Communication approach and culture in the global working1


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Communication approach and culture in the global working

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Communication approach and culture in the global working1

  1. 1. <ul><li>COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES </li></ul><ul><li>DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>COURSE CODE : CCG 5243 </li></ul><ul><li>COURSE : COMMUNICATION & THE GLOBAL WORKING ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ASSIGNMENT GROUP </li></ul>
  2. 2. Communication Approach and Culture in the Global Working Environment Group Members: Said S.M. Elgaibani Abbas Ramdani Wang Chao Nan
  3. 3. Intercultural Communication Concept <ul><li>What is Intercultural communication? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Intercultural communication involves </li></ul><ul><li>interaction between people whose cultural perceptions and symbol systems are distinct enough to alter communication events “ </li></ul><ul><li>( Porter & Samovar, 2004, p. 15) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Intercultural Communication Concept (Cont) <ul><li>Intercultural communication is the information exchange between one person and any other source transmitting a message displaying properties of a culture different to the other receiver ’ s culture (Dahl, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Why it is significant? Cultural diversity make intercultural communication complex and to some extent, impossible </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intercultural Communication Principles <ul><li>1- A shared code system( verbal and nonverbal). </li></ul><ul><li>2- different beliefs and behaviors between communicators establish the basis of different assumption from which respond. </li></ul><ul><li>3- The level of knowing and accepting beliefs and behaviors of others. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Is Culture? <ul><li>Has different meanings in different contexts </li></ul><ul><li>“ Culture is shared learned behavior which is transmitted from one generation to another for the purposes of promoting individual and social survival ” (Marsella, as cited in Porter & Samovar, 2004) </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is Culture? (Cont) <ul><li>Culture is a set of values, beliefs, norms, customs, rules and codes that lead people to define themselves as a distinct group, giving them a sense of community (Adler et al, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is learned = enculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Culture= international and local </li></ul>
  8. 8. Three approaches to study culture <ul><li>1/ The social science approach : This is the most traditional and is built on the methods assumptions derived from psychology and sociology. It assumed that behavior can be observed, measured and predicted. Here communication is seen influenced by culture, and the primary interest is in describing and comparing cultures. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>2/ The interpretive Approach : This approach derives its methods from anthropology and linguistics. It emphasis the objective experience of the individual. Here communication is seen as creating and maintaining culture. </li></ul><ul><li>3/ The Critical Approach :The critical approach is primarily concerned with creating change by examining power relationships within cultures. It stresses the importance of social, political, economic and historical contexts and its focus on social rather than individual relations. According to this view , power relationships characterize all intercultural transactions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Summary of culture
  11. 11. The Characteristics of culture <ul><li>Culture is learned </li></ul><ul><li>Enculturation= activity of learning one ’ s culture </li></ul><ul><li>How do we learn culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where do we learn cultures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proverbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folktales, Legends, Myths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Media </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Characteristics of culture (cont) <ul><li>Culture is transmitted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication continues culture- values, language, religions etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture is based on symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various forms- spoken, written, non-verbal </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Characteristics of culture (cont) <ul><li>Culture is dynamic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture is an integrated system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural elements are interrelated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One element will affect another in a culture </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. CULTURAL PATTERNS/ CULTURAL DIFFERENCES <ul><li>Hofstede ’ s Value dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism/collectivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculinity/femininity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term/short term orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hall ’ s High and Low context </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hofstede ’ s value dimensions <ul><li>Explores thinking and social action differences among members of more than 50 nations </li></ul><ul><li>Classified each country (1-50) of the five value dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>The rankings offer values and comparisons across cultures </li></ul>
  16. 16. Individualism/Collectivism Individualism Collectivism <ul><li>Stress on individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Independent self </li></ul><ul><li>Reward individual achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Value individual uniqueness </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: United States, Australia, Great Britain, Canada & New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize on in-groups </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>Reward on groups </li></ul><ul><li>Share in-group beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Pakistan, Venezuela, Colombia, Taiwan, Peru & Africa </li></ul>
  17. 17. Power Distance High Power Distance <ul><li>Do not share power </li></ul><ul><li>People are not equal </li></ul><ul><li>Social hierarchy to show inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize on status and rank </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: India, Africa, Brazil, Singapore, Greece, Venezuela, Mexico and the Philippines </li></ul>Low power distance <ul><li>Minimize power </li></ul><ul><li>People have access to power </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy to show roles inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Superiors look less powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Austria, Finland. Denmark, Norway, United States, New Zealand & Israel </li></ul>
  18. 18. Masculinity/Femininity Masculinity <ul><li>Dominant values are male oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Expect men to be assertive, ambitious, competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Ireland, the Philippines, Greece, Venezuela, Austria, Japan, Italy & Mexico </li></ul>Femininity <ul><li>Nurturing roles </li></ul><ul><li>Promote sexual equality </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark & the Netherlands </li></ul>
  19. 19. Uncertainty Avoidance High Uncertainty Avoidance <ul><li>Avoid uncertainties & ambiguities </li></ul><ul><li>More formal rules </li></ul><ul><li>Do not tolerate deviant ideas/behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Seek Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in absolute truths/ expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Portugal, Greece, Peru, Belgium & Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Accept uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>Few rules </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate the unusual </li></ul><ul><li>Dislike hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on themselves rather than experts </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Sweden, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, US, Finland & Netherlands </li></ul>Low Uncertainty Avoidance
