Phytochemical Processing
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Phytochemical Processing

on

  • 8,089 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
8,089
Views on SlideShare
8,089
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
375
Comments
4

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • thanks
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • No worries! Sharing is caring ;)
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • thank you for your gentleness
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • thank, very good
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Phytochemical Processing Phytochemical Processing Presentation Transcript

  • PHYTOCHEMICAL PROCESSING SAIFUL IRWAN ZUBAIRI PMIFT, Grad B.E.M. B. Eng. (Chemical-Bioprocess) (Hons.), UTM M. Eng. (Bioprocess), UTM ROOM NO.: 2166, CHEMISTRY BUILDING, TEL. (OFF.): 03-89215828, FOOD SCIENCE PROGRAMME, CENTRE OF CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND FOOD TECHNOLOGY, UKM BANGI, SELANGOR
  • PROCESSING OBJECTIVES
    • Preserve active phytochemical ingredients
    • Concentrate the active phytochemical ingredients
    • Covert the raw material into the most convenient form
    • Remove the unwanted materials
    • Adding economic value to herb material to satisfy
    • To obtain pure phytochemical
  • Chart of Classification and Separation of Plant Material Based on Solvent Polarity and Process (Phytochemicals Approach) Plant Material H2O-Glycerol Extraction Non-Polar compound extraction SFE (Phytonics: Phytosol) Terpenoids Essential Oil (e.g. mono & Esquiterpenes: geraniol, limonese Diterpenoids (Phytol, abietic acid) Triterpenoids (Cucurbitacin) Carotenoids ( β-Carotene, lutien, Zeaxanthin, etc) Multi Solvent Extraction Process Terpenoids (e.g. Menthol, carrone, squalene, α-Carotene, lycopene) Lipids Polar Compound Extraction Flavanoid (e.g. anthocyanin-cyanidin, flavanols- Kaemferol, isoflavanoid-rotenone) Polar alkaloid (e.g. Ephedrine) Sugar & Derivatives (e.g. monosacharide, Oligosacharide, sugar alcol) Fiber Acid Hydrolysis filtrate Cellulose filtrate Hemicellulose filtrate Lignin
  • Chart of Classification and Separation of Plant Material Based on Solvent Polarity and Process (Herbal Approach) Plant Material Solvent Extract filtrate Freeze dried Whole concrete extract Membrane Filtration or Low T vacuum evaporation Whole concentrate extract Water Extract Spray dried Whole powder extract Freeze dried Whole freeze dried extract Spray dried Concentrate extract
  • EXAMPLES OF RAW MATERIALS TEA TREE PANDAN CITRONELLA EUCALYPTUS CINNAMON KESUM CURRY TONGKAT ALI
  • OVERALL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES
  • PRETREATMENT OF HERBS
  • PREPARATION OF RAW MATERIAL AND THE PROCESSING OF ESSENTIAL OILS RAW MATERIAL PRETREATMENT PROCESS EXTRACTION PURIFICATION
  • Percolation Process
  • Reflux Extraction
  • Soxhlet Extraction
  • Steam Distillation
  • Phytosol Extractor (industrial scale)
  • PURIFICATION PROCESSES
  • FREEZE DRYING
    • Freeze drying is the process of removing water or other solvent from a frozen product by sublimation.
    • Conventional drying cause the
    • material to shrink, damaging the
    • cells while in freeze drying
    • process, the solid components
    • are held in place by rigid ice.
    • Freeze drying is also used to
    • prepare tissue samples for
    • electron microscopy.
  • SPRAY DRYER
    • SPRAY DRYING is the most widely used industrial process involving particle formation and drying.
    • Highly suited for the continuous production of dry solids in either powder, granulate or agglomerate form liquid feed stocks as solutions, emulsions and pump able suspensions.
    • Spray dryer involves the atomization
    • of a liquid feedstock into a spray of
    • droplets and contacting the droplets
    • with hot air in a drying chamber.
  • PHYTOCHEMICAL PROCESSING : CASE STUDIES
  • CASE STUDY I: Production of Cinnamon Oil from Cinnamon Leaves Process Flow Chart for Crude Cinnamon Oil Production Cinnamon Leaves Drying Size Reduction Extraction ( Apply heat & agitation) Condensation Product (Crude Essential Oil) Deionized Water Steam is formed carrying along essential oil
