Intercultural communication is the information exchange between one person and any other source transmitting a message displaying properties of a culture different to the other receiver ’ s culture (Dahl, 1999)
Why it is significant? Cultural diversity make intercultural communication complex and to some extent, impossible
1/ The social science approach : This is the most traditional and is built on the methods assumptions derived from psychology and sociology. It assumed that behavior can be observed, measured and predicted. Here communication is seen influenced by culture, and the primary interest is in describing and comparing cultures.
2/ The interpretive Approach : This approach derives its methods from anthropology and linguistics. It emphasis the objective experience of the individual. Here communication is seen as creating and maintaining culture.
3/ The Critical Approach :The critical approach is primarily concerned with creating change by examining power relationships within cultures. It stresses the importance of social, political, economic and historical contexts and its focus on social rather than individual relations. According to this view , power relationships characterize all intercultural transactions.
Conflict = a struggle between you and at least one or more individuals whom you perceive as frustrating and interfering with the achievement of your goals (McDaniel, Porter & Samovar, 2007)
Intercultural conflict = the perceived and/or actual incompatibility of values, expectancies, processes or outcomes between two or more parties from different cultures over substantive and/or relational issues (Ting Toomey, as cited in McDaniel, Porter & Samovar, 2007)