Vulnerability and Adaptation to climate change situational analysis

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Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change, Andhra Pradesh

Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change, Andhra Pradesh

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  • 1. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTIONMahabubnagar District (Map 1 and Map2) inAndhra Pradesh State is selected for theprogramme on “Vulnerability Assessmentand Enhancing Adaptive Capacity to ClimateChange in Semi-Arid Areas of India” alsocalled “SDC V&A Programme”.Mahabubnagar District is semi-arid, droughtprone and one of the most backwardDistricts in Andhra Pradesh State. Duration Map 1 Location of Mahabubnagar District inof the programme is 4 years (2005 to Andhra Pradesh2009).Program Objective: The core objectives of this program is to secure thelivelihoods of rural poor and vulnerable communities by building and enhancingtheir adaptive capacity to better cope with adverse impacts of climate change andimprove their disaster preparedness.Expected Outcomes:• To enhance the adaptive capacity of the local communities• To improve the delivery systems, especially the extension services• To promote multi-level policy dialogues and general awareness to climate related impacts.1. OBJECTIVES OF THE SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS STAGE – 1 a. Reconnaissance of Mahabubnagar District for identification of potential areas and prioritization for the SDC V&A Programme. b. Collection of secondary information for Situational Analysis – Natural Resources (Agriculture, Water and Energy), Socio Economic, Institutions, etc. c. Identification of NGOs and their area of operation in the District. d. Planning for the Situational Analysis Stage 2 1AFPRO
  • 2. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I Report2. METHODOLOGY 1. Reconnaissance field visit 2. Interaction and discussions with various officials in the District • Chief Executive Officer (CEO) • Chief Planning Officer (CPO) • Project Director, District Water Management Agency (DWMA) • Deputy Director, Ground Water Department, • Officers at Agriculture Department • Faculty at the RARS, Palem • Mandal level officials, MDO, MRO, Statistical officers, Agriculture officers, etc of the potential Mandals. • Village level secretaries 3. Interaction and discussion with community members in the villages visited 4. Secondary data collection and analysis 5. Referring the programme document and in consultation with International Consortium and National Consortium members. Map 2 Mahabubnagar District with Mandals 2AFPRO
  • 3. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportCHAPTER 2 DISTRICT PROFILEMahabubnagar is the largest District in Telangana Region and Second Largest inAndhra Pradesh State. This District consists of 1553 Revenue Villages, 1347 GramPanchayats, 64 Mandals1 and 5 Revenue Divisions. Mahabubnagar District has 13Assembly Constituencies and 2 Parliamentary Constituencies.It is located in the semiarid region of India with recurring meteorological drought(because of erratic and scanty rainfall) and worsened by overexploitation ofmeager groundwater resources. This is a backward District with diverse socio-economic problems like lowest literacy rate, migrations, extreme poverty, etc.1. LOCATION AND TOPOGRAPHYThe District is located in the Central Part of Peninsular India. It is bounded byRanga Reddy and Nalgonda Districts in the North, Nalgonda and Guntur Districts inthe East, Kurnool District in the South. Raichur and Gulbarga Districts of KarnatakaState in the West. In the South Eastern Parts of the District there are hill rangesextending from North to South, the Hills are mostly Flat Topped. The District islocated between 16 Degree and 17 Degree N latitudes and 77 Degree and 79Degree E longitudes (see Map 3).2. LAND USE PATTERNTotal Geographical area of the District is 18.48 Lakhs Hectares and the landutilization of this District, as per Agriculture Census 2000-2001, is as follows:Table 1 Land use particularsS.No. Type ( Area in Ha.) % age1 Forest Area 263560 14.26172 Barren and uncultivable lands 93798 5.0755783 Permanent pastures and grazing lands 25447 1.3769834 Land put for non-agricultural use 78600 4.2531875 Cultivable waste 111426 6.0294616 Other fallow lands 158657 8.5852157 Current fallows 467442 25.294128 Total Normal Area of all crops 649066 35.12212 Total Geographical Area of the District 1848026 1001 Administrative unit in each district, consisting of an average of 20 to 30 villages 3AFPRO
