What is ERP:
Enterprise / Company
Ex: Reddy Labs, Reliance, GE, GM, BMW
items/products (raw, semi finished, finished)
Planning (effective plans for maximum profits with minimum
A Software which is used to maintain and plan all the business activities of a
company/enterprise is called ERP software.
The business activities are :
How many customers/vendors/materials
How many sales orders/delivery orders/invoice
How much profits/loss
How many employees/leaves/provident funds/income tax
How many plants/stock available/stock damaged etc.
The various ERP software's are :
Used by small companies
Supports less number of business applications/scenarios/programs
Supports less number of business modules
Less cost software
Very good at HR module
Used by medium sized companies
Supports limited number of business applications
Supports limited number of business modules
High cost software
Very good at finance (FI) module
SAP : It stands for Systems , Applications and Products in Data Processing
It is an ERP software which is used by medium sized as well as top MNC’s
SAP supports every business scenario/application commonly used in
SAP supports almost every Business module in the business (around 45+
Very high cost software
It is excellent at integration between all the SAP modules
Various Technical products are available from SAP like
BW/BI/BO, XI/PI , WebDynpro Abap/Java, EP, NWBC etc.
So, SAP does n’t depend on any other Non SAP module
We can’t do any black business in SAP (i.e., the information is stored in a
secured way where you can’t do any black business)
History of SAP:
In 1972, five IBM employees started a company by name SAP AG
Their objective was to develop a business software or ERP software
In 1980 the company released the first ERP software by name SAP R/2,
where R stands for real time and 2 stands for two tier architecture
In 1990 the company released advanced version of SAP R/2 by name SAP
R/3, where 3 stands for three tier architecture
Even today also we are using SAP R/3
What is ABAP
Abap stands for
It is a 4th generation language, That is why it is written as ABAP/4.
The entire ERP software is developed by using a single programming
language which is called as ABAP.
Once we have a good knowledge on ABAP, we can work on any SAP module.
SAP Modules :
We have various business modules in SAP. Some of them are :
sales and distribution
customer relation management
supply relation management
Supply chain management
Advanced Planner and Optimizer
Functional Consultants: A consultant who is responsible for configuring the real time
business scenarios like how many plants, sales organizations, materials etc in SAP
software is called as functional consultants.
ABAP Consultants: A consultant who is responsible for developing new programs,
screens, tables and customizing standard SAP programs is called as ABAP
BASIS Consultants: A consultant responsible for installing the SAP software,
configuring the servers, controlling network traffic, creating usernames and
passwords etc are called as BASIS consultants.
Roles and responsibilities of ABAP consultants:
Receiving a ticket/Bug in the form of Functional specification document
Analyze the business requirement as per the given Functional spec
Estimate the number of hours for business requirement
Develop the object
Perform unit testing
Release the developed object to testing server
Prepare Technical Specification document for object .
Normally, every project in real time will consists of three servers
Development Server: A server where all the SAP consultants will be developing the
real time objects for a business requirement is called development server. Once the
development is finished, we should do a sample testing called as unit testing.
Quality Server: A server where all the functional consultants or testing consultants
will be testing the developed objects is called a testing server. It is also called as
Production Server: A server where all the developed objects will be used in the live
business market to maintain the business is called production server. It contains the
live business data of customers.
Note: As an ABAP consultant, we will be working only at development sever,
not the quality and production severs. ABAP consultants with more than 4
or 5 years of experience will have the access to quality sever but not
Sand Box Sever:
It is a server where we do our R&D work is called a sand box sever. Everybody will
have access to the sand box server.
SAP R/3 Architecture :
In software engineering there are 3 architectures
Single tier architecture
Two tier architecture
Three tier architecture
Single tier architecture: A system which is responsible for loading the
program, compiling, interpreting, executing as well as storing the data in the
same system is called single tier architecture. In simple words a system
responsible for front end and back end operations is called single tier
Ex: All ‘C’ language programs in olden days are written using single tier
Two tier architecture: In this architecture we have two layers, server layer
and client layer.
