear by bearing away to comply with R10 and can pass safety under the stern of Y if Y does not change course...
When after the starting signal, if the port-tack boat B is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat Y, R16.2 requires Y no...
Illustration 6 Rule 16  CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat  ...
Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat.  Y and B are ru...
Y changes course by luffing up.  Y complies with R16.1 since she gives B room to keep clear when she changes course. Rule ...
B keeps clear by gybing and complies with R10.  Though B has to change course immediately to continue keeping clear of Y, ...
B gybes to starboard to continue keeping clear of Y under R11 since B now becomes the windward boat. Rule 16.2: In additio...
END Main Menu Rule 16  CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat  r...
Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE
Illustration 1 Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two o...
Yellow (Y) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is the clear astern and the give way boat, R12. Rule 17....
B is sailing faster and will catch up to the leeward of Y. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within tw...
B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within two of B's hull length and becomes right-of-way boat, R11, but B shall initi...
Y is  keeping  clear of B.  B cannot luff up to sail above close hauled because R17.1 requires her not to sail above her p...
R17.1 still applies when the overlap remains. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two of her hull...
Now B breaks the overlap by sailing faster, she becomes the right-of-way boat, R12. Y is now becoming keep clear boat beca...
Now the overlap is established again but by the action of Y coming astern, B is not limited by R17.1 by sailing above prop...
Even B is sailing above proper course, Y shall keep clear of B because Y is a windward boat, R11, provided every time B ch...
Illustration 2  Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two ...
Blue (B) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Yellow (Y) is clear astern and give-way boat, R12. Rule 17.1 If a b...
Y establishes a windward overlap with B and is still give way boat, R11. B is still right-of-way boat because she is a lee...
Even B luffs above close hauled, Y shall keep clear under R11 provided B gives Y room to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat  ...
B continues to luff until head to wind and Y shall respond to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes ...
Illustration 3  Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two ...
Yellow (Y) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat, R12 Blue (B) is clear astern and the give way boat.  She tries to est...
Now Y and B are overlap.  Since B establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern with more than 2 boat length, R17.1 does...
B can now luff up above close hauled and Y shall keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear even the distance betwee...
B can now luff up above close hauled and Y shall keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear even the distance betwee...
Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to  leeward  of a boat on the same  t...
Illustration 4  Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two ...
Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give way boat. Rule 10 applies...
B begins to tack and still on port tack and shall keep clear of Y, R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlap...
B is still on port tack not until she passes head to wind and shall keep clear of Y, R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear aster...
B is now tacking and shall keep clear of Y until she is on close hauled course, R13. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  be...
Before B reaches the close hauled course, Y establishes a leeward overlap and still is the right-of-way boat, R11. Rule 17...
Y can now luff up to above proper course provided she gives B room to keep clear under R16.1 since R17.1 does not apply if...
Provided Y gives B room to keep clear, once Y luffs up until head to wind, B shall respond to keep clear under R11. Rule 1...
Illustration 5  Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two ...
Yellow (Y) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat Blue (B) is the clear astern and the give-way boat. Rule 12 applie...
B establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern with Y and becomes a right-of-way boat, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear ...
B establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern with Y and becomes a right-of-way boat, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear ...
Even B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within 2 boat length from clear astern as limited by R.17.1, B can even luff u...
Illustration 6  Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two ...
Both Blue (b) and Yellow (y) are on starboard tack.  B is clear ahead and Y is clear astern.  Y shall keep clear of B unde...
Y establishes a leeward overlap from coming astern and becomes the right-of-way boat.  B shall now keep clear of Y under R...
Though B shall keep clear of Y under R11, Y is limited by R.17.1 not to sail above her proper course. Rule 17.1 If a boat ...
Y gybes to port tack and shall keep clear of B under R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two...
Now B and Y are on opposite tack and Y shall keep clear of B under R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlap...
Y gybes again. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to  leeward  of a boat...
Y gybes to starboard tack with the same tack of B and is leeward to B.  Y now becomes  right-of-way boat again. R11 requir...
Since Y now establishes a leeward overlap by gybing twice quickly, she is not limited by R17.1 and is legal to sail above ...
B responds to keep clear under R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths t...
Illustration 7  Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two ...
Around 20 seconds before start Before start, Yellow (Y) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat, R12. Blue (B) is clear a...
B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within 2 boat length and becomes right-of-way boat, R11 but has to initially give Y...
B luffs up and has to give Y room to keep clear when B changes course, R16.1. Y has to keep clear under R11 . Rule 17.1: I...
B continues to luff up and Y continues to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within tw...
B continues to luff up and Y continues to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1: If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within t...
