Factors effecting motivation and productivity related to job satisfaction
1Factors effecting motivation and productivity related to job satisfaction (PROJECT- SYNOPSIS) BBA - 6 Foundation University Institute of Engineering And Management Sciences RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED BY SAIFULLAH MALIK BILAL AHMAD IBRAHEEM ANSER RAHEEM ANSER KHALID RAZZAQ SUBMITTED TO DR. IQBAL SAIF
2 Research Proposal Submission Approval Form (Supervisor)RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED BY registration no SAIFULLAH MALIK BILAL AHMAD IBRAHEEM ANSER RAHEEM ANSER KHALID RAZZAQ Management Science (Discipline) Candidate for the degree of BBA (Hons)This research proposal has been read by me and has been found to be satisfactory regardingcontent, English usage, format, citations, bibliographic style, and consistency, and is ready forsubmission for defense before the graduate studies committeeJune 2, 2010 Prof.Dr. Iqbal Saif (Thesis Supervisor)
3 Table of content AbstractChapter1: introduction Introduction Knowledge gap Objectives Research problem Significance of the problemChapter 2: Literature review Literature reviewChapter3: theoretical frame work (hypothesis, variable and indicators) Theoretical framework Development of hypothesis Operationlization of concepts and variableChapter 4: Research Design Questionaire Bibliography
4 ABSTRACTWork is an important event, a fact that is inevitable in the life of an individualwhatever form, it is done, it is an activities and source of satisfaction onesneeds. Employee try to find satisfaction in what they do and as a result themanager should be able to understand the problems faced by his workers andfind a way of satisfying their needs and aspiration.Motivation or Productivity is an important success factor for all organizationsand, thus, it should also be managed. Motivation or Productivity measurement isa traditional tool for managing motivation or productivity. There are severaldifferent methods for motivation or productivity measurement. In certainsituations, these traditional methods may not be applicable suggesting that thereis a need for other kind of measures. Subjective productivity measures are notbased on quantitative operational information. Instead, they are based onpersonnel’s subjective assessments. The data is collected, e.g., usingquestionnaires.Our basic research proposal is on the motivation or productivity effects in jobsatisfaction or not.Our synopsis is on assumptions we need a feedback from our supervisor
5Chapter 1: INTRODUCTIONMOTIVATION:Motivation is the internal condition that activates behavior and gives it direction; andenergizes and directs goal-oriented behavior.Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behavior. Motivation maybe intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it canalso be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. Intrinsic motivationcomes from rewards inherent to a task or activity itself - the enjoyment of a puzzle orthe love of playing. This form of motivation has been studied by social and educationalpsychologists Extrinsic motivationcomes from outside of the performer. Money is the most obvious example, but coercionand threat of punishment are also common extrinsic motivations.
6JOB SATISFACTION:The sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well.This feeling is enhanced if the significance of the work done and its value are recognizedby those in authority.The sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well.Various factors influence job satisfaction, and our understanding of the significance ofthese stems in part from Frederick Hertzberg. He called elements such as remuneration,working relationships, status, and job security "hygiene factors" because they concernthe context in which somebody works. Hygiene factors do not in themselves promotejob satisfaction, but serve primarily to prevent job dissatisfaction. Motivators contributeto job satisfaction and include achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility,advancement, and growth. An absence of job satisfaction can lead to poor motivation,stress, absenteeism, and high labor turnover.Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from theappraisal of one’s job an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’sjob.Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out thatresearchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which areaffect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This definition suggests that we form attitudestowards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors
7PRODUCTIVITYProductivity has been generally defined as a ratio of a measure of output to ameasure of some or all of the resources used to produce this output. Defined inthis way, one or a number of input measures can be taken and compared withone or a number of output measures.Productivity ratios usually relate units of one single input, for example $s labor cost,number of worker days or total cost, to one single output, for example financial measuressuch as profit or added value, or physical measures such as tonnes produced or standardminutes of work produced. EfficiencyThe concept of efficiency presupposes an ability to identify a change in theproductivity ratios. Managers are more likely to want to compare with theircompetitors and assess the scope there might be for productivity improvement.Efficiency takes this aspect of productivity into account and makes comparisonsto some known potential.Traditional labor measures of productivity where standard hours are comparedto productive hours give good examples of efficiency measures, as they give bothan index of labor productivity as well as a concept of how well labor is workingor being utilized. Such measures show whether organizations are doing thingsright, but they give no indication of whether an organization is doing the rightthings.
