“Management of manmadeDr N Sai Bhaskar Reddy disasters"firstname.lastname@example.org from 20th to 22nd November, 2012, CCCEA, DR MCR HRD IAP
A stampede is an act of mass impulse among herd animals or a crowd of people in which the herd (or crowd) collectively begins running with no clear direction or purpose.
18 killed in Patna stampede during ChhathMany of the dead are feared to be women and children.Police say the accident happened following the collapse of a makeshift bamboo bridge on the banks of river Ganges where Hindu devotees were offering prayers to the setting sun as part of the annual Chhath ritual.In the ensuing panic, the victims were crushed to death.Local TV channels report the structure was showing signs of collapse early on Monday.The bridge had recently been built to take pilgrims to the Ganges, which has shifted course.Police say power to the site had failed, which increased the panic of those caught up in the crush.Survivors have been taken to hospital in Patna, the capital of Bihar. The condition of some is said to be critical.The chief minister of Bihar state, Nitish Kumar, had earlier visited the devotees on the banks of the Ganges.The four-day Chhath puja is the biggest religious festival in Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. Tens of thousands of people come to the Ganges to offer prayers to the sun god.The prayer is offered both at the sunset and sunrise time. 18TH November 2012
Human stampedes most often occur during religious pilgrimages and professional sporting and music events, as these events tend to involve a large number of people. They also often occur in times of mass panic (e.g. as a result of a fire or explosion) as people try to get away.
Stampedes in India1. 2011-11-08 At least 16 killed in stampede at festival Haridwar, India2. 2011-01-14 Stampede kills 100 Kerala, Southern India3. 2010-10-17 10 killed in stampede at Indian temple Bihar4. 2010-04-30 Five dead in spiritual center stampede Haryana, India5. 2010-03-04 More than 60 killed in temple stampede Pratapgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India6. 2009-09-10 Five schoolgirls die in stampede New Delhi7. 2008-09-30 Temple stampede kills 147 Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India8. 2008-08-03 145 dead in India temple stampede Himachal Pradesh, India9. 2006-11-03 Temple stampede kills four Orissa, India
The worst stampede in recorded history took place in Chongqing, China, during World War II. Japanese bombing of the city on June 6, 1941, triggered mass panic at an air raid shelter, killing approximately 4,000 people, most of them Worst stampede in the history by suffocation.
In India, stampedes occur regularly during Hindu religious holidays. Called "temple crushes" by the local press, they are often caused by railings giving way as pilgrims climb steep hills to reach a temple.
PreventionIt has been claimed that most major crowd disasters can be prevented by simple crowd management strategies. Human stampedes can be prevented by organization and traffic control, such as barriers. On the other hand, barriers in some cases may funnel the crowd towards an already-packed area (e.g. Hillsborough disaster)
HillsboroughdisasterThe 1989 Hillsborough disaster was a human crush which occurred during the FA Cup semi-final match between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest football clubs on 15 April 1989 at the Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England. The crush resulted in the deaths of 96 people and injuries to 766 others. The incident remains the worst stadium-related disaster in British history and one of the worlds worst football disasters.a different approach was adopted whereby supporters were allowed to enter any enclosure they wished upon arrival. There was no mechanical or electronic means for calculating when individual enclosures had reached capacity. A police officer made a visual assessment before guiding fans to other pens.The 1990 official inquiry into the disaster, the Taylor Report, concluded "the main reason for the disaster was the failure of police control”.
PreventionTherefore, barriers could be a solution to prevent or the key factor to cause a stampede to happen. A key problem is lack of feedback from people being crushed to the crowd pressing behind – feedback can instead be provided by police, organizers, or other observers, particularly raised observers, such as on platforms or horseback, who can survey the crowd, and use loudspeakers to communicate and direct a crowd.
PreventionAt the individual level, warning signs of a crowd crush include density of more than four people per square meter, at which each person is being touched on four sides. To avoid or escape from a crowd crush, one is advised to move sideways, particularly between swells.
PreventionAfter the stampede of Victoria Hall disaster in 1883 a law (still in force as of 2008) was passed in England which required all public entertainment venues to be equipped with doors that open outwards. Crash bars are required by various building codes. 183 children, aged between 3 and 14, were crushed to death in a stampede for the stage when free toys were offered. The disaster is the worst of its kind in British history.