B continues to luff up and Y has to keep clear even she is above close hauled. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes ...
Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to  leeward  of a boat on the same  t...
B is allowed to sail above close hauled until head to wind provided she gives Y room to keep clear.  R17.1 does not apply ...
Bang When the race starts, B immediately bears away to close hauled, i.e. sails not above proper course because R17.1 appl...
B is leeward and right-of-way boat, R11. Y is windward and give way boat. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overl...
Illustration 8  Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped within two ...
Around 20 seconds before start Before start, Yellow (Y) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat, R12. Blue (B) is clear a...
B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within 2 boat length and becomes right-of-way boat and has to initially give Y room...
B luffs up but has to give Y room to keep clear when she changes course, R16.1. Y has to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat  ...
B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped wi...
B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped wi...
B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped wi...
B continues to luff up and Y responds  and luffs up to keep clear.  Now it is now about to start but B is a little bit bel...
Bang The race starts.  B continues to luff up and Y has to keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear.  Though R.17....
B continues to luff up until head to wind or pass the port end provided she gives Y room to keep clear even Y has to pass ...
B continues to luff up until head to wind or pass the port end provided she give Y room to keep clear even Y has to pass h...
When B passes the port end, she immediately bears away to close hauled, i.e. not to sail above her proper course.  Since t...
B is leeward and right-of-way boat, R11. Y is windward and give way boat. Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overl...
END  Main Menu Rule 17.2 Rule 17  ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat  clear astern  becomes overlapped wi...
Rule 17.2
Illustration 1 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a  leeward  b...
Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat.  Y shall not s...
Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat.  Y shall not s...
Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat.  Y shall not s...
Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat.  Y shall not s...
Illustration 2 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a  leeward  b...
Both Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are sailing on a free leg, i.e. not on a beat to windward.  Y is clear ahead of B.  B shall k...
Since the distance between Y and B is more than 2 hull lengths, R17.2 does not limit Y to sail below her proper course.  B...
B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y.  She is also less than two of Y's hull length. Y is now limited by R ...
B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y and is less than two of Y's hull length.  Y is limited by R 17.2 not t...
B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y and is less than two of Y's hull length.  Y is limited by R 17.2 not t...
B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y and is less than two of Y's hull length.  Y is limited by R 17.2 not t...
Y is now sailing her proper course complying with R 17.2.  B continues to keep clear of Y under R12. Rule 17.2: Except on ...
Illustration 3 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a  leeward  b...
Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y).  Y is limited by R17.2 no...
Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y).  Y is limited by R17.2 no...
Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y).  Y is limited by R17.2 no...
Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y).  Y is limited by R17.2 no...
Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y).  Y is limited by R17.2 no...
Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y).  Y is limited by R17.2 no...
Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y).  Y is limited by R17.2 no...
Illustration 4 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a  leeward  b...
Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg more than two of her hull lengths from Blue(B), a boat clear astern steering a course ...
Since Y is not limited by R.17.2, she can sail below her proper course.  B continues to keep clear of Y Rule 17.2: Except ...
B becomes overlapped more than two of her hull lengths to leeward of Y on the same tack.  She is not limited by R17.2 and ...
Since Y is not limited by R.17.2, she can sail below her proper course but shall also keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2...
Since Y is not limited by R.17.2, she can sail below her proper course but shall also keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2...
Now Y is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat, Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2.  On ...
Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R1...
Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R1...
Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R1...
Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R1...
Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R1...
Illustration 5 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a  leeward  b...
Blue (B) is clear ahead of Yellow (Y). She is neither a leeward boat nor a boat clear astern so if she steers a course to ...
Since Y is not limited by R 17.2, she can sail below proper course but shall keep clear of B under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except...
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  • Though B has hailed ‘hold your course’, Y is not bound by that hail and if Y thinks that contact will be occurred, a quick second hail of ‘starboard’ is wise enough to urge B’s action.
  • B is still on port tack not until she passes head to wind and shall keep clear of Y, R10.
  • B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear.
  • Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11.
  • Y is sailing her proper course.
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c).
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c).
  • Even Y now establishes an inside overlap to B and is on starboard tack, R18.2(c) requires Y to keep clear and is not entitled to room.
  • Before both boats have passed the mark, Y continues to keep clear of B under R. 18.2(c).
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c).
  • When Y changes course to pass the mark, R18.2(d) states that R16 does not apply and B shall continue to keep clear of Y under R18.2(c).
  • B is on port tack and give way boat, R10. Y is on starboard tack and right-of-way boat.
  • Y is on starboard tack and G and B are on port tack. Y is obstruction to G and B.
  • A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not under R20.
  • A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not under R20.
