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OUM-NESTLE 2008 6
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  • 1. LECTURE NOTES 06/08 “TRANSPORT AND CONVEYING PROCESS” SAIFUL IRWAN ZUBAIRI PMIFT, Grad B.E.M. B. Eng. (Chemical-Bioprocess) (Hons.), UTM M. Eng. (Bioprocess), UTM ROOM NO.: 2166, CHEMISTRY BUILDING, TEL. (OFF.): 03-89215828, FOOD SCIENCE PROGRAMME, CENTRE OF CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND FOOD TECHNOLOGY, UKM BANGI, SELANGOR 28 MAY 2008
  • 2. SUB-TOPIC: FOOD CONVERSION AND MANUFACTURING
    • Cooling and Freezing process.
    • Concentration & Dehydration: Concentration, Spray Drying & Vacuum Drying process.
    • Industrial Fermentation process.
    • Irradiation Process.
    • Homogenization Process.
    • Wet and Dry Mixing process.
    • Transport and Conveying process.
  • 3. WHAT IS THE CONVEYOR BELT?
    • A belt conveyor consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop of material.
    • One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward.
    • The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler .
  • 4. CONTINUE:
    • There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport industrial and agricultural materials, such as grain, coal, ores, etc. generally in outdoor locations .
    • Generally companies providing general material handling type belt conveyors do not provide the conveyors for bulk material handling.
    • In addition there are a number of commercial applications of belt conveyors such as those in grocery stores.
  • 5. CONVEYOR BELT “ Point of contact between a power transmission belt and its pulley. A conveyor belt uses a wide belt and pulleys and is supported by rollers or a flat pan along its path”
  • 6. CONTINUE:
    • The belt consists of one or more layers of material they can be made out of rubber.
    • Many belts in general material handling have two layers .
    • An under layer of material to provide linear strength and shape called a carcass and an over layer called the cover .
  • 7. CONTINUE:
    • The carcass is often a cotton or plastic web or mesh.
    • The cover is often various rubber or plastic compounds specified by use of the belt.
    • Covers can be made from more exotic materials for unusual applications such as silicone for heat or gum rubber when traction is essential.
  • 8. CONTINUE:
    • Material flowing over the belt may be weighed in transit using a beltweigher .
    • Belts with regularly spaced partitions, known as elevator belts , are used for transporting loose materials up steep inclines.
    • Belt Conveyors are used in self-unloading bulk freighters and in live bottom trucks.
    • Conveyor technology is also used in conveyor transport such as moving sidewalks or escalators, as well as on many manufacturing assembly lines.
  • 9. CONTINUE:
    • Stores often have conveyor belts at the check-out counter to move shopping items.
    • Ski areas also use conveyor belts to transport skiers up the hill.
    • A wide variety of related conveying machines are available, different as regards principle of operation, means and direction of conveyance = including screw conveyors, vibrating conveyors, pneumatic conveyors, the moving floor system, which uses responding boards to move cargo, and roller conveyor system, which uses a series of powered rollers to convey boxes or pallets.
  • 10. CONTINUE:
    • Conveyors are used as components in automated distribution and warehousing.
    • In combination with computer controlled pallet handling equipment this allows for more efficient retail, wholesale, and manufacturing distribution.
    • It is considered a labor saving system that allows large volumes to move rapidly through a process, allowing companies to ship or receive higher volumes with smaller storage space and with less labor expense.
  • 11.
    • “ Typical Construction of a Conveyor systems Belt Bend”
  • 12.
    • “ Belt Conveyor systems at a Packing Depot”
  • 13.
    • “ Baggage Handling Belt Conveyor systems”
  • 14. Snake Sandwich Belt Conveyor
    • A sandwich belt conveyor uses two conveyor belts, face-to-face, to gently but firmly contain the product being carried, hence making steep incline and even vertical-lift runs easily achievable.
    • Moving and elevating large quantities of bulk materials, including coarse products such as rocks, aggregate, coal, etc. at the steepest possible inclines.
    • Snake Conveyors are available in widely ranging profiles of C and S Shape.
  • 15. Snake Sandwich Belt Conveyor:
  • 16. Snake Sandwich Belt Conveyor:
  • 17. Snake Sandwich Belt Conveyor
  • 18. CONTINUE:
    • Snake Sandwich conveyors offer several advantages.
    • First unlimited conveying capacity, a system suitable for the most rugged mine applications and gentle on sensitive and friable materials, high availability and low operating and maintenance costs, smooth surfaced belts allowing continuous belt cleaning by scrapers and plows.
    • This also facilitates intermediate material discharge by belt plows, as appropriate, before and/or beyond the sandwiched part of the Snake profile.
    • All conventional conveyor hardware insures economy and fast delivery of replacement parts.
  • 19. Vibrating Conveyor Systems
    • A Vibrating Conveyor is a machine with a solid conveying surface which is turned up on the side to form a trough.
    • They are used extensively in food grade applications where sanitation, wash down, and low maintenance are essential.
    • Vibrating conveyors are also suitable for harsh, very hot, dirty, or corrosive environments.
  • 20. CONTINUE:
    • They can be used to convey newly cast metal parts which may reach upwards of 1500°F.
    • Due to the fixed nature of the conveying pans vibrating conveyors can also perform tasks such as sorting, screening, classifying and orienting parts.
    • Vibrating conveyors have been built to convey material at angles exceeding 45° from horizontal using special pan shapes.
    • Flat pans will convey most materials at a 5° incline from horizontal line.
  • 21. Vibrating Conveyor Systems
  • 22. Flexible Conveyor Systems
    • The flexible conveyor is based on a conveyor beam in aluminium or stainless steel, with low friction slide rails guiding a plastic multi-flexing chain.
    • Products to be conveyed travel directly on the conveyor, or on pallets/carriers
  • 23. Flexible Conveyor Systems
  • 24. Pneumatic Conveyor Systems
    • Every pneumatic system, makes use of pipes or ducts called transportation lines that carry mixture of materials and a stream of air.
    • These materials are such as dry pulverized (powdered) or free flowing or light powdery materials like cement, fly ash etc.
    • These materials can be transported conveniently to various destinations by means of a stream of high velocity air through pipe lines.
    • Products are moved through various tubes via air pressure, allowing for extra vertical versatility.
  • 25. Pneumatic Conveyor Systems
  • 26. CONTINUE:
    • Pneumatic conveyors are either carrier systems or dilute-phase systems; carrier systems simply push items from one entry point to one exit point, such as the money exchanging tubes used at a bank drive-thru window.
    • Dilute-phase systems use push/pull pressure to guide materials through various entry and/or exit points.
    • Three basic systems that are used to generate high velocity air stream:
  • 27. Three basic systems
    • 1. Suction or Vacuum systems: utilizing a vacuum created in the pipeline to draw the material with the surrounding air.
    • The system operated at a low pressure, which is practically 0.4-0.5 atm below atmosphere, and is utilized mainly in conveying light free flowing materials.
  • 28.
    • 2. Pressure Type systems: in which a positive pressure is used to push material from one point to the next.
    • The system is ideal for conveying material from one loading point to a number of unloading points.
    • It operates at a pressure of 6 atm and upwards
    Three basic systems
  • 29.
    • 3. Combination systems: in which a suction system is used to convey material from a number of loading points and a pressure system is employed to deliver it to a number of unloading points.
    Three basic systems