Are you feelingAre you feeling sleepy…sleepy…sleepy…sleepy…sleepy…sleepy…sleepy…sleepy…
A 60-year-old surgeon dreamt that he wasattacked "by criminals, terrorists, andmonsters who always tried to kill [him]"and fighting against them in the sleep,he was actually punching and kicking hiswife who slept in the same bed. Name thedisorder?
How do we sleep. Why do we sleep. How much time we have to sleep. why we feel sleep after food intake. Is there any relation between sleep andyawn. What happen after we sleep. What happens if we don’t sleep. Will a blind person dreams. Will sleeping position determines ourpersonality.
Why we snore during sleep. How to maintain sound sleep. Dreams occur in color or in black andwhite. Why elders say to drink milk before sleep. Why some people walk in sleep. Will sleep deprivation causes Diabetesmellitus. Are sleep deprived persons are moreprone to obesity. Can dreams predict the future.
This is a question that has hadscientists puzzled for centuries. Theanswer: no one really knows forsure!.
1. Ecological theory: back in the day, darkness meantdeath, those that slept did not go out, thus did notdie. Sleep protects us.
Sleep also helps in memoryespecially for consolidation.
Sleep deprivation can leadto: Chronic tiredness Mood changes Frustration Difficulty controlling emotions Inability to think abstractly Absenteeism
Snoozing in class will shortens attention span, reducesmotor skills, and brain power = BAD GRADES SNOOZING AT THE WHEEL= CAR ACCIDEN Depression = COULD RESULT IN SUICIDE Annoyed & Angry= FAMILY AND FRIEND PROBLEMS
Needing alarm clock Trouble getting out of bed in the morning Falling asleep within 5 minutes Napping Irritability
can get up easily, no alarm clock fall asleep after 10-15 minutes do not nap dont get irritated easily
36% of 18 – 29 year olds have difficultygetting up in the morning 22% are late to school or work due tosleepiness 40% sleep at school or work at least twodays a weekAccording to the International SleepFoundation
60% of 18 – 29 year olds havedriven while drowsy
According to the National Highway TrafficSafety Administration “Drowsiness hasbeen the cause of 100,000 traffic crashes eachyear, killing more than 1500 Americans andinjuring another 71000
According to Mandukya Upanishad sleep is offour stages. Wakefulness Dreamless sleep Dream sleep The fourth stage is super consciousness that isknowledge, a state of ineffable pleasure.
O Arjuna, the science of unitingthe individual consciousness withultimate consciousness(knowledge) never occurs for onewho eats too much or who eatstoo little, nor also for whosleeps too much or sleepstoo little.
Urmila Devi wife of Lord Laxmanaslept for 14 years without wakingup. Kumbakarna brother of Raavanaused to sleep continuously for 6months.
Sleep is a miracle that is created by Allah. The word sleep is used 9 times .
God gives sleep to whom he loves. The word sleep is used 107 times.
Great eaters and greatsleepers are incapable ofdoing anything that isgreat.William Shakespeare“Henry IV”
The record for the longest periodwithout sleep is 18 days, 21 hours, 40minutes during a rocking chairmarathon. The record holder reportedhallucinations, blurred vision, slurredspeech and memory andconcentration lapses.
Longest sleeping mammal koalas 22hrs a day. Shortest sleeping animal giraffe 1.9 hours a day.
The average human will spend 1/3 of their lifesleeping, which equates to about 20 - 25 years over75 Year life span Napoleon, Florence Nightingale and MargaretThatcher slept four hours a day. Elephants sleep standing up during non-REM sleep,but lie down for REM sleep. When you are snoring, you are not dreaming.
Sleep is altered state ofconsciousness where someof the body functions aredepressed and some areactivated.