  • 4. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I Report Map 3 Mahabubnagar District location w.r.t. other Districts3. CLIMATEThe climate of the District is generally hot. The District summer period is fromMarch to May. The daily Temperature during the period ranges from 16.9 deg.Centigrade to 41.5 deg. Centigrade, the minimum temperature during the winterseason i.e. November to January ranges between 16.9 deg. Centigrade to 19.1deg. Centigrade.The rainfall in the District is scanty and the South West Monsoon is erratic. Most ofthe Rainfall is received during the South West Monsoon. The normal annual rainfallof the District is 604.56 mm. Out of this, the South West monsoon accounts for71% i.e. 489.0 mm and the balance is covered from North East monsoon. (seegraph 1) 4AFPRO
  • 5. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I Report GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF RAINFALL DATA FROM 1980-81 TO 2002-2003 1000.0 900.0 800.0 700.0NORMAL IN M.M 600.0 500.0 400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0 1980- 1981- 1982- 1983- 1984- 1985- 1986- 1987- 1988 - 1989 - 1990 - 1991 - 1992 - 1993 - 1994 - 1995 - 1996 - 1997 - 1998 - 1999 - 2000 - 2001- 2002- 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 2001 2002 2003 YEARS Graph 1 Rainfall Pattern – Mahabubnagar DistrictPhoto 1 This farmer of Kosgi Mandal said that he had seen good rains about 14 years back when all thetanks in his village got filled up, since then he is facing drought4. GEOLOGICAL RESOURCESThe Dharwars are exposed in parts of Gadwal and Makthal Taluka in the form ofnarrow bands. They consists of hornblends, schist’s, Traversed by quartz veins.Almost all parts of the District is comprised of the Granites, except some parts inKodangal Taluka in the North and the Purana sedimentaries in Krishna Basin in theSouth. The Granites are broadly divided into the Pink and Gray series. There are 5AFPRO
  • 6. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I Reportnumerous pegmatite’s and quartz veins intrusive into these granites. The DeccanTraps occur in small patches i.e., the Northern Portions of Kodangal Taluka, wherein some places the trap has been lateritised.5. SOILSThe Soils of the District can be classified into three broad groups i.e., Red Soil,Black Cotton and Chalka Soil or mixed Soils. Major soil group in the district is RedSandy Soils. Type of soil % age A) Loamy Sand Soils (Dubba) 13% B) Red Sandy Soils (Chalka) 67% C) Black Soils 20%About 70% of the total area is under mixed soils, which do not have water-retaining capacity. The Chalka soils are predominate in the Talukas of Shadnagar,Mahabubnagar, Jadcherla, Kalwakurthy and Kollapur. The Dubba Soils are in theTalukas of Achampet and Gadwal while the Black Cotton Soils, which constitute20% of the District, are in the Talukas of Alampur and Kodangal.Photo 2 Patch of rich black cotton soils ~3 feet thick found at Reddy Guda Village, Midjil Mandal 6AFPRO
  • 7. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I Report6. AGRICULTUREThe dry crops are predominant in the District as the Irrigated area is only 15% ofthe net area sown. Net area sown: 8.767 Lakhs Hect. and Gross area sown: 9.767Lakhs Hect. The percentage of areas sown under different crops is a follows:Table 2 Cropping patternCrop Percentage Crop Percentage Crop Percentage1. Paddy 10 % 2. Millets 28 % 5. Others 9%3. Pulses 11 % 4. Oil 42 % SeedsTable 3 Major types of cropsMajor Food Crops: Major Oil seeds Crops Major Pulses CropsJowar Castor Red GramPaddy Groundnut Green GramBajra / sajja / pearl millet Sun Flower Horse GramRagi / Finger milletThe net sown area is not more than 50% of the total geographical area. Thedistrict has been declared as one of the 12 drought prone districts of AndhraPradesh. Major livelihood in the district includes agriculture and animal husbandry.About 1.75 Lakhs small farmers and 2.94 marginal farmers are dependent on wageemployment. About 3.20 Lakhs agricultural laborers who are below poverty line arealso dependent on agricultural wage employment. 7AFPRO
  • 8. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportPhoto 3 A farmer of Reddy Guda Village, Midjil Mandal is preparing the land for sowing7. LIVESTOCKMahabubnagar has large numbers of small ruminants and cattle. The dependencyon small ruminants like sheep and goat is very high. For many farmers, livestock isan important asset to sell off to cope with drought; therefore, it is an importantresource against vulnerability.Due to failure of monsoons in the initial stages, fodder shortage is noticed. Thegreen fodder position in the district has become critical and the grazing facilitieshave almost dwindled. Fodder requirement in the District upto June 2005 is 9.47lakhs MT. The people are found buying fodder in large quantities to meet therequirement and shepherds are migrating with their sheep to other places.Table 4 Livestock NumbersLivestock NumbersTotal White & Black cattle population 27.40 LakhsSheep 11.98 LakhsGoats 3.85 LakhsTotal livestock 19.10 Lakhs cow units 8AFPRO