8 EffectivenessSimon (1957) defined the criterion of efficiency as dictating "that choice ofalternatives which produce the largest result for the given application ofresources". The conclusion to this approach has led, it is claimed (Minzberg(1982)), to "the maximization of efficiency as a value".In practice it does not mean the greatest benefit for the cost, but instead thegreatest measurable benefit for the measurable cost. Baldamus (1961) points outthat "as the word efficiency has no scientific fundament, we are inclined toassume without question that to maximize efficiency is desirable if not indeedthe chief purpose of industrial enterprise". Writers have related thepreoccupation with efficiency to the development of a measurement cult thatprecludes many of the less quantifiable yet nevertheless essential ingredients of asuccessful enterprise.
9KNOWLEDGE GAPAfter World War II, early retirement became the norm. In 1900, almost 70% ofAmerican men age 65 or older were working. By 1950 the percentage had fallento 46%, and by 1980 it had fallen to just over 19% (Mor-Barak and Tynan, 1993).This trend, however, began reversing in the early 1990s. Since 1990 the numberof men working beyond the traditional retirement age of 65 has increased 34%.Almost 60% of current workers age 19 and older expect to work past the age of65 (Sullivan and Duplaga, 1997).Description of the ProblemIn order to meet the demands of the 21st century, companies must attract,motivate, and retain a cadre of productive knowledge workers older than 55years. Some prominent theorists in human behavior contend that retention andproductivity of workers is a function of how well the individual is motivated.Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959) contended that "a demonstration ofthe relationship between measures of attitudes and resulting behaviors is of thefirst importance." Their research focused on "factors in job attitudes,” relating toworkers without regard to age. Little research has been focused in the factorscontributing to retention and motivation of workers. Considering the reality andurgency of the need for motivation and retention of the older worker in theworkforce, the quantity of research, studies, and publications is inadequate(Forte and Hansvick, 1999).
10RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThe general objective of this study is to determine therelationship of motivation, job satisfaction and productivity,to the organizational performanceThe specific objectives are to:1. Determine the levels motivation, job satisfaction and productivity2. Determine how much variance in organizational performancecan be explained by scores on ; motivation, job satisfaction and productivity3. Determine the best predictor of organizational performance:motivation, job satisfaction and productivityRESEARCH PROBLEM1. Is there any relationship between motivational factors and higher productivity ?2. Is there any relationship between motivational factors and workersproductivity ?3. Is there any relationship between motivational factors and attitude towork ?4. Is there any relationship between motivational factors and approach towork of less experienced?5. Is there any relationship between motivational factors and approach towork of old members with in organization?
116. Is there any relationship between motivational factors and attitude towork of young members of staff in Organization?PURPOSE OF STUDYThe research will attempt to proffer answers to the question agitating the mindsof management of the organization, as to what to do to adequately motivate herworkers to contribute their quota to their company’s productivity and growthThe research also will look at motivation from the perspective of the workforce.While seeking to refute or validate the various models and theories ofmotivation by finding out from the “horse mouth” what really motivates theworkers in the organization of today and the causes of poor performance andproductivity.The purpose of this study include finding our whether there is any relationshipbetween adequate motivational factors and productivity to work amongmanagement, senior staff, junior staff and contract staff respectively of theorganization under study.