1954 Kumbh Mela stampede1954 Kumbh Mela stampede was a stampede that occurred in 1954 at Kumbha Mela on 3 February 1954 in Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh state in India. It was main bathing day of Mauni Amavasya (New Moon), when the incident took place, and during the festival 4-5 million pilgrims had taken part that year, which was also the first Kumbh Mela after the Independence.The figures for the tragedy varied according to different sources. While The Guardian reported more than 800 people dead and over 100 injured, the TIME reported "no fewer than 350 people were trampled to death and drowned, 200 were counted missing, and over 2,000 were injured". According to the book Law and Order in India over 500 were dead.What triggered the tragedy was that surge of crowd broke the barriers to witness a procession of sadhus and holy men of various akharas, which ended up in a stampede.Note: The subsequent Kumbh Mela organization remained event free after that, and grew considerable in size, so much so that around 60 million people took part in 2001 Kumbh Mela, making it the largest gathering anywhere in the world.
CROWD DISASTERSThe lethal potential of crowds is illustrated by descriptions of major crowd incidents. This sampling shows that crowd incidents occur in a wide variety of venues and different circumstances. Minor incidents resulting in crowd induced falls and other injuries occur much more frequently.
Air Raid ShelterIn 1943 during World War II, 173 persons died of compressive asphyxia and 92 injured in a London Underground air raid shelter after someone fell on a lower level entry stair. Excited by the sounds of bombing, people at the surface continued to press forward. This resulted in tangled mass of humanity on the stair that took rescuers 3 hours to unravel.
Funeral ProcessionUntold hundreds, and possibly thousands, were killed in Moscow, Russia during a massive procession of 3 million people viewing the body of Joseph Stalin after his death in 1953. Army tanks and trucks to control movement of the crowd blocked side streets along the route to Stalins bier. Police and military, some on horseback, beat people with clubs to further control the crowd, even as people were fatally crushed against building walls, the parked tanks and trucks. Horses were lifted off their feet by crowd surges, and also crushed to death.
Sporting Event EgressMajor crowd incidents occur in soccer stadia occur with deadly regularity. Those involving United Kingdom fans have been the most thoroughly documented. In 1971, 66 people were killed and many injured at the Ibrox Park Stadium in Glasgow, Scotland. Fans began to leave the stadium in the last moments of a scoreless match. As the game ended, a goal was scored. The roar of the crowd caused some to attempt reentry, while the mass exited. The resulting conflict caused a pile of bodies "about 10 feet high".
Sporting Event EgressIn 1981, 24 Greek soccer fans were killed in the Athens stadium as a capacity crowd of 45,000 attempted to leave shortly before the end of the match. The fans in the front ranks found the exit gates were locked, but those in the rear continued to press forward. In 1982, 340 people were reported killed at a match in Moscows Lenin Stadium.In 1991, nine persons were asphyxiated in a pileup at the bottom landing of a gymnasium stair at the City University of New York.  A celebrity basketball game was scheduled in the gymnasium, and an excess of people arrived for the well promoted event. Doors at the lower landing entry to the gymnasium opened only outward, in compliance with fire codes. People precariously queued on the stair were driven into the restricted landing and closed doors by crowd pressures from above. Police in the street outside the venue did not establish communications with inside security, and were unaware of the evolving disaster, even though the stair could be seen from the street.
RiotIn 1985 a riot by English and Italian fans in the stands at a European Cup final at Heysel Stadium in Brussels, Belgium precipitated a flight of spectators that resulted in 38 deaths by asphyxia and 437 injured.
WeatherIn 1988 more than 100 persons died and 700 others were injured at Nepals National Stadium in Katmandu. A sudden violent hailstorm caused 30,000 spectators to flee the open grandstand but found the exit gates were locked.
Religious EventsIn 1990, 1426 people were killed in a crowd crush during the annual pilgrimage of 2 million at Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The crush occurred in a 500 m long tunnel joining Mecca and the Tent City of Mina. Temperatures at the time were 44 deg. C outside the air-conditioned tunnel. It is speculated that someone fell in the tunnel blocking movement.In 1986, 46 pilgrims died in Hardwar, India on a crowded bridge across the Ganges River. At the 12-year cycle of the Khumb Mela festival as many as 4 million Hindus gather to bathe in the Ganges.During the 1980 world tour of the Pope, 13 people were killed in two African cities in crowd rushes.
Power Failure In 1981 45 persons died 27 of them children, in the Quitab Minar tower, New New Delhi, India. The 800- year-old tower is a popular tourist attraction and museum. A blackout, combined with what some witnesses said were cries that the tower was falling, triggered a sudden exodus of 300 to 400 people.