  • 9. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportPhoto 4 This shepherd from Wanaparthy area is migrating with his sheep towards northwestern part ofthe District as it has rained there - photo was taken near Mahabubnagar town.8. WATEROne of the important agencies in the district is District Water ManagementAgency(DWMA) started in 1995. Each watershed project covers about 500 hectaresand there are 942 such projects sanctioned in the district. Presently the newwatersheds are being carried following Hariyali Guidelines – Involvement ofGrampanchayat, Village Organisation and the Watershed Committee, the actionplanning and monitoring is participatory. The status of watershed projects is assuch:Table 5 Scheme wise watershedsS.No Scheme Sanctioned completed ongoing1 EAS 212 2122 DPAP 463 132 3313 Hariyali 48 484 APRLP 100 1005 RIDF - VI 119 119 Total 942 344 598 9AFPRO
  • 10. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportTable 6 Water ResourcesSurface waterTanks - 6192 nos covering 76513 hect.Major Projects:Priyadarshini Jurala Irrigation Project (40200 ac.)Rajolibanda Diversion Scheme (35000 ac.)Koilsagar project (4726 ac.)Proposed:Nettampadu Lift Irrigation Scheme (2,00,000 ac.)Kalwakurthy lift irrigation Scheme (2,50,000 ac.)Bhima Lift Irrigation Scheme (2,03,000 ac.)Tube wells - 108200 nos covering 109711 hect.District average dept of groundwater table: 17.16 M Map 4 Watersheds Distribution 10AFPRO
  • 11. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportPhoto 5 An open dry well as found in Karukonda Village, Nawabpet Village, the ground water table hasgone down drastically in most parts of Mahabubnagar District.9. ENERGYDWMA and DFO social forestry are the important agencies in the districtresponsible for promoting Bio-fuel plantations (Jatropha). This is the national policyadopted for alternative sources of energy and at the same time helping thefarmers. Total Jatropha seed allotted to the district is 1.5 MT. Presently the totalsaplings available are 10 Lakhs with DWMA alone. Number of farmers identified are2,548 nos for planting in 5,897 acres.10. FORESTSForests occupy an area of 2.67 Lakhs Hectares and constitute about 14% of thetotal Geographic area of the District. Most of the Forests are concentrated in theSouth Eastern parts of the District covering mainly Achampet, Kollapur with smallareas in Wanaparthy, Mahabubnagar and Makthal Talukas. The bulk of the Forestsin the District is comprised of deciduous. The important species of these are Teak,Maddi, Ippa etc., The availability of Bamboo in the District is formal. The importantsources of Revenue from Forest are mainly from Beedi Leaves, Timber, Bamboos,Seethaphal and Gum etc., 11AFPRO
  • 12. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportThe Wild Life is abundant in the interior and inaccessible plateau regions ofAmarabad. Among the wild animals, the Panther, the Tiger, wild Dogs, hyenas,Bear are common and of the herbivorous animals spotted deer, Nilgai, Sambar,Black-Buck, Chinkara, Wild Bear, several kinds of birds, Peacocks, Water Birds,Cobras and Vipers are also common in these forests.11. DEMOGRAPHIC PARTICULARSThe District has a population of 35,13,934 of which 17.81 Lakhs are males and17.28 Lakhs are females. About 69% of the total population lives in rural areas. Ithas been estimated that 48% of the people live below poverty line. The Urbanareas of the District is only 156.86 kms, and distributed among 4 towns and 7major Gram Panchayats in the District. Mahabubnagar town, which is the DistrictHeadquarters, is largest Urban unit in the District, with a population of 1,39,662.12. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONSThe district ranks lowest among the literates in the State accounting for only38.6% of the literacy level. A very disturbing demographic feature of the district isthat a high percentage of population migrate to nearby urban centers in search oflivelihood. This is because of continuous recurrence of drought conditions and lackof employment opportunities. The worst affected are the children and the agedbecause of this phenomena., the agricultural laborers are having no work in manyareas. To arrest migration it is necessary to provide wage employmentopportunities especially of unskilled natureIt is also interesting to note that the worker participation rate among females (i.e.total female workers to female population) is as high as 45%, which is secondlargest in Andhra Pradesh. Most of the female workers are agricultural laborers.Statistics over a period also suggest that the proportion of agricultural laborers isincreasing over the proportion of cultivators. 12AFPRO