  • Transcript of "κανονισμοι ιστιοπλοιας "

    1. 1. Yellow (Y) is clear astern of Blue (B) because her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of B’s hull and equipment in normal position. Yellow (Y) is the clear astern boat. Blue (B) is the clear ahead boat. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
    2. 2. Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) overlap because neither is clear astern. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
    3. 3. Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are also considered to be overlapping each other because neither is clear astern. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
    4. 4. Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) overlap because neither is clear astern. Y and Green (G) overlap for the same reason. Y is a boat between B and G, so B and G overlap. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
    5. 5. Y and B overlap. Y and G overlap. Y is not a boat between B and G, so B and G do not overlap. B is clear ahead. G is clear astern. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
    6. 6. Y and B do not overlap because they are on opposite tack. But, there is exception. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
    7. 7. When two boats sail side by side on opposite tacks halfway down the run, they are not overlapped. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
    8. 8. But, when they get down near the two-length-zone at the mark as shown, they are considered to be overlapped. Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead . They overlap when neither is clear astern or when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies.
    9. 9. Definition (Leeward and Windward Definition (Leeward and Windward)
    10. 10. The windward side is the side near to the wind. The leeward side is the side away from the wind. Wind direction Windward side Leeward side Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
    11. 11. Wind direction When Blue and Yellow tack to head to wind, the side which is the windward side before head to wind is their windward side. The other side is their leeward side. Leeward side Windward side Windward side Wind direction Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
    12. 12. Wind direction Blue and Yellow are sailing by the lee. The side on which their main sails lie is their leeward side. The other side is their windward side. Windward side Windward side Leeward side Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
    13. 13. Wind direction Blue and Yellow are sailing downwind. The side on which their main sails lie is their leeward side. The other side is their windward side. Windward side Leeward side Leeward side Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
    14. 14. Wind direction Blue (B) and Green (G) on the same tack overlap. B is the windward boat and G is the leeward boat Yellow (Y) and White (W) on the same tack overlap. Y is the windward boat and W is the leeward boat Windward boat Leeward boat Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.
    15. 15. Definition (Tack, Starboard or Port) Definition (Tack, Starboard or Port)
    16. 16. Port side of a boat Starboard side of a boat Wind direction The wind blows on the port side of Blue (B), B is on the port tack. The wind blows on the starboard side of Yellow (Y), Y is on the starboard tack. Tack, Starboard or Port A boat in on the tack, starboard or port , corresponding to her windward side.
    17. 17. If your left hand is near to the mast, you are on the port tack. If your right hand is near to the mast you are on the starboard tack. A easy way to remember! Wind direction Tack, Starboard or Port A boat in on the tack, starboard or port , corresponding to her windward side.
    18. 18. Illustration 1 (Upwind Situation) Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    19. 19. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the keep clear boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    20. 20. B bears away to keep clear of Y. B keeps clear of Y if Y can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    21. 21. B bears away to keep clear of Y. Y maintains the course not to prevent B to keep clear and has to avoid contact, R14. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    22. 22. B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    23. 23. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat. B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear.
    24. 24. B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    25. 25. B can safely pass under the stern of Y and complies R10 to keep clear. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    26. 26. Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack and the right of way boat. Blue(B) is on port tack and the keep clear boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    27. 27. Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack and the right of way boat. Blue(B) is on port tack and the keep clear boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    28. 28. B changes course to keep clear of Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    29. 29. When after the starting signal, Y and B are crossing each other on opposite tacks, and B is keeping clear of Y, Y shall not change course if as a result B would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear, R16.2. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    30. 30. B passes safely under the stern of Y and fulfills the obligation of keep clear under R10 . Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    31. 31. B passes safely under the stern of Y and fulfills the obligation of keep clear under R10 . Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    32. 32. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack. Blue (B) is on port-tack. Since two boats are on opposite tack, Y is the right-of-way boat and B is the give-way boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    33. 33. B shall keep clear of Y even Y is approaching B from astern. Although Y is right-of-way boat, R14 requires Y to avoid contact with B. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on oposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    34. 34. B changes course by luffing up to avoid Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    35. 35. B changes course by luffing up to avoid Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    36. 36. B changes course by luffing up to avoid Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    37. 37. B keeps clear of Y. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    38. 38. Starboard. Hold your course Y is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. B is on port-tack and the keep clear boat. If B intends to cross close in front of Y, normally B will hail ‘Hold your course’ to assure that B knows the presence of Y and shows her intention to cross in front of Y requesting Y not to change any course. Y hails ‘Starboard’ to remind B that she is the right-of-way boat. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    39. 39. Starboard. Though B has hailed ‘Hold your course’, Y is not bound by that hail. If Y thinks that contact will be occurred, a quick second hail of ‘starboard’ is wise enough to urge B’s action. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    40. 40. If it is clear that B is not keeping clear, Y shall avoid contact and consider to take action. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    41. 41. Protest It is not necessary for Y to hit B to prove that B fails to keep clear. R14 requires both Y and B to avoid contact if reasonably possible. Y is able to change course to avoid contact and she does so to fulfill R14. Y can then protest B for breaking R10. If Y does not change course and hit B, B fails to keep clear of Y under R10. Then both Y and B break R14. If the contact causes damage, Y shall also be penalized under R14. Rule 10: ON OPPOSITE TACKS When boats are on opposite tacks , a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard–tack boat.
    42. 42. Illustrations Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
    43. 43. Blue (B) is the leeward and the right-of-way boat Yellow (Y) is the windward and the give-way boat. Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are overlap because they are on the same tack and neither is clear astern. B is the leeward boat. Y is the windward boat. Y shall keep clear of B. Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
    44. 44. Both Y and B are on starboard-tack. As per definition of overlap, they also overlap. Since Y is on the leeward side of B, Y is leeward boat and B is windward boat. Under R11, Y is right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear. Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
    45. 45. Both Y and B are on starboard-tack. As per definition of overlap, they also overlap. It is difficult to know which one is the leeward boat when boats are on much different angles of sail. In this situation, Y is leeward boat since Y will be hit on her own windward side. Under R11, Y is right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear. Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
    46. 46. Both Y and B are on starboard-tack and overlap. Since Y is on the leeward side of B, Y is leeward boat and B is windward boat. Under R11, Y is right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear. Rule 11: ON THE SAME tack, OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and overlapped , a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.
    47. 47. Yellow (Y) is clear astern of Blue (B) because her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of B's hull and equipment in normal position. B is clear ahead. (See definition of Clear Astern and Clear Ahead.) B is the right-of-way boat and Y shall keep clear of B, R12. Rule 12: ON THE SAME TACK, NOT OVERLAPPED When boats are on the same tack and not overlapped , a boat clear astern shall keep clear of a boat clear ahead .
    48. 48. Illustration 4 Exception 1 – Passing an Obstruction Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .`
    49. 49. Room to tack Yellow (Y) is on starboard tack and Green (G) and Blue (B) are on port tack. G and B shall keep clear of Y under R 10. Y is an obstruction to G and B. B and G are on the same tack and B is leeward and right of way boat. B has the option to choose either path, passing below Y or tack, to keep clear of Y. In this situation, B chooses to tack. Under R19.1, when safety requires a close-hauled boat to make a substantial course change to avoid an obstruction and she intends to tack, she shall hail for room to do so. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
    50. 50. You tack. Under R19.1(b), G responds and immediately reply ‘You tack’. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
    51. 51. In this situation, B shall tack as soon as possible and G shall give room. It is another exception that a boat is not prevented from tacking since R19.1(b) states that R13 does not apply in this situation. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
    52. 52. B continues to tack and G continues to give B room. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
    53. 53. B continues to tack and G continues to give B room. Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .
    54. 54. B continues to tack and G continues to give B room.
    55. 55. G shall keep clear of both B and Y under R10. Y shall keep clear of B under R11.
    56. 56. G shall keep clear of both B and Y under R10. Y shall keep clear of B under R11.
    57. 57. Illustration 5 Exception 2 - At the starting line Rule 13 : WHILE TACKING After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear .`
    58. 58. The race is not yet started. Blue (B) and Yellow (Y) are in the pre-start side approaching the starting line to start on starboard tack. Green (G) is on the course side.
    59. 59. The race is started. G shall sail completely to the pre-start side of the line under R29.1. Bang
    60. 60. Y is under the leeward side of B and wind shadow of B.
    61. 61. In order to get clear wind, Y intends to tack to port.
    62. 62. G sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line shall keep clear of Y under R20. When R20 applies between G and Y, Section A rules do not.
    63. 63. Even Y tacks and passes head to wind, G shall still keep clear of Y since R13 (Section A rule) does not apply in this situation. It is another exception that a boat is not prevented from tacking.
    64. 64. G shall still keep clear of Y until G is completely on the pre-start side.
    65. 65. Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT
    66. 66. Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage. Illustration
    67. 67. Starboard. Y is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. B is on port-tack and the keep clear boat. Rule 10 applies. Although Y is not obliged to hail ‘starboard’, it is wise to do so to remind B’s obligation. Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage.
    68. 68. Starboard. A right-of-way boat need not act avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear. In this situation, Y hails ‘starboard’ for the second time and starts to consider to act avoid contact. Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage.