12Chapter2: LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEWWork is an important event, a fact that is inevitable in the life of an individualwhatever form, it is done, it is an activities and source of satisfaction onesneeds. Employee try to find satisfaction in what they do and as a result themanager should be able to understand the problems faced by his workers andfind a way of satisfying their needs and aspirationThe general assumption is that an adequately motivated worker will in turn givein his or her best towards the attainment of a general consensus. Consequentlywhen a worker is motivated the question of poor performance and inefficiencywill be forgotten issue in an organization. Manager who are successful inmotivating employees are made often providing an environment in whichappropriate or adequate goals called incentive are made available for theneeded satisfaction of the employee.A good number of workers are adequately paid in their jobs so as to work hardand maintain a high standard of productivity while some even work hard but donot receive much material gains to show for it. The issue under consideration ishow does a worker in an organization with a particular set of needs achieve thereward he desires? Generally management do withhold rewards to motivate
13employee to achieve high performance or productivity.Today manager cannot rely solely on the manipulation of pay, benefit orworking conditions to encourage workers to perform effectively and efficiency.
14Chapter3: Theoretical Frame Work (hypothesis, variable and indicators)HYPOTHESESI believe that work can be meaningful and satisfying to a given job in officeonly when it elicits and stimulates his inner motivation. These views raise someresearch questions, which form the basis of the hypotheses for this study. Toput this in proper perspective, the following hypotheses were formulated fortesting. 1. The significant relationship between motivational factors andwork productivity. 2. In the organization will performance better when the satisfaction theworkers derives from doing their work outweighs the discomfort andsacrifices that are involved. 3. Monetary incentives and rewards exert a stronger influence onworkers than any form of motivational incentive 4. The job itself is meaningful to the satisfaction of the worker
15VARAIBLES:DEPENDENT: (JOB SATISFACTION)Job satisfaction is dependent variable because when employee’s motivation ishigh than they satisfy with their job so they perform their work with fullattention and concentration and it is beneficial for the organization it is positivesign for company growth.INDEPENDENT :( MOTIVATION)Motivation is independent variable because when motivation is high than theemployees satisfy with their job motivation increase the employee’s will powermotivation is helpful foe company growth motivation is very important elementin company progressMOTIVATION JOB SATISFACTION (Independent) (Dependent) PRODUCTIVITYMODERATINGMOTIVATION JOB SATISFACTION (Independent) (Dependent) PRODUCTIVITY EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE
16INTERVENINGMOTIVATION JOB SATISFACTION (Independent) (Dependent) PRODUCTIVITY EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE T1 T2OPERATIONALIZATION OF THE CONCEPT AND VARIABLESHypothesis 1: the significant relationship between motivational factors andwork productivityTo better understand employee attitudes and motivation, Frederick Herzbergperformed studies to determine which factors in an employees workenvironment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction.The studies included interviews in which employees where asked what pleasedand displeased them about their work. Herzberg found that the factors causingjob satisfaction (and presumably motivation) were different from those causingjob dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain theseresults. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfiers hygiene factors,using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenancefactors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do notprovide satisfaction.
17 FACTORS AFFECTING JOB ATTITUDESLeading to Dissatisfaction Leading to SatisfactionCompany policy AchievementSupervision RecognitionRelationship w/Boss Work itselfWork conditions ResponsibilitySalary AdvancementRelationship w/Peers GrowthMotivation towards better performance depends on the satisfaction of needs forresponsibility, achievement, recognition and growth.Needs are felt, and their intensity varies from one person to another and fromtime to time, and so does the extent to which they are motivating.Behaviour is learned, earned reward encourages even better performance, thusreinforcing desired behaviour.o Primary Needs Physiological. Survival needs. Examples: Food, drink, health.