  • 13. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportPhoto 6 These women have migrated to Mahabubnagar town for work13. GROUPS / SOCIAL NETWORKSA pioneering developmental initiative was take-up in the district in promoting Self-help groups (SHGs) and also forming mutually aided cooperatives societies atMandal level in 1980s under the auspices of UNDP which eventually led to a massmovement of organizing women self help groups around thrift, credit and livelihoodprogrammes. Subsequently almost all Mandals and the habitations are covered,with the efforts of DRDA, DPIP, NGOs and other line department programmes inthe District.• No. of Self-Help Groups 28870• Total members covered No. 4.33 Lakhs14. ONGOING PROGRAMMES / ACTIVITIESRecognizing the level of backwardness in the district a number of developmentalschemes have been introduced in the district by national and internationalagencies. Important of them are World Bank supported District Poverty InitiativeProgramme (DPIP), DFID supported Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme,Dutch supported Biotech Programme, Netherlands Govt. Supported APWELL projectetc., A number of government and non-governmental institutions are activelyengaged in the district in promoting peoples participation in a number ofdevelopmental programmes. 13AFPRO
  • 14. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportIn addition to internationally funded programmes, there are a number of schemessupported by Government of Andhra Pradesh and Government of India in the areasof watershed developments, minor and major irrigation, social afforestation,diversification of agriculture, livestock development, drinking water and sanitationimprovement, primary health, and education etc. In other words, institutionalstructure is in place to optimize the benefits of any innovative programme.As per Government instructions, all works are going on in the district i.e.Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Jawahar Grameena Swarojgar Yojana(JGSY), DPAP watersheds, Joint Forest Management or VSS, MPLADS, NABARDworks, ZP general funds, PR Roads & Building sector, PR (RWS) sector, MinorIrrigation, R & B, Housing etc., This district is also selected for National Food ForWork Programme (NFFWP), assuring 100 days of employment opportunity for allwage seekers in an year. They are paid in food grains (80%) and partly incash(20).15. FORMAL INSTITUTIONS AT VILLAGE LEVEL• NRM • SC Corporation• District Water Management Agency(DWMA) • ST Welfare/Tribal Welfare• Rural Infrastructure Development • BC Welfare / BC Corporation Fund(RIDF) • Social Welfare• NAWAPRA / Watershed Development by • Tribal welfare Agriculture Department • Youth welfare• Ground Water Department • ICDS / Child Development Programme• JFM / CFM programmes by Forest • Anganwadi / Women and Children Welfare Department • Infrastructure• Agriculture Department / Rythu Mitra or • Housing Department groups• Horticulture Dept • Services• Comprehensive Land Development • Civil supplies / Public Distribution sys Programme / Indira Prabha • Rural water supply (Panchayat Raj dept.)• Animal Husbandry • Electricity• Fisheries • Road Transport Corporation• Irrigation Dept (Minor / Medium / Major) • Telecommunications / BSNL • Marketing• Social• Dist. Rural Dev. Agency (DRDA) / District • Artisans / Industries / enterprise Poverty Initiatives Programme (DPIP) / • Industries Department Indira Kranthi Patham • Handlooms and Textiles• DPEP / Education • Various schemes for Artisans• Medical and Health • Other Programmes • Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) 14AFPRO
  • 15. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportCHAPTER 3 PRIORITIZATION OF MANDALSConsidering the size of the district, it will not be possible to cover the entiredistrict. For the implementation of the programme, only few villages will beidentified. A list of the potential Mandals2 / sites are selected tentatively based on aset of criteria, and which include the following:1. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF POTENTIAL MANDALS 2. Located in drought prone and semi-arid areas 3. The need for intervention and the conditions for successful implementation. 4. The response of the local communities in successful implementation 5. Social networks / groups representing women, farmers, water users, etc., are formed and active. 