    69. 69. If it is clear that B is not keeping clear, Y shall avoid contact with B if reasonably possible. In this situation, Y luffs up to avoid contact. Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage.
    70. 70. B is late to take action to keep clear of Y and breaks R10.
    71. 71. Y takes action to avoid contact with B and does not break R14.
    72. 72. END Main Menu Rule 15 Rule 14 : AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room , and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage.
    73. 73. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY
    74. 74. Illustration 1 Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    75. 75. Y and B are on port-tack, overlap and on a converging course. B is leeward right of way boat and Y is windward give way boat under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    76. 76. Y gybes and at the same time keep clear of B under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    77. 77. Y gybes to starboard-tack and becomes right of way boat because Y and B are on opposite tack under R10. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    78. 78. When Y acquires right of way, she shall initially give B room to keep clear under R15 . In this situation, B is given enough room to keep clear and B now alters course to keep clear under R10. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    79. 79. B gybes to starboard-tack. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    80. 80. When B gybes to starboard, she is still the give way boat since she is windward boat under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    81. 81. B luffs up to keep clear and complies R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    82. 82. B is keeping clear of Y under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    83. 83. Illustration 2 Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    84. 84. Y and B are on port-tack, overlap and on a converging course. B is leeward right of way boat and Y is windward give way boat under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    85. 85. When the distance becomes closer, Y starts to gybe. At this position, Y is still keeping clear of B under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    86. 86. Instead of altering course to keep clear of B which is a leeward boat, Y quickly gybes to starboard. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    87. 87. Now Y and B is on opposite tack and Y becomes right of way boat under R10. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    88. 88. In order to keep clear of Y, B can only gybe to starboard. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    89. 89. When Y acquires right of way, she shall initially give B room to keep clear under R15. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    90. 90. When B immediately alters course to keep clear of Y, there is contact between B and Y. In this situation, Y does not initially give B room to keep clear. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    91. 91. Y then breaks R15. B also breaks R11 since she fails to keep clear of a leeward boat and R14 for failing to avoid contact but is exonerated under R64.1(b) since Y has compelled B to break the rules. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    92. 92. Y is leeward right of way boat and B shall keep clear under R11. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    93. 93. Illustration 3 Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    94. 94. Y and B are on starboard-tack. B is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Y is the give-way boat under R12. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    95. 95. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action. Y and B are on starboard-tack. B is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Y is the give-way boat under R12.
    96. 96. B luffs above close hauled and becomes overlap to the leeward of Y. B is still the right of way boat under R11 and Y shall continue keep clear. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    97. 97. B passes head to wind and R13 applies. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    98. 98. B shall keep clear of Y under R13. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    99. 99. B tacks in front of Y. Now they are on opposite tack. Y becomes the right-of-way boat and B shall keep clear under R10. In this situation, Y does not need to initially give B room to keep clear because Y acquires right of way because of B’s action. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    100. 100. Although B tries to avoid contact by luffing up, there is still contact since B tacks so close. B breaks R10 for failing to keep clear a starboard-tack boat and R14 for failing to avoid contact. Y does not break R14 since she cannot reasonably avoid the contact. Rule 15: ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear , unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s action.
    101. 101. Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE
    102. 102. Illustration 1 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    103. 103. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue(B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. B is keeping clear of Y since they are not on a converging course. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
    104. 104. B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
    105. 105. B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
    106. 106. When the distance becomes closer, Y changes course toward B. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
    107. 107. In response to Y’s changing course, B bears away to keep clear of Y in a seamanlike manner. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
    108. 108. There was contact between B and Y. Since Y, a right-of-way boat, does not give B room to keep clear when she changes course, Y breaks R16.1. She also breaks R14 for failing to avoid contact. B breaks R10 and R14 but is exonerated under R64.1(b) since Y’s breaking of a rule compels B to break a rule. Rule 16.1: When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear .
    109. 109. Illustration 2 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    110. 110. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Although Y and B is on a converging course, B is slightly ahead and keeping clear of Y. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    111. 111. B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    112. 112. When the distance becomes closer, B can safely cross in front of Y. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    113. 113. Y suddenly luffs up to hunt B. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    114. 114. When Y finds that contact will likely be occurred, Y immediately resumes her original course before B takes any action. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    115. 115. Both boats break no rule. B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Y does not break R16. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    116. 116. Illustration 3 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    117. 117. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue(B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    118. 118. B is slightly ahead of Y and at this position, B is keeping clear of Y under R10. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    119. 119. Wind direction At this position, B is keeping clear of Y since B can safely cross in front of Y. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    120. 120. New wind direction When there is a wind shift coming from the right, both Y and B respond to the new wind direction and there is contact. Although Y is still on her close hauled course, Y has changed course (either changing compass bearing or direction) . Since Y does not give B room to keep clear, she breaks R16.1. In addition, Y can reasonably avoid contact but fails to do so and thus breaks R14. B breaks R10 for failing to keep clear a starboard-tack boat but is exonerated under R64.1(b). B does not break R14 since she cannot avoid the contact because of Y’s action.