  • Process Flow Chart for Crude Cinnamon Oil Purification Crude Essential Oil Neutralization (pH Control) Separation (centrifuge) Other method: clarifying, purifying and decanting Product (Essential Oil) Distillation (using laboratory set) Solvent Solubility (add solvent) Evaporation CASE STUDY I: Production of Cinnamon Oil from Cinnamon Leaves
  • C Cinnamon Leaf (1000 kg) 1000 kg COARSE GRINDER Deionized water (5000 kg) Condensation Rate : 700 kg/hr Water Oil (15%) Oil (85%) Leaf + 30% water Water + Oil 1 L 0.5 M NaOH 26 L Cinnamon Oil C Soap Purified Cinnamon Oil (25 L) CASE STUDY I: Production of Cinnamon Oil from Cinnamon Leaves
  • CASE STUDY II: Production of Phyto-Extract from Tongkat Ali Process Flow Chart for Herb Processing – Tongkat Ali Tongkat Ali Sizing (Grinding)/Drying Extraction Filtration Product (Concentrate Extract) Packaging Solvent (Deionized Water) Spray Dryer (other product intensification method can also be used - freeze drying) Concentrate Product (Powdered Form) EXTRACTION
  • CASE STUDY II: Production of Phyto-Extract from Tongkat Ali Deionized Water (120kg) T = 120 O C t = 2 Hr Extract + fibre (40kg) Slurry Water Extract T feed = 70 O C 1.5 brix FILTER efficiency = 56% EXTRACTOR SPRAY DRYER efficiency = 80% Hot Air 306 kg/hr T = 170 O C T 1 = 170 O C T 2 = 103 O C Evaporation Rate = 12.6 kg/hr Recovery = 3% Moisture content = 2% t = 7 hrs HOLDING TANK Temperature = 70 0 C Tongkat Ali (40kg)
  • CASE STUDY III: Production of Soybean Powder Soy bean Soak (24 hrs) Dehulling Wet Grinding (Soy: Water 1:4) Soy Extract Product Solvent (Deionized Water) Filtration Spray Dry T = 90 0 C, t = 1 hr 5% Maltodextrin, 1% Sodium Casienate
  • Dehulling 1000 kg Soy 4000 kg Deionized water Soy Fiber 4000 kg extract 200 kg Maltodextrin 40 kg Sodium Casienate T = 90 0 C t = 1 hr 2420 kg Soy Solution 2 brix T 1 = 185 0 C T 2 = 105 0 C Hot Air Feed (2300 kg/ hr) t = 24 hrs Evaporation Rate = 100 kg/ hr Product Flow Rate = 20.16 kg / hr Recovery = 20 % Moisture content = 2 % CASE STUDY III: Production of Soybean Powder Wet Grinding Filter Press
  • CASE STUDY IV: Extraction of Oleoresin (Curcuminoid) from Turmeric Process Flow Chart for Production of Cucurminoid Turmeric Sizing & Drying Steam Distillation Wet Turmeric Fine Grinding Crystallization Solvent (Deionized Water) Drying Vacuum Distillation Volatile Oil Product (Curcuminoid) Packaging Ethanol
  • CASE STUDY IV:Extraction of Oleoresin (Curcuminoid) from Turmeric Coarse Grinder Fine Grinder 1000 Kg Turmeric 5000 kg Dioinized water Evaporation Rate: 833 kg/hr 4200 kg water + volatile Oil Water 20 kg volatile oil 70% Water 600 kg fine turmeric 800 kg water + 1000 kg turmeric DRYER VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT STEAM DISTILLATION UNIT OIL SEPARATOR OIL STORAGE Volatile Oil Packaging CRYSTALLIZER 24 Kg Curcuminoid FILTER UNIT EXTRACTION VESSEL
  • Raw Material Sizing (Grinding)/Drying Extraction Filtration Ultrafiltration Spray Dryer Solvent (Deionized Water) Microfiltration Reverse Osmosis PURIFICATION CASE STUDY V: Production of Plant-Based Sugar from Stevia Product (Stevioside: 66%) T = 100 0 C, t = 2 hrs Maltodextrin
  • CASE STUDY V: Production of Plant-Based Sugar from Stevia Sweet Tea (100kg) Deionized Water (2500kg) T = 100 O C t = 2 hrs Water Extract Water Extract (400 kg solution + 2 kg maltodextrin) T feed = 70 O C 1.5 brix EXTRACTOR SPRAY DRYER efficiency = 80% Hot Air 550kg/hr T = 170 O C T 1 = 170 O C T 2 = 103 O C Evaporation Rate = 100 kg/hr Product Flow Rate = 1.75 kg/hr Recovery = 5% Moisture content = 2% Purity = 66% t = 4 hrs PURIFICATION (microfiltration, Ultrafiltration Reverse osmosis) Impurities
  • CASE STUDY VI: Production of Pegaga Powder M EXTRACTOR M M Pegaga (cleaned and ground) Deionized Water BLENDING TANK EVAPORATOR SPRAY DRYER PLATE & FRAME FILTER T = 120 0 C t = 2 hrs T = 70 0 C Water Extract T feed = 70 O C 5 brix Hot Air 306 kg/hr T = 170 O C T 1 = 170 O C T 2 = 103 O C Recovery = 2% from raw material Moisture content = 2% max Water Process Plant Layout for the Production of Pegaga Powder
  • Pegaga Cleaning Sizing Extraction Evaporation Blending Spray Drying Packaging Dehydrated Product Figure 1: Process Flow for the Production of Pegaga Powder