The best advertising
is done by satisfied
Kotler on MarketingKotler on Marketing
I. Developing and Managing and Advertising
Program – Advertising is any form of non-personal
presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or
services by an identified sponsor. The major
decisions in developing an advertising programme:
Five M’s :
Mission – What are the advertising objectives?
Money – How much can be spent?
Message – What message should be sent?
Media – What media should be used?
Measurement – How should the results be evaluated?
Setting the Advertising Objective – whether the aim is
to inform, persuade, remind or reinforce.
Advertising Objective :
- Is a specific communication task and achievement level
to be accomplished with a specific audience in a specific
period of time
- The advertising objective should emerge from a
thorough analysis of the current marketing situation.
Deciding on the Advertising Budget – five factors to
consider include stage in the product life cycle, market
share and consumer base, competition and clutter,
advertising frequency, and product substitutability.
Budget Methods :
i. Affordable method
ii. Percentage of sales method
iii. Competitive parity method
iv. Objective & Task method
- Determine Objective
- Determine Tasks
- Estimate the cost of performing these tasks.
Choosing the Advertising Message.
i) Message Generation & Evaluation
ii) Creative Development & Execution - focus on one
core selling proposition and aim for desirability,
exclusiveness and believability.
impact depends not only on what is said but how it is
said (positioning). Creative people must also find a
style, tone and format for executing the message).
iii) Social-Responsibility Review – make sure the creative
advertising does not overstep social and legal norms.
Media Selection is finding the most cost effective
media to deliver the desired number and type of
exposures to the target audience
Deciding on the Media
Deciding on reach (number of people exposed at least
once within a specified time period), frequency (total
number of times they are reached within a specified
time period) and impact (qualitative value). The
relationship among reach, frequency and impact is seen
in determining the total number of exposures, and the
weighted number of exposures.
Choosing among major media types. Consider :
target audience media habits, product and message
characteristic, and cost.
Alternative Advertising Options :
Place Advertising (Billboards, Public Spaces)
Point – of – Purchase
Evaluating Alternative Media
Selecting Specific Media Vehicles – using the
cost -per - thousand criterion.
Deciding on the Media Timing and Allocation –
macroscheduling (according to seasonal or
business trends) and microscheduling (allocating
advertising expenditures within a short period to
obtain the maximum impact)
National v. spot buying.
Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness
i. Communication-Effect Research – pretesting
and postesting methods
ii. Sales-Effect Research – historical approach,
II. Sales promotion – consists of a diverse collection
of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to
stimulate quicker and / or greater purchase of
particular products/services by consumers or the
i. The rapid growth of sales promotion
ii. The purpose of sales promotion
Major decisions in sales promotion
a. Establishing the sales-promotion objective.
b. Selecting the Sales - Promotion Tools (Consumer-
promotion, trade-promotion, and/or business- and sales
force promotion tools).
c. Developing the sales - promotion program (make
decisions on the size of the incentive, conditions for
participation, duration of the promotion, distribution
vehicle, timing and the total sales-promotion budget).
d. Pre-testing, Implementing and controlling and
evaluating the sales- romotion program.
Sales data, consumer surveys, and experiments.
III. Public Relations – involves a variety of programs
designed to promote and/or protect a company’s image
or its individual products.
The five activities of public relations include: press
relations, product publicity, corporate communications,
lobbying, and counseling.
Major decisions in marketing public relations (MPR)
i. Establishing the Marketing Objectives (build
awareness, build credibility, stimulate the sales force
and dealers, and hold down promotion costs).
ii. Choosing the PR Message and Vehicles.
iii. Implementing the MPR Plan and Evaluating the
Exposures, awareness / comprehension / attitude
change, sales-and-profit contribution
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