    121. 121. Illustration 4 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    122. 122. Both Y and B are running parallel on port-tack. B is leeward overlap with Y and right-of-way boat. Y is windward and give-way boat under R11. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    123. 123. Y is keeping clear of B under R11. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    124. 124. Y is keeping clear of B under R11. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    125. 125. B sheets in her sails but still maintains the course direction. Y shall be careful of B’s action. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    126. 126. B gybes without changing course. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    127. 127. Now B gybes to starboard. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    128. 128. B is now on starboard-tack and her boom is releasing to normal sailing position. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    129. 129. Both B’s and Y’s booms touch with each other. Y breaks R10 for failing to keep clear of B which is on starboard. R15 and R16.1 do not apply since B is always the right-of-way boat and does not change course during the maneuver. Both B and Y break R14 for failing to avoid contact and B will be penalized if the contact causes damage.
    130. 130. Illustration 5 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    131. 131. Blue(B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Y and B are about to cross each other on opposite tack. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    132. 132. B is keeping clear by bearing away to comply with R10 and can pass safety under the stern of Y if Y does not change course. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    133. 133. When after the starting signal, if the port-tack boat B is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat Y, R16.2 requires Y not to change course if as a result B would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear. In this situation, B has to immediately change course again to continue keeping clear of Y though Y gives B room to keep clear. Y complies with R16.1 but breaks R16.2. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    134. 134. Illustration 6 Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    135. 135. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give-way boat. Y and B are running in parallel, i.e. not about to cross or crossing each other. B is keeping clear of Y.
    136. 136. Y changes course by luffing up. Y complies with R16.1 since she gives B room to keep clear when she changes course. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    137. 137. B keeps clear by gybing and complies with R10. Though B has to change course immediately to continue keeping clear of Y, Y does not break R16.2 since before Y changes course they are not about to cross nor crossing each other. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    138. 138. B gybes to starboard to continue keeping clear of Y under R11 since B now becomes the windward boat. Rule 16.2: In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear .
    139. 139. END Main Menu Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE Rule 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear . Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal boats are about to cross or are crossing each other on opposite tacks , and the port-tack boat is keeping clear of the starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear . Rule 17.1
    140. 140. Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE
    141. 141. Illustration 1 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    142. 142. Yellow (Y) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is the clear astern and the give way boat, R12. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    143. 143. B is sailing faster and will catch up to the leeward of Y. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    144. 144. B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within two of B's hull length and becomes right-of-way boat, R11, but B shall initially give Y room to keep clear under R15. Y becomes a keep clear boat because she is now a windward boat. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    145. 145. Y is keeping clear of B. B cannot luff up to sail above close hauled because R17.1 requires her not to sail above her proper course, i.e. close hauled at this stage, since B falls into the limit of R17.1 when she establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    146. 146. R17.1 still applies when the overlap remains. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    147. 147. Now B breaks the overlap by sailing faster, she becomes the right-of-way boat, R12. Y is now becoming keep clear boat because she is clear astern. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    148. 148. Now the overlap is established again but by the action of Y coming astern, B is not limited by R17.1 by sailing above proper course, i.e. close hauled at this stage, provided B shall give Y room to keep clear when B changes course, R16.1. B now can legally luff Y. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    149. 149. Even B is sailing above proper course, Y shall keep clear of B because Y is a windward boat, R11, provided every time B changes course, she gives Y room to keep clear. Rule 17.1: If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    150. 150. Illustration 2 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    151. 151. Blue (B) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat. Yellow (Y) is clear astern and give-way boat, R12. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    152. 152. Y establishes a windward overlap with B and is still give way boat, R11. B is still right-of-way boat because she is a leeward boat. In addition, she is not limited by R17.1 and can legally luff Y provided she gives Y room to keep clear when she changes course, R16.1. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    153. 153. Even B luffs above close hauled, Y shall keep clear under R11 provided B gives Y room to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    154. 154. B continues to luff until head to wind and Y shall respond to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    155. 155. Illustration 3 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    156. 156. Yellow (Y) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat, R12 Blue (B) is clear astern and the give way boat. She tries to establish a leeward overlap from clear astern. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    157. 157. Now Y and B are overlap. Since B establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern with more than 2 boat length, R17.1 does not limit B by sailing above proper course. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    158. 158. B can now luff up above close hauled and Y shall keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear even the distance between B and Y becomes less than 2 boat length. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    159. 159. B can now luff up above close hauled and Y shall keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear even the distance between B and Y becomes less than 2 boat length. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    160. 160. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . B can now luff up above close hauled and Y shall keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear even the distance between B and Y becomes less than 2 boat length.