18 Safety. Physical and emotional security. Such as clothing, shelter, protection against attack (unemployment benefits, redundancy pay, old age pension). Affection needs. Affection and the need to belong. Examples: Family unit, other small groups such as work groups. Esteem needs. For self-respect, for accomplishment, for achievement. The achievement must be recognized and appreciated by someone else. Self-fulfillment needs. To utilize ones potential to the maximum working with and for ones fellow beings Higher Order NeedsOnce primary needs are satisfied they cease to act as drives and are replaced byneeds of a higher order. So that higher order needs are predominant whenprimary needs are satisfied.Hypothesis 2: In the organization will performance better when thesatisfaction the workers derives from doing their work outweighs thediscomfort and sacrifices that are involvedSeeks to provide practitioners of management with a sense of the importance ofstrategically leveraging social responsibility in that it provides a sustainablecompetitive advantage and requires a culture that can successfully execute acombination of activities. These activities include deeply studying the forces thatcan shape the future of the industry and gathering intelligence about current andpotential social and political issues, involvement of stakeholders, managingstakeholder expectations, decision making, incorporating the decisions into the
19strategic plan and tactical activities, communicating symbols to stakeholders,and ethical business behavior.Hypothesis 3: Monetary incentives and rewards exert a stronger influence onworkers than any form of motivational incentiveA review of the applied literature on practices and actual examples in thePittsburgh area have shown that innovative responsible strategy, exceedinggovernment requirements and considering multiple stakeholders, is a long-termobjective.Early research suggested that when extrinsic rewards such as monetaryincentives were linked to performance on interesting and appealing tasks,intrinsic motivation decreased. The reason for this effect was that when workerswere rewarded for doing work they already enjoyed, they observed themselvesaccepting a reward and inferred that they must be working for the reward ratherthan for intrinsic enjoyment of the task. Extrinsic rewards thus dampenedintrinsic interest (Deci; Lepper, et al.). This finding received a great deal ofattention, but subsequent research, however, provided limited support. Onereview of 24 relevant studies found that while 14 reported a negative impact ofextrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation, 10 reported no such impact (Boon &Cummings). It is now clear that extrinsic rewards can impair orenhance intrinsicmotivation, depending upon how the rewards are constructed and construed.Harackiewicz, Manderlink, and Sansone explain that rewards have three aspects:evaluation, performance feedback, and reward value. Each aspect can have a
20different impact on intrinsic motivation. The evaluation aspect promotes feelingsof external control and thus reduces intrinsic motivation. The feedback aspectpromotes feelings internal control and thus enhances intrinsic motivation. Thereward value aspect � the incentive as a symbolic cue of achievement � makescompetence salient and thus enhances intrinsic motivation. In a series ofexperiments, Harackiewicz and colleagues showed that introducing contingentrewards can either enhance, inhibit, or have no effect on intrinsic motivation,depending upon which of the three aspects is made most salient. Otherresearchers have obtained similar results (Enzle & Ross). Researchers are juststarting to address the most interesting question: under what conditions will agiven aspect be most salientHypothesis 4: The job itself is meaningful to the satisfaction of the workerManaging Job Satisfaction.Increasing job satisfaction is important for its humanitarian value and for itsfinancial benefit.Job Satisfaction Is A Motivating Factor , due to its effect on employee behavior.Various Researches have included measures of job satisfaction in all ouremployee surveys. Clear patterns have emerged.Employees with higher job satisfaction:believe that the organization will be satisfying in the long runcare about the quality of their work are more committed to the organizationhave higher retention rates, and are more productive.
21Frequently, work underlies self-esteem and identity while unemployment lowersself-worth and produces anxiety. At the same time, monotonous jobs can erode aworkers initiative and enthusiasm and can lead to absenteeism and unnecessaryturnover. Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personalsatisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and self-development. To the worker, jobsatisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that often leads to a positivework attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative, flexible,innovative, and loyal.For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that ismotivated and committed to high quality performance. Increased productivity—the quantity and quality of output per hour worked—seems to be a byproduct ofimproved quality of working life. It is important to note that the literature on therelationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive norconsistent. However, studies dating back to Herzbergs (1957) have shown atleast low correlation between high morale and high productivity, and it doesseem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to anorganization. Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of job loss, willnot give 100 percent of their effort for very long. Though fear is a powerfulmotivator, it is also a temporary one, and as soon as the threat is liftedperformance will decline.