How Much Sleep?National Sleep Foundation1. Newborns : 16 to 18 hours2. By age 1 : 13 to 14 hours3. Teenagers : 9 ½ hours4. Adults : 8 hours5. Elders : 8 hours
Optimum Sleep RequiredThe bigger the animal, the less sleep needed
Jerome M. Siegel: Why We SleepScientific American, November, 2003
More than 40 % of adults have sleepcomplaints 25 % women & 16 % men 1 Complaint: Feeling unrested 2 Complaint: Difficulty Falling AsleepAmong college students 71 % had sleepcomplaints in 2009 compared to 24 % in1978
College Students: 1980s reported 7-7.5 hrs 2002 reported 6-6.9 hrs 2009 reported 5-5.6 hrs Going to bed later is the culprit Bedtime is 1-2 hrs laterthan it was 25 yrs agoMSleep &ChronophysiologyLaboratory
30-50 % of students nap Nappers have delayed bedtime of >1 hr Mostly late afternoon napsMSleep &ChronophysiologyLaboratory
Sleep & Depression Sleep disturbance > 2 wks is a risk factor forthe development of depression Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms ofdepression: >80% patientsMSleep &ChronophysiologyLaboratory
Incidence is 2 times greater than generalpopulation Often goes undiagnosed and untreated Increasing risk of another episodeMSleep &ChronophysiologyLaboratory
Before we sleep we will pass through two stagesthat is Relaxed wakefulness Relaxed drowsiness
NREM sleep/ slow wave sleep REM sleep/ fast wave sleep Decreased heart rate,respiratory rate. Muscle tone decreases. Brain activity decreases. Dreamless sleep. No eye ball movements. Increased heart rate andrespiratory rate. Muscle tone almostabsent. Brain is active. Dream sleep. Rapid eye ballmovements.
EEGBeta: 14-20 Hz (alert and awake)Alpha: 8-13 Hz (physically andmentally rest)Theta: 4-7 Hz (light sleep)Delta: less than 4 Hz (deep sleep)
Parodoxical sleep ……… why? Deep sleep. Dream sleep. It can compensate deprivation. Experiment
People who become blind after birth can seeimages in their dreams. People who are born blind do not see any images,but have dreams equally vivid involving their othersenses of sound, smell, touch and emotion.
One of the most striking experiences wassubmitted by the parents of a 10-year-old childwho perished in the tragedy. The day before thelandslide their daughter described dreaming abouttrying to go to school, but said that there was "noschool there" because "something black hadcome down all over it".
Circadian Rhythm(sleep-wake cycle) Acts through retino- hypothalamic tract. It causes release of melatonin from pineal gland. Mammoth cave experiment…. Kleithman.
Siffre (1975) Spent 6 months inside a cave and foundthat his natural Circadian rhythm was just over 24hrs.There were no external cues such as natural light orsounds. He had no idea what time it was. He had foodand drink and so on. His behaviour such as when heslept/woke and when he ate his meals was monitored.From this study it was concluded our internal clockmust have a 25 hr cycle and that our external cues mustreset the clock to our usual 24-hr day.
There are three rhythms ‘ Circadian Infradian Ultradian rhythms.
Circadian rhythms: (circa = approx & diem = day) go over 24hrs. Example ; sleep-wake cycle. Ultradian rhythms: (Meaning less than one day) Example; Sleep cycle (90 minutes.)
Infradian rhythm: (meaning more than 1 day) Example ; womans menstrual cycle which lasts for28 days.
We need doctors, nurses, policeman etc..so howdo they cope? What happens to their cycle when it is disruptedby shift work?
Hawkins and Armstrong-Esther(1978)studied 11 nurses during a 7 night rotation oftheir duty. Performance was significantlyimpaired on the first night but improvedthrough the week.