    161. 161. Illustration 4 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    162. 162. Yellow (Y) is on starboard-tack and the right-of-way boat. Blue (B) is on port-tack and the give way boat. Rule 10 applies Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    163. 163. B begins to tack and still on port tack and shall keep clear of Y, R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    164. 164. B is still on port tack not until she passes head to wind and shall keep clear of Y, R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    165. 165. B is now tacking and shall keep clear of Y until she is on close hauled course, R13. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    166. 166. Before B reaches the close hauled course, Y establishes a leeward overlap and still is the right-of-way boat, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    167. 167. Y can now luff up to above proper course provided she gives B room to keep clear under R16.1 since R17.1 does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by R13 to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    168. 168. Provided Y gives B room to keep clear, once Y luffs up until head to wind, B shall respond to keep clear under R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    169. 169. Illustration 5 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    170. 170. Yellow (Y) is the clear ahead and the right-of-way boat Blue (B) is the clear astern and the give-way boat. Rule 12 applies. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    171. 171. B establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern with Y and becomes a right-of-way boat, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    172. 172. B establishes a leeward overlap from clear astern with Y and becomes a right-of-way boat, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    173. 173. Even B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within 2 boat length from clear astern as limited by R.17.1, B can even luff up to above close hauled if as a result she promptly sails astern of Y. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    174. 174. Illustration 6 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    175. 175. Both Blue (b) and Yellow (y) are on starboard tack. B is clear ahead and Y is clear astern. Y shall keep clear of B under R.12. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    176. 176. Y establishes a leeward overlap from coming astern and becomes the right-of-way boat. B shall now keep clear of Y under R.11 and Y shall initially give B room to keep clear under R15. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    177. 177. Though B shall keep clear of Y under R11, Y is limited by R.17.1 not to sail above her proper course. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    178. 178. Y gybes to port tack and shall keep clear of B under R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    179. 179. Now B and Y are on opposite tack and Y shall keep clear of B under R10. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    180. 180. Y gybes again. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    181. 181. Y gybes to starboard tack with the same tack of B and is leeward to B. Y now becomes right-of-way boat again. R11 requires B to keep clear but Y shall initially give B room to keep clear, R15. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    182. 182. Since Y now establishes a leeward overlap by gybing twice quickly, she is not limited by R17.1 and is legal to sail above proper course, i.e. to luff B. But before Y changes course by luffing up, she shall give B room to keep clear, R16.1. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    183. 183. B responds to keep clear under R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    184. 184. Illustration 7 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    185. 185. Around 20 seconds before start Before start, Yellow (Y) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat, R12. Blue (B) is clear astern and the give way boat but sails faster. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    186. 186. B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within 2 boat length and becomes right-of-way boat, R11 but has to initially give Y room to keep clear. Y becomes give way boat and need to start taking action to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    187. 187. B luffs up and has to give Y room to keep clear when B changes course, R16.1. Y has to keep clear under R11 . Rule 17.1: If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    188. 188. B continues to luff up and Y continues to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    189. 189. B continues to luff up and Y continues to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1: If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so sh promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    190. 190. B continues to luff up and Y has to keep clear even she is above close hauled. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    191. 191. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear . B is allowed to sail above close hauled until head to wind provided she gives Y room to keep clear. R17.1 does not apply since there is no proper course before start. Y has to keep clear even she has to pass head to wind (R13) or cross the starting line prematurely.