2. a. Sever layer: In this layer we have a single system with very high
configuration called as server. This sever is responsible for executing the
programs as well as storing the data.
2. b. Client layer: In this later we have multiple systems which are connected
to a server. All the business users will be operating from client systems. The
server will receive the request from the client system and gives back the
response (i.e. result).
Ex: SAP R/2, Oracle
Disadvantages of two tier architecture:
As the number of client systems increases the load on the database server
will increase and the response time will be delayed
Since the response time is delayed the output will be very slow on the client
system which is very big disadvantage
To overcome this problem we have a new architecture called as three tier
Three tier architecture: In this architecture we have three layers, they are
database server layer, application server layer and presentation sever layer.
3. a. Database server layer: A server which is responsible only for storing the
data is called database server layer.
3. b. Application sever layer: A server which is responsible for only executing
the applications or programs is called application sever layer.
3. c. Presentation server layer: A server which is responsible for just
presenting the output and taking the input is called as presentation sever
Ex: SAP R/3 architecture.
Log into SAP:
Double click on SAP GUI or SAP LOGON icon
Select development server name (ECC6)
Click on LOGON
Provide username: SAPUSER password: INDIA123
SAP EASY ACCESS screen is displayed
Transaction Code: It is a unique code or shortcut code to execute a specific
program and its corresponding screen.
SE11: Displays ABAP dictionary
SE38: Displays ABAP editor
SE37: Displays ABAP function builder
SE21: Displays ABAP package builder
SE80: Displays ABAP development work bench …. Etc.
These objects will starts with any character
Except Y and Z.
The objects must start with either Y or Z.
These objects can’t be modified directly.
These objects can be changed however we want.
It is a container of developed objects
Each project contains a single package per module
Packages are created by BASIS consultants or team leads when the project is started
All our objects must be stored in the package only
SE21 is the TCODE for creating a package
Steps to create a package:
Give the package name ZARJUN
Click on create, provide short description
Click on create or save, Press enter 2 times
Click on save, a package is created
Transport Request Number: A number which is used to transport an object from one
server to another server within system landscape is called transport request number.
ECCK is the name of development server
SEO9 is the TCODE for releasing TR
Steps to create a program:
Go to SE38,
Give the program name ‘zsample’
Click on create, provide description or Title
Select type = ‘EXECUTABLE’
Click on save
Provide the package name and press enter
Provide short description and press enter
A transport request number will be generated, just press enter
The ABAP editor is opened
Click on save and activate
create request icon
WRITE: It is the statement which is used to print a text on the output screen.
It is similar to PRINTF in ‘C’ language
Write ‘hello world’.
‘:’ Chain Operator: It is a statement which is used to display multiple texts which are separated
by commas using a single write statement.
‘welcome to sap abap’
Write / ‘igrow soft’.
Write : / ‘cno’, ‘cname’, ‘city’.
Write : / 3 ‘cno’, 15 ‘cname’, 25 ‘city’.
Write: / 25(25) ‘ABAP BY ARJUN’ left-justified color 1. (Displays background color)
Write: / 25(25 ) ‘ABAP BY ARJUN’ centered color 2.
Write: / 25(25 ) ‘ABAP BY ARJUN’ right-justified color 3.
Write: / 25(25) ‘ABAP BY ARJUN’ right-justified color 6 inverse. (Displays font color)
A variable which is defined by the system is called a system variable
All system variables are automatically assigned with some values
All system variables will start with ‘SY’ or ‘SYST’
All system variables are stored in SYST structure
Write / sy-uline. (Displays horizontal line across the page width)
Write / 25 sy-vline. (Displays Vertical line of height 1 line)
Write / sy-datum. (Displays system’s date as per date settings in SU3 Tcode)
Write / sy-uzeit. (Displays system’s time)
Write / sy-uname. (Displays system’s user name)
Write / sy-repid. (Displays report name)
Ex to draw a box:
Write / 25(25) sy-uline.
Write / 25 sy-vline.
Write 49 sy-vline.
Write / 25(25) sy-uline.
Develop a report to display customer details as below.