6. Presence of a number of developmental programmes 7. Major irrigation programmes are not being envisaged in these Mandals3 8. Opinion of the district level officials 9. Local institutional arrangements including the presence of active NGOs etc. 10. Infrastructure existing 11. Accessibility2. PRIORITISATION OF POTENTIAL MANDALSThe potential Mandals were prioritized using the Secondary data (See Annexure -1, 2 and 4) and also keeping in view the nature of the programme i.e., This is a 4years programme - very short duration (need to select an appropriate area andshould be able to achieve results). Based on existing insights and experiencesspecific sites in the District are being selected. The criteria to identify and selectincludes 1. Manifestation of climate hazards vis-à-vis Water, Agriculture andEnergy (biomass-livestock, etc) 2. The social organisation at village level 3.Presence of local partners.For prioritizing the Mandals, 0 to 3 scores were given classifying the Mandals into 4classes for which the following parameters were considered (See Annexure 3).2 All the potential Mandals have been visited by Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, Lead Consultant along with1. Mr. K. Siva Prasad and Dr. V. K. Reddy (24-25 May 2005), 2. Ms. Sulabha Mahajan (6th TO 8th June2005), 3. Dr. V. K. Reddy 18th June 20053 Except that some parts of Kalwakurthy and Nagarkurnool would be benefited if proposed KalwakurthyLift Irrigation scheme is completed. 15AFPRO
  • 16. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportAgriculture • % Net area sown to total cultivable area • % total cropped area to Geographical area • Food crops • Small farmers(<1.23 hect) • Marginal farmers(1.24 to 2.46 hect)Water • Rainfall • Tube wells net irrigatedEnergy (Biomass – Livestock) • Cattle • Buffalo • Sheep • Livestock • % of PasturesLiteracy • % of Literacy totalAccess to loans – Service of financial institutions • Average Loan amount per person availingPhysical Access • Access (from highways and District head quarters)NGOs • NGOs access (Based on the discussions with secondary stakeholders) 16AFPRO
  • 17. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportTable 7 Prioritization of potential MandalsRank Mandal Rank Mandal1 Farooknagar 7 Amangal2 Kondurg 8 Wanaparthy3 Balanagar 8 Nagarkurnool4 Midjil 8 Kalwakurthy5 Nawabpet 9 Jadcherla5 Kodangal 10 Boothpur6 Bijinapally 11 Kosgi6 Bomaraspet 12 GhanapurMap 5 NGOs working on NRM based programmes and their spatial distribution 17AFPRO
  • 18. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportMap 6 Potential Mandals identified in Mahabubnagar District 18 AFPRO
  • 19. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I Report3. SELECTION OF PROJECT VILLAGESThere are three models emerging they are:Model 1: Selection of a cluster of villages in only one Mandal.Model 2: Selection of two Mandals and few villages in each Mandal.Model 3: Selection of few villages in one Mandal and Satellite villages (only onevillage each from 2 or 3 other Mandals)Table 8 Emerging models for selection of villages Advantages DisadvantagesModel 1 Area of operation, Delivery If the officials change or non- systems, capacity building, cooperative, People are not Knowledge Dissemination- adaptive, case studies / learnings Automatic Weather Station would be few. (AWS), Knowledge CentersModel 2 Comparative advantage, risk of Access, delivery systems, capacity failure would be less. buildingModel 3 Results would be better and Cost of capacity building at chance for comparison more, case secondary level would be more, studies would be more more efforts for better delivery systems at higher level.Further discussions are needed on these emerging models or there could be someother practical model4.4 Suggestions needed from International and National consortium members. 19AFPRO
  • 20. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportCHAPTER 4 WAY FORWARDSituational analysis stage – I has provided insights into emerging challenges forselection of project villages in Mahabubnagar District for the SDC V&A Programme.It also forms the basis for planning and completion of the following tasksimmediately:1. Finalization of Mandal/s5, identification of the programme villages and planning for participatory situational analysis.2. Collection of any other appropriate secondary data3. Study of existing NGOs and selection for local facilitation4. Identification of the status and gaps in the implementation of various NRM programmes, and thereby identifying the capacity building needs6.5. Identifying the scope for convergence of various programs at District, Mandal and Village level.6. Identification of members for formation of District level and village level committees.5 This would be based on the inputs from Capacity Building Workshop at Hyderabad - 28th to 30th June2005.6 Along with MANAGEReport by: Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, Lead Consultant, AFPRO, Hyderabad, AP. 20AFPRO