Food DistributionIn Bangkok, Thailand 19 persons died as crowd of 3,000 assembled to obtain packages of free food. The crowd was attempting to press through a gate approximately 4m (13 ft.) wide into a meeting hall where the food was being distributed. A contingent of 20 police officers assigned to control the crowd was overwhelmed by the crush.
Escalators and MovingWalkwaysPassenger conveyors have the characteristic of continuously delivering people without regard to outlet conditions. When restrictions at the outlet limit the discharge rate, a pileup will occur. These incidents are of interest because they are not attributable to crowd behavior.In 1964 one child was killed and 60 children injured at the outlet end of a Baltimore, Maryland Stadium escalator. The escalator was set up for egress the day before with a one person wide gate at the top. The escalator was reversed for entry the next day, but the gate was not removed. A pileup resulted at the exit, with many severely lacerated by the moving escalator steps.At the 1970 Japanese World Exposition, 42 people were injured at a moving walkway exit when a passenger fell and others were driven into the pileup.
Entertainment EventsIn 1979, 11 young rock music fans were asphyxiated in a crowd crush outside the Cincinnati, Ohio Coliseum. After 10,000 persons had entered the venue, 8,000 were still waiting to enter the general admission event. Many were waiting for hours with inadequate lavatory facilities. A warm-up band started playing, and the fans outside thought the concert had begun. Only two doors were opened for entry.In 1991, 3 rock music fans died of compressive asphyxia at a festival seating event in Salt Lake City, Utah. Fans standing in an open area in front of the concert stage pressed forward, causing some to fall, and others to be forced on top of them.
Love Parade music festival in the western German
Emergencies, disasters and the human response Issues around exit decision-making What are the factors determining when people actually exit? Key predictors: Information on the nature of the threat (rather than a simple siren) Personalization of the warning (i.e. from friends/family rather than a p.a. system) Important! The biggest predictor of survival is time taken to recognize the emergency and move!
The ‘panic’ model The panic model suggests that the crowd: Is less intelligent than the lone individual Will be driven by simple emotions Responds with irrational behaviour Is a source of ‘contagion’ Survival instincts overcome socialization and collective bonds → ‘every man for
Research on emergency evacuations: Generalconclusions The image of the panicking crowd is overdone The ‘panic’ model should not be used in design, engineering and emergency procedures The evidence is that people exit quicker when kept informed When people don’t help each other it is often due to physical constraints rather than ‘selfishness’.
conclusion Don’t say ‘don’t panic’! A well-practiced drill WTC bombings of 1993 and 2001: after 1993 they had a well- practiced drill (which should include fire wardens who know the building and its exits) In turn: owners/managers need to take the possibility of emergency seriously The formal certification of crowd manager for venues of 500 persons or more is recommended.
REFERENCES Dunne, Laurence R. - Report on an Inquiry into the Accident at Bethnal Green Tube Station Shelter on the 3rd. March, 1943. Min. Home Security Pozner, Vladimir. - Parting With Illusions. Atlantic Monthly Press, 1990, 324pp. Canter, D. (et al) - Football in its Place. Routledge, 1989, 173pp. The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster. Interim report Aug. 1989, HM Stationery Office, 71 pp. Mollen, Milton. - A Failure of Responsibility - Report to Mayor David N.Dinkins on the December 28, 1991 Tragedy at City College of New York. Jan. 1992. Wertheimer, P. - Crowd Management- Report of the Task Force on Crowd Control andSafety. City of Cincinnati, July 1980. Fruin, J. - Escalator Safety - An Overview. Elevator World, Aug. 1988, pp.42-48. Fruin J. - Crowd Disasters - A Systems Evaluation of Causes and Countermeasures. Inc. inU.S. National Bureau of Standards, pub. NBSIR 81-3261, July 1981 146 pp. Fattal, S.G., Cattaneo, L.E. Investigation of Guardrails for the Protection of Employees From Occupational Hazards. Nat. Bur. Stds. NBSIR 76-1139, July 1976, 114 pp. Horizontal Loading on Handrails. NBTC Tech. Rec 514, Nat.Tech. Centre, New South Wales. Goldaber, Irving. Stop Violence Before it Begins. Auditorium News, Oct.1983, pp. 8,9. Lathrop, James - Life Safety Code Handbook. Nat. Fire Protection Assoc. 1991, 1038 pp. Fruin, J. - Pedestrian Planning and Design. 2nd. Ed., Elevator World, Mobile AL. 1987,http://www.mapreport.com/citysubtopics/india-d-3.htmlhttp://..........
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.