    192. 192. B is allowed to sail above close hauled until head to wind provided she gives Y room to keep clear. R17.1 does not apply since there is no proper course before start. Y has to keep clear even she has to pass head to wind (R13) or cross the starting line prematurely. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    193. 193. Bang When the race starts, B immediately bears away to close hauled, i.e. sails not above proper course because R17.1 applies. B still maintains the right-of-way boat if the overlap still exists, R11. Y continues to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    194. 194. B is leeward and right-of-way boat, R11. Y is windward and give way boat. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    195. 195. Illustration 8 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    196. 196. Around 20 seconds before start Before start, Yellow (Y) is clear ahead and the right-of-way boat, R12. Blue (B) is clear astern and the give way boat but sails faster. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    197. 197. B establishes a leeward overlap with Y within 2 boat length and becomes right-of-way boat and has to initially give Y room to keep clear, R11. Y now becomes give way boat and starts to take action to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    198. 198. B luffs up but has to give Y room to keep clear when she changes course, R16.1. Y has to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    199. 199. B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    200. 200. B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    201. 201. B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    202. 202. B continues to luff up and Y responds and luffs up to keep clear. Now it is now about to start but B is a little bit below the lay line to pass the port end. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    203. 203. Bang The race starts. B continues to luff up and Y has to keep clear provided B gives Y room to keep clear. Though R.17.1 applies that it requires B not to sail above proper course, B does not break the rule since at that stage, B's proper course is to sail above close hauled to pass the port end. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    204. 204. B continues to luff up until head to wind or pass the port end provided she gives Y room to keep clear even Y has to pass head to wind. B is still sailing her proper course. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    205. 205. B continues to luff up until head to wind or pass the port end provided she give Y room to keep clear even Y has to pass head to wind. B is still sailing her proper course. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    206. 206. When B passes the port end, she immediately bears away to close hauled, i.e. not to sail above her proper course. Since the overlap still maintains, Y continues to keep clear, R11. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    207. 207. B is leeward and right-of-way boat, R11. Y is windward and give way boat. Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    208. 208. END Main Menu Rule 17.2 Rule 17 ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE Rule 17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack , she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped with that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear .
    209. 209. Rule 17.2
    210. 210. Illustration 1 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
    211. 211. Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat. Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. She shall also keep clear of B, R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
    212. 212. Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat. Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. She shall also keep clear of B, R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
    213. 213. Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat. Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. She shall also keep clear of B, R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
    214. 214. Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg and is less than two of her hull lengths from Blue (B), a leeward boat. Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. She shall also keep clear of B, R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
    215. 215. Illustration 2 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
    216. 216. Both Yellow (Y) and Blue (B) are sailing on a free leg, i.e. not on a beat to windward. Y is clear ahead of B. B shall keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    217. 217. Since the distance between Y and B is more than 2 hull lengths, R17.2 does not limit Y to sail below her proper course. B shall keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    218. 218. B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y. She is also less than two of Y's hull length. Y is now limited by R 17.2 not to sail below her proper course. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    219. 219. B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y and is less than two of Y's hull length. Y is limited by R 17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She has to resume her proper course by luffing up towards the mark. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    220. 220. B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y and is less than two of Y's hull length. Y is limited by R 17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She has to resume her proper course by luffing up towards the mark. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    221. 221. B clear astern is steering a course to leeward of Y and is less than two of Y's hull length. Y is limited by R 17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She has to resume her proper course by luffing up towards the mark. B continues to keep clear of Y under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    222. 222. Y is now sailing her proper course complying with R 17.2. B continues to keep clear of Y under R12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her , she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    223. 223. Illustration 3 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
    224. 224. Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except n beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    225. 225. Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    226. 226. Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    227. 227. Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    228. 228. Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    229. 229. Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    230. 230. Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below `er proper course. Blue (B) is clear astern, steering a course to leeward and within 2 hulls lengths of Yellow (Y). Y is limited by R17.2 not to sail below her proper course. She maintains her proper course. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    231. 231. Illustration 4 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
    232. 232. Yellow (Y) is sailing on a free leg more than two of her hull lengths from Blue(B), a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of Y, so Y is not limited by R17.2. B is clear astern and shall keep clear of Y under R12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    233. 233. Since Y is not limited by R.17.2, she can sail below her proper course. B continues to keep clear of Y Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    234. 234. B becomes overlapped more than two of her hull lengths to leeward of Y on the same tack. She is not limited by R17.2 and can sail above her proper course. However, Y becomes a give way boat and shall keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    235. 235. Since Y is not limited by R.17.2, she can sail below her proper course but shall also keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    236. 236. Since Y is not limited by R.17.2, she can sail below her proper course but shall also keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    237. 237. Now Y is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat, Y shall not sail below her proper course under R17.2. On the other hand, though the distance between B and Y is less than two of B’s hull length, the overlap still maintains and B is not limited by R17.1. In addition, Y continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    238. 238. Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    239. 239. Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    240. 240. Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    241. 241. Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    242. 242. Y shall then resume her proper course by luffing up to the direction of the mark and continues to keep clear of B under R11. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    243. 243. Illustration 5 Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.
    244. 244. Blue (B) is clear ahead of Yellow (Y). She is neither a leeward boat nor a boat clear astern so if she steers a course to the leeward of Y though less than 2 hull lengths of Y, Y is not limited by R 17.2. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes
    245. 245. Since Y is not limited by R 17.2, she can sail below proper course but shall keep clear of B under R 12. Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, wile a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes Rule 17.2: Except on beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward o
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