talk on waste management & recovery by sailesh khawani


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talk on waste management & recovery by sailesh khawani

  1. 1. Restoring Environment through Waste Management & Recycling -compiled by Sailesh Khawani
  2. 2. Approach to Waste
  3. 3. Types of Waste <ul><li>Domestic Waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal Solid Waste (homes / hotels..) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-medical waste (hospitals / dispensaries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial Waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous waste (chemical / pharma…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non hazardous (packing material) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The spent fuel used in nuclear reactors </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Municipal Solid waste <ul><li>There are five broad components of MSW: </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable: food and kitchen waste </li></ul><ul><li>Recyclable: paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals </li></ul><ul><li>Inert waste: construction and demolition waste </li></ul><ul><li>Composite wastes: Old clothing, toys etc </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic hazardous waste: Medicinal, e-waste, paints, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, pesticide containers, batteries. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Waste Management <ul><li>Waste management involves the following processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling or disposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of waste materials (industrial & domestic). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Waste Management Techniques <ul><li>Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>Incineration </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul>
  7. 7. Landfill <ul><li>Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying waste to dispose of it. </li></ul><ul><li>It is relatively cheap in countries where land is abundant </li></ul><ul><li>This is the most common & oldest practice in most of the countries </li></ul>
  8. 8. Landfill Problems & Precautions <ul><li>Improper landfill procedures can lead to problems such as : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Litter Blowing Around & spreading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction & proliferation of vermin & biotics leading to health hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of liquid leachate . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of gas such as methane and carbon dioxide creating odor problems & killing surface vegetation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Professionally Managed Landfill <ul><li>A Professionally Managed Landfill site takes care of all the above mentioned problems & environmental dangers </li></ul><ul><li>There is strict regulation & control in the treatment & disposal of wastes </li></ul><ul><li>There is continuous monitoring of the effects of the waste even years after. </li></ul>
  10. 10. A view of a typical secured landfill cell
  11. 11. Compaction Process In a Landfill
  12. 12. Cross section of Bottom Liner
  13. 13. Cross section of Top Liner
  14. 14. Loading a Landfill
  15. 15. Wheel Wash Area
  16. 16. Incineration <ul><li>Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. </li></ul><ul><li>Incinerators convert waste materials into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam (from the moisture in wastes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash (final residue of wastes) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Incineration <ul><li>It is a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste) </li></ul><ul><li>Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills </li></ul>
  18. 18. Incinerator Plant
  19. 19. Incinerator machine
  20. 20. Recycling <ul><li>Recycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processing used materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of new products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is useful for the foll : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It prevents the waste of useful materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It reduce energy usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It reduces air & water pollution </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Type of Recycling <ul><li>Physical Reprocessing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation of plastics, glass, paper, alum cans etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological Reprocessing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compost generation usiing vermin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic industrial treatment plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metal Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using simple crushing & melting process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using complex chamical processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of heat by burning (used as fuels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of diesel from waste plastics </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Conditions for Economic viability of Recycling <ul><li>An adequate & stable source of recyclates </li></ul><ul><li>An cost effective system to extract those recyclates from the waste stream </li></ul><ul><li>A factory capable of reprocessing the recyclates very near the source </li></ul><ul><li>A demand for the recycled products </li></ul>
  23. 23. Common recyclables <ul><li>Concrete & Construction rubble : is put through a crushing machine, often along with asphalt, bricks, dirt, and rocks. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Common recyclables <ul><li>Batteries : The large variation in size and type of batteries makes their recycling extremely difficult: they must first be sorted into similar kinds and each kind requires an individual recycling process </li></ul><ul><li>They contain mercury and cadmium , harmful materials which must be handled with care </li></ul><ul><li>Lead-acid batteries are relatively easy to recycle </li></ul>
  25. 25. Common recyclables <ul><li>Biodegradable waste : Kitchen, garden and other green waste can be recycled into useful material by composting. This process allows natural aerobic bacteria to break down the waste into fertile topsoil </li></ul>
  26. 26. Common recyclables <ul><li>E-Waste : Electronic waste recycling is done by mechanically separating the metals, plastics and circuit boards contained in the appliance </li></ul><ul><li>When this is done on a large scale at an electronic waste recycling plant, component recovery can be achieved in a cost-effective manner. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Common recyclables <ul><li>Ferrous metals : Iron and steel are the world's most recycled materials, and among the easiest materials to reprocess, as they can be separated magnetically from the waste stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrap is either remelted in an electric arc furnace (90-100% scrap), or used as part of the charge in a Basic Oxygen Furnace (around 25% scrap) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Common recyclables <ul><li>Non-ferrous metals : Aluminium is one of the most efficient and widely-recycled materials. </li></ul><ul><li>It is made into small pieces & melted to produce molten aluminium. </li></ul><ul><li>The recycled aluminium is indistinguishable from virgin aluminium. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be recycled indefinitely. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Common recyclables <ul><li>Glass: It is crushed and added to a raw material mix in a melting furnace. It is then mechanically blown or molded into new jars or bottles . </li></ul><ul><li>It can be recycled indefinitely as its structure does not deteriorate when reprocessed. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Common recyclables <ul><li>Paper : It can be recycled by reducing it to pulp and combing it with pulp from newly harvested wood. </li></ul><ul><li>As the recycling process causes the paper fibres to breakdown, each time paper is recycled its quality decreases. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Common recyclables <ul><li>Plastic : Compared to glass or metallic materials, plastic poses unique challenges due to the number of types of plastic & must be sorted manually before they can be recycled </li></ul>
  32. 32. Waste to Energy Conversion- Thermal technologies <ul><li>Gasification: It produces combustible gas, hydrogen, synthetic fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal depolymerization: produces synthetic crude oil, which can be further refined </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrolysis: Produces combustible tar </li></ul>
  33. 33. Waste to Energy Conversion- Thermal technologies <ul><li>Plasma arc gasification: It produces rich syngas including Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide usable for fuel cells or generating electricity, useable vitrified silicate and metal ingots, & sulphur </li></ul><ul><li>Gasplasma: A process of gasification of shreaded waste to syngases, plasma arc treatment of syngas and syngas cleaning and conditioning. Syngas, Hydrogen, Carbon monoxide and CHP are the outputs. Residuals to landfill is less than 1%. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Waste to Energy Conversion- NonThermal technologies <ul><li>Anaerobic digestion: It produces Biogas rich on methane </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol production </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical biological treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MBT + Anaerobic digestion or Advanced MBT AMBT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MBT to Refuse derived fuel </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. European Waste Management Scenario
  36. 36. Gujarat Enviro Protection & Infrastructure Ltd.
  37. 37. Typical Layout of an integrated waste management Company
  38. 38. Administrative Block
  39. 39. Typical Lab for Testing Waste
  40. 40. Weigh Bridge facility
  41. 41. ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
  42. 42. ETP - SLUDGE
  43. 43. CETP – Common ETP
  44. 44. CETP