Kliethman’s theory Fatigue theory Bremer’s experiment Moruzzi and magoun experiment Pavlov dog experiment Monotonous stimulus theory Recent theories
Raphe nucleus. Nucleus of solitary tract. Diencephalon sleep zone in posteriorhypothalamus. Intra laminar and anterior thalamic nuclei. Medullary synchronizing zone in reticularformation of medulla. Basal fore brain sleep zone. Suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Snoring is vibration of respiratory structures andresulting sound due to obstructed air movementduring breathing while sleeping. Sound may be loud/ soft.causes Throat weakness Fat gathering in and around the throat Tongue dropping to the back of the mouth Enlarged tonsils
Sleep DisordersInsomnia• habitual sleeplessness• possible causes: excessive noise, stress, drugs, medications, pain,uncomfortable temperature, sleep apnea,• Three forms: onset, maintenance, terminationNarcolepsy• Frequent, unexpected periods of sleepiness during the day• affects about 1 in 1000 people• symptoms: extreme daytime sleepiness
Sleep DisordersSleep Walking (SOMNAMBULISM)• occurs mostly in children• expressed early in the night during stage 3 and 4 sleep• occur during NREM sleep
NightmaresNightmares are frightening dreams that usuallyawaken the sleeper from REM sleep.They occurs in REM sleep
Nocturnal enuresis:uncontrolled urination at night. It is more frequent in boys than girls. Occurs in slow wave sleep Sleep apnoeaSleep apnoea:: Difficulty in breathing during sleepDifficulty in breathing during sleep
Restless legs syndrome Bruxism REM sleep disorder
MEASURING YOUR SLEEP DEBT.How likely are you to fallasleep during the followingsituations?
1. Sitting and reading1. Sitting and readingnever (0) slight (1) moderate (2)high(3)2.Watching TV2.Watching TVnever (0) slight (1) moderate (2)high(3)3. Sitting, in a place (theater, school, meeting)3. Sitting, in a place (theater, school, meeting)never (0) slight (1) moderate (2)high(3)4. As a passenger in a car for an hour4. As a passenger in a car for an hournever (0) slight (1) moderate (2)high(3)
5.5. Lying down to rest in the afternoonLying down to rest in the afternoonnever (0) slight (1) moderate (2)high(3)6. Sitting and talking to someone on the phone6. Sitting and talking to someone on the phonenever (0) slight (1) moderate (2)high(3)7. Sitting quietly after lunch7. Sitting quietly after lunchnever (0) slight (1) moderate (2)high(3)8. In a car while stopped for a few minutes in8. In a car while stopped for a few minutes intraffictrafficnever (0) slight (1) moderate (2)high(3)
: EXCELLENT0-4: GoodKeep it up.6-11: OKNot too bad, but try and go to bed ½ hour earlier.You will be surprised what that will do.12-17:WARNINGYou are about to enter the Danger Zone. Catch upon those zzz’ s. A good night’s sleep is essentialfor good health.18+ :DANGERYou have entered the danger zone. You arerunning on empty. Take a sleep vacation beforeyou get sick!
If you knew more sleep would improve your healthand memory, would you change your sleephabits?Yes No
Education about Sleep Education about Depression Clearly identify Biological & Familial Risks Early Intervention
Relax and wind downbefore sleep, such asreading a book, listeningto music, or taking a bath. Avoid using your bed foranything other than sleep Maintain sleeping hoursregularly. ( Try to go tosleep at the same timeeach night and get up atthe same time eachmorning. ) Don’t nap in day time. Avoid Studying in Bed
Make your sleeping place comfortable. Be surethat it is dark, quiet, and not too warm or toocold. If light is a problem, try a sleeping mask.If noise is a problem, try earplugs. Eliminate TV and computer use later in theevening. Bed time snacks helps for sleep.
Dairy products: cheese, milk. apple pie and ice cream. (my favourite) whole-grain cereal with milk oatmeal and cookies, and a glass of milk peanut butter sandwich.
Avoid caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol beforesleep. Caffeine and nicotine are stimulantsand can keep you away from falling asleep.Alcohol can cause waking in the night andinterferes with sleep quality.
Get regular exercise. Try not to exerciseclose to bedtime because it may stimulateyou and make it hard to fall asleep. Expertssuggest not exercising for 3hours before the time you go to sleep.
Suppression of slow-wave sleep in healthy youngadults significantly decreases their ability toregulate blood-sugar levels and increases the riskof type 2 diabetes, report researchers at theUniversity of Chicago Medical Center.www.Journal sleep.org
It was found that sleep restriction reduced thehormone leptin, which suppresses appetite, by18%. It also increased the hormone ghrelin, whichincreases appetite, by 28%.www.Journal sleep.org
Sailesh.GAsst. professor ,LIMSAR, Angamaly.ST. LITTLE THERESA(‘Little Flower’)