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  1. 1. The best advertising is done by satisfied customers. Kotler on MarketingKotler on Marketing
  2. 2. Promotion I. Developing and Managing and Advertising Program – Advertising is any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. The major decisions in developing an advertising programme:
  3. 3. Five M’s : Mission – What are the advertising objectives? Money – How much can be spent? Message – What message should be sent? Media – What media should be used? Measurement – How should the results be evaluated?
  4. 4.  Setting the Advertising Objective – whether the aim is to inform, persuade, remind or reinforce. Advertising Objective : - Is a specific communication task and achievement level to be accomplished with a specific audience in a specific period of time - The advertising objective should emerge from a thorough analysis of the current marketing situation.
  5. 5.  Deciding on the Advertising Budget – five factors to consider include stage in the product life cycle, market share and consumer base, competition and clutter, advertising frequency, and product substitutability.  Budget Methods : i. Affordable method ii. Percentage of sales method iii. Competitive parity method iv. Objective & Task method - Determine Objective - Determine Tasks - Estimate the cost of performing these tasks.
  6. 6.  Choosing the Advertising Message. i) Message Generation & Evaluation ii) Creative Development & Execution - focus on one core selling proposition and aim for desirability, exclusiveness and believability.  impact depends not only on what is said but how it is said (positioning). Creative people must also find a style, tone and format for executing the message). iii) Social-Responsibility Review – make sure the creative advertising does not overstep social and legal norms.
  7. 7. Media Selection is finding the most cost effective media to deliver the desired number and type of exposures to the target audience  Deciding on the Media  Deciding on reach (number of people exposed at least once within a specified time period), frequency (total number of times they are reached within a specified time period) and impact (qualitative value). The relationship among reach, frequency and impact is seen in determining the total number of exposures, and the weighted number of exposures.
  8. 8.  Choosing among major media types. Consider : target audience media habits, product and message characteristic, and cost.  Alternative Advertising Options :  Place Advertising (Billboards, Public Spaces)  Product Placement  Point – of – Purchase  Evaluating Alternative Media
  9. 9.  Selecting Specific Media Vehicles – using the cost -per - thousand criterion.  Deciding on the Media Timing and Allocation – macroscheduling (according to seasonal or business trends) and microscheduling (allocating advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain the maximum impact)  National v. spot buying.
  10. 10.  Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness i. Communication-Effect Research – pretesting and postesting methods ii. Sales-Effect Research – historical approach, experimental design
  11. 11. II. Sales promotion – consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker and / or greater purchase of particular products/services by consumers or the trade. i. The rapid growth of sales promotion ii. The purpose of sales promotion
  12. 12. Major decisions in sales promotion a. Establishing the sales-promotion objective. b. Selecting the Sales - Promotion Tools (Consumer- promotion, trade-promotion, and/or business- and sales force promotion tools). c. Developing the sales - promotion program (make decisions on the size of the incentive, conditions for participation, duration of the promotion, distribution vehicle, timing and the total sales-promotion budget). d. Pre-testing, Implementing and controlling and evaluating the sales- romotion program.  Sales data, consumer surveys, and experiments.
  13. 13.   III. Public  Relations  –  involves  a  variety  of  programs      designed to promote and/or protect a company’s image  or its individual products.    The  five  activities  of  public  relations  include:  press  relations, product publicity, corporate communications,  lobbying, and counseling. 
  14. 14.     Major decisions in marketing public relations (MPR)   i. Establishing  the  Marketing  Objectives  (build  awareness,  build  credibility,  stimulate  the  sales  force  and dealers, and hold down promotion costs).   ii. Choosing the PR Message and Vehicles.   iii. Implementing  the  MPR  Plan  and  Evaluating  the  Results     Exposures,  awareness  /  comprehension  /  attitude  change, sales-and-profit contribution