22Tangible ways in which job satisfaction benefits the organization includereduction in complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination;as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is alsolinked to a more healthy work force and has been found to be a good indicator oflongevity. And although only little correlation has been found between jobsatisfaction and productivity, Brown (1996) notes that some employers havefound that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying ordelighting customers, thus protecting the "bottom line." No wonder AndrewCarnegie is quoted as saying: "Take away my people, but leave my factories, andsoon grass will grow on the factory floors. Take away my factories, but leave mypeople, and soon we will have a new and better factory" (quoted in Brown, 1996) Chapter 4: Questionnaire
23This questionnaire is designed for academic purpose to carry out research in jobenvironment to check the level of motivation in employees for organization andtheir job satisfaction. Your answers would be used for further research on thistopic.Age :__________( in years)Gender: Male FemaleEducation: Undergraduate Graduate Masters PhD /M.PhilJob Category: Top Management Middle Management Lower ManagementStrongly Disagree Neither Agree Agree StronglyAgreeDisagree nor Disagree 1 2 3 4 5Kindly encircle the selected answer number in the given box.MOTIVATIONI arrive at the office on time and do not leave early.1 2 3 4 5
24 I expect the same levels of accuracy in my own work as my employees1 2 3 4 5I do not blame others. I take responsibility for my part in mistakes.1 2 3 4 5 I do not encourage gossip or rumor.1 2 3 4 5I ensure that staff has the training they require.1 2 3 4 5 I participate in training to improve my own skills and competencies.1 2 3 4 5Being expected to take responsibility for tasks1 2 3 4 5Having to train a new member of staff1 2 3 4 5I do not build rapport with my team by sharing my weaknesses and fears. I am honestbut professional1 2 3 4 5I trust my staff.1 2 3 4 5JOB SATISFACTIONOther people view my job as a valuable profession.1 2 3 4 5I am satisfied with the way that this agency is managed.1 2 3 4 5 I am confident of my abilities to succeed at my work.1 2 3 4 5I believe that my position at work is a professional position.1 2 3 4 5I am satisfied with my income.1 2 3 4 5I believe that my supervisors care deeply for me and for our clients.
251 2 3 4 5I believe that the work atmosphere is friendly.1 2 3 4 5My superior encourages my development.1 2 3 4 5My associates are committed to doing quality work.1 2 3 4 5The purpose of my company makes me feel that my job is important1 2 3 4 5Motivation(1) I take time to understand different kinds of 1 2 3 4 5motivation.(2) I provide regular positive feedback to thepeople who work with me. 1 2 3 4 53) I pay more attention to the positive thingspeople do rather than the negative. 1 2 3 4 5(4) People who work for me would say that Igenuinely care for them as individuals. 1 2 3 4 5(5) I set clear achievable goals with people. 1 2 3 4 5(6) I make regular efforts to build trustingprofessional relationships. 1 2 3 4 5(7) I ensure that the employees have the toolsthey need and a healthy working environment. 1 2 3 4 5(8) I try to find creative ways to vary people’sroles and responsibilities. 1 2 3 4 5(9) I make sure people know when they havedone a great job. 1 2 3 4 5
26(10) I look for ways to increase people’s level ofengagement. 1 2 3 4 5Job Satisfaction(1) I had a good idea of what this position involved 1 2 3 4 5before I began(2) I have ample opportunities for advancement in this profession. 1 2 3 4 5(3) If I felt that I needed extra training, it would bemade available for me. 1 2 3 4 5(4) I believe that my supervisors care deeply for me andfor our clients. 1 2 3 4 5(5) I am satisfied with the benefits offered to methrough this job. 1 2 3 4 5(6) I regularly think/worry about work issues when Iam at home. 1 2 3 4 5(7) I feel overwhelmed by my responsibilities atwork and my work activities are personally meaningful 1 2 3 4 5to me.(8) Having good equipment to work with is important 1 2 3 4 5to employees.(9) I am fully able to use my skills in this position. 1 2 3 4 5(10) I am confident of my abilities to succeed at work 1 2 3 4 5PRODUCTIVITY (Performance Assessment Questions) • What should the employees be doing now that they are not doing?
27• What are the employees doing now that they should not be doing?• When the employees are working most effectively, what does it look like?• What is preventing them from reaching the goal you have envisioned?• Do they know the standards that are expected of them?• Are the standards reasonable and achievable?• Do they have the proper job aids and other performance tools to work to standard?• What would you like to see changed that would help you to work more effectively?• What would you like to see invented that would help you work more effectively?• What are your competitors doing better than you are?• What do your customers want that you are not providing?