  20. 20. Long term/Short term orientation Long term orientation <ul><li>Strong work ethic </li></ul><ul><li>Show great respect to employers </li></ul><ul><li>Value social order & long range goals </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan & South Korea </li></ul>Short Term orientation <ul><li>Deemphasize high status </li></ul><ul><li>Postpone old age </li></ul><ul><li>Short term results </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate needs </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: United states, Great Britain, Canada & The Philippines </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hall ’ s High and Low context High Context Low context <ul><li>Most meanings come from context, not from words </li></ul><ul><li>People are homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>Communication through gestures, silence & space (non-verbal communication) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Native Americans, Japanese, Arab, Chinese & Korean </li></ul>People are less homogenous Most meanings come from verbal message Communication through spoken words Eg: German, Swiss, Scandinavian & North American
  22. 22. Potential problems in intercultural communication <ul><li>Similarities vs. differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people seek for others with whom they have (habits, looks, behaviors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency to seek similarities excludes differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding face-to-face interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detached and isolated </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Potential problems in intercultural communication <ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling lack of security in a new environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences are a threat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect interpretation of cultural behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear, dislike and distrust at the first intercultural encounters </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. What Is Intercultural Conflict? <ul><li>Conflict = a struggle between you and at least one or more individuals whom you perceive as frustrating and interfering with the achievement of your goals (McDaniel, Porter & Samovar, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural conflict = the perceived and/or actual incompatibility of values, expectancies, processes or outcomes between two or more parties from different cultures over substantive and/or relational issues (Ting Toomey, as cited in McDaniel, Porter & Samovar, 2007) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Western approaches: managing conflict <ul><li>Americans employ five approaches to dealing with conflict: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborating </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Avoidance <ul><li>denial or withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>a conflict will disappear if it is just ignored </li></ul><ul><li>Can be either mental (silence/ not taking part in interactions) or physical (removing yourself from conflict) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance is often used when conflict seems to worsen </li></ul><ul><li>Not a popular approach to conflict for Americans or individualistic cultures. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Accommodate <ul><li>One is willing to give up his/her own needs and goals to satisfy the other person ’ s desires </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy contributes to an uneasy and tense relational state. </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy leads to poor conclusions because only one point of view is discussed and create a situation where one person can talk advantage of another </li></ul>
  28. 28. Competing <ul><li>Winning at all costs </li></ul><ul><li>Forcing one ’ s wishes on another person by verbal aggression, intimidation or manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Competing is a fundamental American value </li></ul><ul><li>Most used by Americans </li></ul>
  29. 29. Compromise <ul><li>Finding the middle course with each party agreeing to make concessions to the others </li></ul><ul><li>“ Give something up ” or make a ‘ trade ’ to resolve conflict </li></ul><ul><li>It is better to get something instead of nothing </li></ul>
  30. 30. Collaborating <ul><li>All parties resolve conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting at maintaining a productive relationship and resolve conflict collaboratively toward a common goal </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone ’ s needs and goals can be satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>The most sought-after method of settling conflicts </li></ul>
  31. 31. Cultural Management <ul><li>Every company has its own “ personality ” or culture. For an organization to be successful over the long term, its culture needs to be managed effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>To help firms define their culture and understand how it affects behavior and organizational success. </li></ul><ul><li>to manage culture as a competitive advantage. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Cultural Management (con.) <ul><li>Focus upon: </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying what the culture really is (versus what the company says or thinks it is) </li></ul><ul><li>Determining what the culture should be to promote behavior consistent with the company's goals </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a plan to take the company from where it is to where it needs to be with respect to its culture </li></ul>
  33. 33. Proxemic (Space Communication) <ul><li>Edward Hall (1959, 1963, 1976) distinguishes four proxemic distances that define types of relationships between people and the types of communication in which they are likely engaged </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Spatial Distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate 0 - 18 in. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  35. 35. <ul><li>Space Communication - Proxemics </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate 0 - 18 in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal 18 in.- 4 feet </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  36. 36. <ul><li>Space Communication - Proxemics </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate 0 - 18 in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal 18 in.- 4 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social 4 feet – 12 feet </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  37. 37. <ul><li>Space Communication - Proxemics </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate 0 - 18 in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal 18 in.- 4 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social 4 feet – 12 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public 12 feet - 25+ feet </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  38. 38. How to improve intercultural communication/ Strategic communication <ul><li>Know yourself </li></ul><ul><li>What is your culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You see the world through your culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine negative/positive impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are your personal attitudes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify your prejudices, bias and opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your attitude influence your response </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. How to improve intercultural communication/ Strategic communication <ul><li>2. Give feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures differ in listening process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct listening (France, Germany & the U.S): listen for facts and concrete information, direct eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect listening (Finland, Japan & Sweden): no interruption and be polite, attune to non-verbal cues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage verbal and non-verbal feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions in cultures that value “ talking ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid a direct “ no ” feedback in Asian cultures </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. How to improve intercultural communication/ Strategic communication <ul><li>Learn to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of challenges in cultural adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language as a strong barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism= biasness that lead people judge according to their own cultural standard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase contact with the host culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Join community activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use mediated communication to learn about the host culture (internet, television, film etc) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul>