Situational Analysis Srirangapur


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Situational Analysis Srirangapur

  1. 1. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APSRIRANGAPUR VILLAGE, KONDURG MANDALINTRODUCTIONKondurg Mandal is one of the 64 Mandals in Mahabubngar District, it is locatedin the northern part of Mahabubnagar District, 3 sides of the Mandal arebounded by Ranga Reddy District. Kondurg is one of the Mandals with largestnumber of Gram Panchayats (39 nos.) The Mandal is located at around 17Degree N latitudes and 78 Degree E longitudes. (see Map 3).Photo 1 Srirangapur VillageThe topography is undulating and dotted with granitic outcrops and sheet rocks.Other features are bushy vegetation, scattered and thorny scrub land,intermittent streams, and few ephemeral tanks all combine to produce alandscape serene and beautiful.
  2. 2. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP Srirangapur VillageMap 1 Villages in Kondurg Mandal 2AFPRO
  3. 3. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APSrirangapur village in Kondurg Mandal is selected for V & A Programme. It islocated towards the eastern part of Kondurg Mandal, Mahabubnagar District. Itis situated at about 12 kilometers distance from Kondurg Mandal Headquartersand 60 kilometers distance from Mahabubnagar town. It lies on the roadconnecting Shadnagar and Pargi. This village has one hamlet called‘Somarampadu’. The nearest town is Shadnagar, which is about 12 kms awayfrom this village. The National Highway No. 7 passes through Shadnagar town.The area around the village has some granitic outcrops, the area is undulating.There is a low order stream passing through the village, over which a chain oftanks are built. The total geographical area is 484 hectares. Although the groundwater resource is good, this is being exploited at a rapid phase.Photo 2 PRA – Villagers participating in the resource mapping – Srirangapur Village 3AFPRO
  4. 4. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APPhoto 3 Resource map of the as done by the villagers – Srirangapur VullagePhoto 4 Participation of people in the awareness through ventriloquism - Srirangapur Village. 4AFPRO
  5. 5. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APSelf Help groups (SHGs), Rythu Mithra Groups (RMGs), User Groups etc areexisting and are functional. There are also village level institutions - Watershedcommittee and Association, Village Organization (VO)1 existing in this village.Good transportation and communication facilities exist in the village and overallliteracy rate is better in this village.SITUATIONAL ANALYSISPopulationThis is a heterogeneous village with representation of people from diverse castesand socio-economic structure. The total population of the village is 923 with 187households.Majority of the villagers belong to Backward Caste (BC) and Scheduled Caste(SC). The Other caste and Minorities are few in numbers. There is no ScheduledTribe (ST) population in this village (see graph 1). 500 POPULATION 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Scheduled Scheduled Backward Other Caste Minorities Caste Tribe CasteGraph 1 Distribution of PopulationWith a population of 923 nos and 187 households this village is relatively small insize. Somarampadu is one small hamlet under this Gram Panchayat. TheSarpanch of this village is a Woman from Scheduled Caste.1 Federation of SHGs at Village level is called – Village Organisation (VO). 5AFPRO
  6. 6. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APThe sex ratio is 951 (Males 473 and Female 450), this is in contrast to the sex ratioof children below 14 years age (Boys 73 and Girls 88), which is high.Majority of the population is occupied with agriculture as primary activity. And90% of the population i.e., 188 people are identified as agricultural laborers. Thepercentage of agricultural laborers is high because majority of them aremarginal and small farmers. Number of Number of non- village artisans agriculture 6% labourers 4% Number of Agriculture Labourers 90%The poorest of the poor (POP) are from the SC and BC community about 14families are identified as poorest of the poor by IKP / VELUGU2 programme.In this village the migration of people is not so high; only 24 people are migratingseasonally and are engaged in construction and agricultural work. The numberof people migrated permanently are just four.2 Indira Kranthi Patham (IKP) / Velugu : This the largest programme supported by World Bank in AndhraPradesh State for poverty alleviation, facilitated by Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty (SERP), underthe department of rural development, Government of Andhra Pradesh. 6AFPRO
  7. 7. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APEducationMogiligidda and Shadnagar are the two nearby places with schools andcolleges, most of the children go to these places for middle, secondary andhigher level education. There are also 6 boys and 8 girls not enrolled in schooland 4 boys and 5 girls are working as wage laborers.About 50 % of the people are literates, of which 62.3 % of them are Males and37.7 % are Females.Self Help Groups (SHGs)Eight Self Help Groups (SHGs) for women are existing in the village, which are stillin primitive and consumption stages. Most of them are involved in agricultureand are yet to take up enterprise activities.Role of women in the watershed programme: women are attending meetingsbut decisions are taken mostly by menSHGs participation in community decision making /activities – Members from thegroups represent but are not able to pursue better for getting an assurance forproposed actions.These are the areas where SHGs need to be strengthened; decision making inagricultural activity could be further strengthened, involving them in non-farmbased livelihood activities (diversification and economic security), moreparticipation for improving the Natural Resources and motivating them forpolitical representation.Health and SanitationThere are only 25 sanitary latrines existing in this village, which would lead tohealth problems as the number of sanitary latrines existing are inadequate. 7AFPRO
  8. 8. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APPoorest of the PoorThere are only 4 poorest of the poor families identified in this village; they couldbe given priority and be brought under the appropriate schemes of theGovernment.Rainfall and TemperatureThe Normal Rainfall of Kondurg Mandal is 639 mm as compared to the DistrictNormal of 604mm. And the south west monsoon is erratic which accounts for themaximum rainfall. This Mandal is also prone to drought as every 3rd year therehad been negative deviation in rainfall from normal (see table below). KondurgMandal is an interior area, with hot summers (Temp. 39 deg C to 41 deg C) andwarm winters (25 deg C to 35 deg C). The summer period is from March to May. Rainfall in (mm) Average NORMALS 639.0 604.7 1999-2000 610.0 460.0 % OF DEVI -4.5 -23.9 2000-01 675.4 668.8 % OF DEVI 5.7 10.6 2001-02 772.6 686.6 % OF DEVI 20.9 13.5 2002-03 585.4 538.9 % OF DEVI -8.4 -10.9 2003-04 699.6 624.0 % OF DEVI 9.5 3.2LandThe land use pattern of Srirangapur village is shown in graph 2. This data is for the year2004-05. Because of successive drought the currant fallows were high i.e., 389 Hectares.There is no land available for Forest and pasture lands. 8AFPRO
  9. 9. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Area under other grazing Land put to more than Area sown pastures and Miscellaneous Current fallow sown (total Cultivable uncultivable agriculture Barren and Permanent cropped Net area and groves tree crops waste once forest non- landGraph 2 Land use particulars in hectares Land Use Pattern Area (Hectares) 2004-2005 Total Geographical area 484 Current fallow 389 Net area sown (total cropped area) 372 Cultivable waste 62 Area sown more than once 32 Barren and uncultivable land 22 Miscellaneous tree crops and groves 7.2 Land put to non-agriculture use 3.2Table 1 Land use patternSoilsThere are mainly two types of soils in the village, Red (60%) and Black cotton soils(40%), Which are suitable for growing diverse crops. SOILS Black soil 40% Red Soil 60%Graph 3 Types of soils 9AFPRO
  10. 10. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APAgricultureAgriculture is the main livelihood activity in this village and also the dependentagricultural laborers are more. Majority of the farmers are marginal and smallland holders. Maize, Cotton, Paddy, Jowar and Castor are the major cropsgrown in this village, which are grown mostly during the Kharif3 season (see graph1 and table 1). CROPPING PATTERN 450 410 400 350 300 280 IN ACRES 250 200 150 100 51 50 25 35 0 Paddy Maize Cotton Castor JowarGraph 4 Major crops cultivation in Srirangapur VillageTable 2 Major Crops Cultivated and their average yields Average Yield per Main Crops 2004-05 in Ac. Ac. In Kgs. Maize 410 5280 Cotton 280 5760 Paddy 54 10800 Jowar 35 1440 Castor 25 3600 Total 8043 There are basically three seasons, Kharif – Rainy, Rabi – Winter, Zaid – Summer. 10AFPRO
  11. 11. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP The major crops cultivated in this village in the last 20 years were basicallycommercial crops Coriander (20 yrs back), Cotton (10 yrs back) and now Maize(see graph ). MAJOR CROPS GROWN Maize Cotton Corriander 390 380 370 360 350 340 330 320 310 300 Present 10 years 20 years 1 ago agoTheir priority had been changing because of market prices, input costs and riskfactors (due to pests). As this village is close to Hyderabad city and Shadnagartown, vegetables are also cultivated like tomatoes, chilies and brinjals. Some ofthe farmers are also growing flowers seasonally. Two farmers are successfullycultivating Marigold, Chrysanthimum and Kanakambaram or rubies which theyare marketing in Hyderabad for good remuneration. There is also one mangoorchard of 2 hectares in this village (see table 2).Table 3 Horticulture - vegetables, fruits, flowers Name of Species No.of Farmers Area (Hectares) Tomato 18 4 Chillies 14 3.2 Brinjal 18 4.2 Kanakambaralu 1 0.2 Mango 1 2 Total 52 13.6Last year, few farmers started cultivating BT-Cotton. Farmers are planning toincrease their BT-cotton cultivating area in the next year too, even though therewere no encouraging yields from BT-Cotton4 grown in other parts of the State.4 BT-Cotton: Bacillus Thurengensis (BT) – Modified cotton crop to control occurrence of Helicoverpa pest. 11AFPRO
  12. 12. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APThe area brought under cultivation has increased in the last 20 years from 680acres to 920 acres (see graph 6). This is due to increase in intensity of cultivation. AREA UNDER CULTIVATION Current (2005) 10 years ago (1995-2004) 1000 920 20 years ago (1985-1994) 900 825 800 680 700 600 Acres 500 400 300 200 100 0 1Graph 5 Area brought under cultivationThe chemical fertilizers use has increased, on an average farmers are using upto5 bags per acre of land. Case Study 1 Mr. G. Ramchandraiaha is a middle aged farmer having 15 acres of land. He is eldest of the four brothers, who are living together as Joint family. They are cultivating Coriander seeds, sunflower, Tella Kusuma (oil seeds), Vama, Cotton, Paddy, Maize, and Vegetables (tomatoes and Brinjals). He is having one borewell source with which he is able to irrigate only few crops and rest of them are rainfed. They use fertilizers like DAP and Urea. Chemical pesticides are mainly used for vegetable crops and cotton. This family has the reputation as hard working and is respected by the villagers.The farmers are satisfied with the outputs from rainfed crops such as Maize,Castor and Cotton grown during the Kharif season (year 2005). Although therewere intermittent rains due to depressions in Bay of Bengal, it appeared that theywould loose their crops but the subsequent weather was favorable, especiallyduring the ripening stage and the crops were saved. Not with the case of Paddyand Jowar, the intermittent rains arrived during harvesting period and they hadto face the losses (see table 3). 12AFPRO
  13. 13. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APTable 4 The crops loss due to intermittent rains – year 2005. Crop Sown Damage Percentage Remarks (acres) d (acres) of yield loss1 Paddy 51 25 50 Heavy rains during transplantation and harvesting period.2 Jowar 35 35 80 The left over grains would be used as livestock feed.Source: Field observations and discussion with farmers (October 2005)The agricultural produce is sold to non-institutional sources without any valueaddition. Although there are Rythu Mithra Groups (RMG)5 in the village, farmersare well organized but are unable to get the extension services effectively.5 Rythu Mithra Groups – These are farmers groups, each consisting of 15 members, formed by thedepartment of agriculture for facilitating farmers, for inputs, loan facilities, revolving fund, marketing,capacity building and accessing other extension services. 13AFPRO
  14. 14. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP Case 2 Mr. Narasimha Reddy is about 45 years old, he owns 12 acres of land. This land was not so fertile with sandy soils. To improve the fertility of the soil, he applied the tank silt from the village tanks and red soil. Subsequently the fertility of the soil improved and he is able to cultivate diverse crops economically. Photo 5 The Kanakambaram plants in the background and prepared fertile soil in the foreground. For irrigation till 10 years back he had an openwell source, which has gone dry. He is using the water from a borewell source to irrigate part of his land. This water source is unable to support all his land so some of the crops are rainfed. Earlier he was growing traditional crops like, small millets (tidalu, sajjalu and jowar) and pigeon pea. The management practices were primarily traditional, was applying Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and compost from sheep and goats. But now he is no more traditional, growing crops like vegetables (tamatoes, brinjals, etc.) chillies, flowers (kanakambaram), paddy, cotton and maize. He is also using the chemical fertilizers (DAP, Urea, etc.) and pesticides. Recently he learnt the vermiculture and producing vermicompost in his field. He is considered as a progressive farmer by the villagers and other villagers follow him. 14AFPRO
  15. 15. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APLand HoldingMajority of the farmers in the village are Small and Marginal and majority of thembelong to backward and scheduled castes (see graph 3 and table 2). The landresources are not distributed equitably, from graph it is evident that other castepeople are mainly large farmers. LAND HOLDING PARTICULARS Marginal Other Caste Small Large Schedule Caste Other Backward Caste Total 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200Graph 6 Land holding particulars Category of Households Land Holdings Marginal Small Large Total Total 64 90 21 175 Other Backward Caste 34 62 8 104 Schedule Caste 26 24 2 52 Other Caste 4 4 11 19Table 5 Landholding size and the householdsLivestockThe availability of common land / grazing lands is one of the limitations forfamilies not having large numbers of livestock. The number of families possessingdairy animals has come down in the last 10 years. The availability of the grazingland has come down very much from 100 acres to 5 acres in the last 20 years 15AFPRO
  16. 16. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP(see graph ). The private commons6 are also protected and are not beingallowed for common grazing. Livestock is also an important asset to cope withdrought situation and difficult times. LIVESTOCK POPULATION 1400 Current (2005) 10 years ago (1995-2004) 20 years ago (1985-1994) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Cows Bullocks Buffaloes Sheep GoatBackyard poultry is a very common activity for majority of the people. The smallruminants (sheep and goats) are possessed by limited number of familiesparticularly with specific community, Golla and Kuruva. There is also priority andpreference by people for engaging in dairying. There is need to createalternative solutions for fodder availability to encourage keeping the livestock.6 Private Commons – Private Land available during off-season, where usually the land owner doesn’t objectto other villages grazing their animals. 16AFPRO
  17. 17. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APWater ResourcesThe irrigation under tanks is very much limited due to non / poor maintenance ofthe existing tanks. There are very few functioning openwells and People aremore and more dependent on the borewells. As a result the number of borewellsare growing every year leading to over exploitation of the meager groundwaterresources. For improving the irrigation sources the following possibilities areexisting:1. Renovation of existing structures or strengthening.2. Creation of proper drainage facilities for water harvesting and treating the water logging areas.3. Desilting of tanks, renovating the feeder channels and drainage lines and removal of vegetation occupying the tank bed.4. Creation of new water harvesting structures at feasible locations.Watershed ProgrammeThe watershed programme was started in this village in 2003. The watershedcommittee has so far received Rs. 8 lakhs fund, about Rs. 6.5 lakhs fund is stillavailable. The works done so far are laying of earth bunds (174.6 mts),constructed 7 masonry checkdams, 79 gully control structures and 450 kgs. ofFodder seed distributed. 15000 saplings were raised in nurseries for afforestationand social forestry and one feeder channel was also dug. Future plans are torenovate 3 tanks with revetment and construct 2 more masonry check dams.There are no conflicts in the village regarding the ongoing watershedprogramme. Watershed Information Srirangapu Name of the Watershed r Funds received by WSC 8,00,000 Balance funds available 6,50,000 Total WDF Collected 1,50,000 Physical and Financial Information Structures completed as Name of the Activity on today 17AFPRO
  18. 18. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP Phy. Fin. (Rs.) Bunding (meters) 174.6 3.17699 Masonary Checkdams (nos) 7 2.58691 GC Works (nos) 79 0.73569 Administrative 0.17563 Fodder development (kgs of seed) 450 0.107 Others A.F/S.F (saplings nos) 15000 0.09303 Feeder Channel (no) 1 0.06 Home seeds 0.060The people have recognized and are aware about the importance of thewatershed programme, therefore there is good participation of people in thewatershed meetings. Greater role should be provided for SHGs in the watershedprogramme to operate as user groups. Overall the watershed programme isgoing on well in all aspects.Graph 7 Resource Map, Srirangapur VillageStatus of water resources, qualitative aspectSurface water - Adequate storage facilities (tanks / ponds) are not created andthe available surface water is not shared judiciously. 18AFPRO
  19. 19. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APGroundwater - About 75% of open wells are dry and/or about 25% of totalborewells are dry. The open wells can be used for recharging the aquifers. Thenumber of borewells for irrigation has increased many times in the last 20 years.Drinking water (DW) - Adequate DW sources are created and shared judiciously.Water is available throughout the year. There are two hand pump borewells,which are also used for drinking water. The village is having an overhead tankand water is supplied regularly through pipes.Soil Moisture - Moisture content improved very little with the implementation ofthe watershed programme and farmers are able to get one secure crop.EnergyMost of the families are still using fuel wood as energy source for domesticcooking, this is causing health problems to women. It also involves considerableamount of time to fetch the firewood too. At the same time to conserveconsumption of fuel wood, there is a need to provide smokeless chullahs.Photo 6 A defunct biogas plantAbout 65 LPG gas connections were provided to 65 families, which are not usedregularly for cooking, because the LPG refilling costs are very high for the families 19AFPRO
  20. 20. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APto afford. Although there are 4 biogas plants in the village, none of them arefunctional. The biogas plants are damaged need to be repaired to make themfunctional.Energy conservation is also an important issue, to save energy (electricity) thereare some options like: The farmers need to install capacitors for all agriculturalborewells, this will not only reduces the consumption of the power, but alsoprevents the burning of motors due to power fluctuations.Lighting is the most essential thing, especially for children’s education, fordomestic and street lighting they could use white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)which are cool, bright and long lasting. On pilot basis some Lighting Modulescould be installed in the village. With them villagers would save the precioussubsidized electricity consumption.As majority of the farmers are marginal and small, the draught animals are still amajor source of energy for agricultural activities and local transportation.Women are spending lots of time and energy for fetching drinking water,fuelwood and fodder, i.e., about 4 hours per day. Women need to walk about 1km for getting the fuel wood for cooking and about 20 years back the distancewas just 0.5 kms. The fuelwood access has diminished over years, because ofexcessive cutting. There is need to improve options in these sectors foravailability and access.Common Pool Resource (CPR)The CPR is very much limited involving community in CPR related activities haslittle scope.Institutions Functioning at Village levelThese are the following government departments or agencies programs /services in the village. 20AFPRO
  21. 21. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APOngoing Programmes• SGRY,• 9th Finance commission,• DPAP / DWMA (2003-04),The total amount allocated till date for the above programmes is 5 lakhs and 50thousand only.Natural Resources Management (NRM) • Agriculture Department / Rythu Mitra Groups (RMGs). • Animal Husbandry • Irrigation Dept (Minor / Medium / Major) • NEDCAP – (biogas plants)Social Aspects • Dist. Rural Dev. Agency (DRDA) / District Poverty Initiatives Programme (DPIP) / Indira Kranthi Patham • DPEP / Education • Medical and Health • SC Corporation • BC Welfare / BC Corporation • Social Welfare Department • Anganwadi / ICDS - Women and Children Welfare • Housing Department – Houses constructed by the government for SCs / BCs / Poor.Services • Civil supplies / Public Distribution system • Rural water supply (Panchayat Raj dept.) • Electricity • Telecommunications / BSNL – Telephone facilities • Artisans - Adarana scheme for artisans – supply of tools by Govt.Infrastructure ExistingThe following infrastructure exists in the village: Water and Soil Conservation Activities 21AFPRO
  22. 22. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP 1. 6 no. of Irrigation Tanks 2. 6 no. of Borewells for drinking 3. 1 Overhead tank 4. Check dams 5. Plantations of saplings Buildings 1. Gram Pachayat Office 2. Primary School 3. Community hall 4. Bus Stop - Shelter along the PWD road (½ km from the village). 5. Mid-day meal center building – near the school 6. Anganwadi building Roads Within the village CC roads are existing and this village is connected to the PWD road, about half km from village. Common Facilities 1. This village is provided Electricity service 2. 1 Library/Resource centre is located in the village. 3. Telephone connectivity (8 connections) existing in this village.Infrastructure gapsWater and Soil Conservation Activities 1. 4 Irrigation Tanks 2. 2 borewell - Hand Pumps for drinkingwater 3. House Hold level connections from overhead tank 4. 4 Check dams 5. Plantation along bunds of 4 Water harvesting strictures 4Marketing Infrastructuure 1 Community grains storage godown 22AFPRO
  23. 23. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APDairy 1 Milk collection center is required in the village.Common Facilities Villagers have requested for Village knowledge center and Automatic weather station.READINESS AND WILLINGNESS OF THE VILLAGERSDuring the focused group discussions the villagers have expressed their readinessand willingness on the following aspects. • Adopting group centered management practices • Watershed programme activities through thrift groups by contributing to works. • Involvement in production enhancement activities • Working on Agriculture based micro-enterprises. • Value addition to agricultural produce • Non-agriculture based micro-enterprises. • Promoting more percolation tanks for rainwater harvesting. • Development of assigned lands • Leasing of land to SHGs by the community • Seed bank and seed improvement • Management of kuntas and tanks • Desilting of tanks/conversion to percolation tanks and reviving community practice of de-silting the tanks • Converting check dams to percolation tanks • Taking up ridge level percolation pits • Taking supply/feeder channels to the tanks and managing them • Use of CPR for tree plantations • Demarcating land for protection (from grazing & tree felling)SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 23AFPRO
  24. 24. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APThis preliminary study is useful in understanding the various types of Resourcesand the ongoing livelihood activities in the pilot village. And based on this studythe following observations were made:Agriculture1. People are traditionally involved in agriculture but there is need for them to adapt to the organic and sustainable agricultural practices.2. Agriculture is the major livelihood activity in this village, hence there is need to give them better skills in on-farm and off-farm related activities• On-farm: Floriculture, Olericulture and Horticulture.• Off-farm: Dairy, Backyard poultry, ram lamb, sheep development, etc.3. Farmer Field School (FFS) concept can be tried to demonstrate the suitable sustainable agricultural practices.4. There is scope to explore traditional knowledge in agricultural practices. PTD can be tried to innovate locally suitable sustainable agricultural practices.5. The villagers need to be mobilized for collective decision in choice of crops and marketing.6. There is no seed bank in this village, a seed bank could be promoted for conserving the traditional indigenous seeds which are resistant to climate variability.7. A grain bank need to be promoted for food security.8. Majority of the farmers are small and marginal, there is a need to provide additional livelihood opportunities for the farmers.9. The black and red soils are suitable for diverse crops.10. Need to adapt scientific methods (like Soil testing) for better management of the soils.11. There is also need to provide with knowledge and technology to improve the existing lands and to bring the fallow lands under cultivation.12. Should have better Marketing linkages / information13. Advise on cropping – choice of crops and management practices, there is a need for better extension of services by the agriculture department.14. There is still more potential for strengthening the farm based activities.15. More working days could be generated under watershed programme16. More credit could be accessed from banks for inputs. 24AFPRO
  25. 25. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP17. There is a lot to improve or work for non farm based livelihood activities, improvement of natural resources to cope in lean season and for food security.Livestock18. The stress period for availability of fodder is during March and July. There is a need to promote alternative measures to mitigate the impact. There is great scope to grow fodder trees on bunds / under social forestry, avenue plantation, etc.19. There is a need to revive the dairy sector. The milk production is directly related to availability of fodder. The farmers are well aware of the leguminous fodder, there is a need to encourage and provide seed and other inputs for fodder improvement.20. Breeding is limited to few months only, between February and March, and October and December months. There is need to improve the overall breeding programme and also to control the seasonal diseases with the help of para-vets yet to be identified.21. There is potential for dairy as supportive livelihood activity, with the storage and transportation facilities existing nearby.22. Options for breed improvement to be explored (tellicherry goats, etc.)Water23. More area can be brought under cultivation through water conservation measures and practices (reduced paddy cultivation, micro irrigation systems, etc.)24. The 14 open wells in the village are not functioning – can be made into the recharge wells.25. There are 6 tanks in the village out of which only 4 tanks are used for irrigation and the total irrigated area is only 18 hectares. Need to renovate the 2 tanks and to increase the capacity of rest of the tanks.26. Under the ongoing watershed programme there is scope for development in the following sectors - fodder development, Agro- and social forestry, horticulture development, promotion of quality of seeds, vermiculture, Sustainable Agricultural methods, non-farm livelihoods, etc and also 25AFPRO
  26. 26. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP Facilitation for silt removal from the village tanks for application in the dry lands.27. Water balance studies can be conducted for calculating the water harvesting potential and ground water exploration. This study is also used as planning and monitoring tool for water management.Energy28. The villagers need to get exposed to the successful case studies elsewhere on energy conservation and alternative technologies.29. Need to revive the defunct biogas plants.30. Villagers need to be introduced to Improved chullahs / stoves for energy conservation, gasifier stove - Anila, solar cookers etc.31. Explore options for installation of Gasifiers based electricity generators – which would work with wasted biomass.32. Installation of White Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in few households for demonstration on power conservation.33. Women are spending lots of time and energy for fetching water, fuelwood and fodder, i.e., about 4 hours per day. There is need to improve options in these sectors – availability and access.Common Pool Resources (CPR)34. There is potential to plant useful saplings all along the 10 acres of land available along the road margins and 7 acres of land along the canal bunds involving women SHGs.Social Capital35. Group centered activities are already going on in this village through SHGs and Rythu Mithra Groups (RMGs) which need to be strengthened further. Through provision of revolving fund the women groups could access the credit for group centered activites.36. Strengthening SHGs by facilitating access to credit and markets through convergence.37. Other CBOs in the village need to be further strengthened and networked at the Gram Panchayat level. 26AFPRO
  27. 27. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APServices38. Establishment of Village knowledge Center and training center on using the computers.39. Establishment of Automatic weather station – for knowledge on the climate variability and weather forecast. Information on anticipated weather.40. More credit should be made available to the villagers through banks and other sources for their activities.41. All the households should have sanitary latrines.42. Similarly the safe drinking water access to be made available to all the households.Livelihoods Diversification43. Alternative livelihood activities: The people in this village are mainly dependant on agriculture as primary activity. As majority of the farmers are marginal and small, there is need for livelihoods diversification by the people. The people need to be provided trainings and skills for adapting to diverse trades. This would also provide additional employment opportunities. People are well aware of the developments in various fields, therefore it is easy for them to diversify and adapt to other livelihood options.44. The women and youth in the village should be imparted trainings in Micro enterprise development.45. Alternative livelihood options need to be provided to the educated youth in the village. For example youth could be trained on electrical repairs (motor winding and pumps) and servicing home appliances.ACTIVITIES COMPLETEDIn Srirangapur village the following activities were completed till date • Awareness through interaction with community and awareness programmes using folk media, songs, puppetry, street plays, etc. • Primary data collection – Structured format and Focused Group Discussions. • PRA exercises for community participation, awareness and information collection (Resource Mapping, seasonality and Transect walk). 27AFPRO
  28. 28. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP • Identification of Pilot Farmers and collection of the agricultural output samples from Pilot farmers. • Grama Sabhas were held and the villagers have taken resolution to participate in this programme. • Case studies (from pilot villages) collected. • Process documentation – record of activities and events in the project villages, video and photo documentation of all the events.ACTIVITIES PLANNED FOR YEAR 2006A. Implementation of the Programme – Field Level Activities 1. Facilitate PTD on agriculture, water and energy for selected farmers and groups 2. Capacity building farmers (on specific best practices1 ) and CBO’s (institutional aspects) 3. Demonstration of location specific best practicesB. Capacity Building, Documentation and Awareness1. Validation and documentation of selected coping practices beyond pilot villages2. Awareness campaign on climate change/variability3. Development of information, education and communication (IEC) material4. Establishment of the Village Knowledge Centers5. Training of weather Managers.AFPROs role will be major with respect to all the above aspects, except for B4and B5 points where it is supportive role to MSSRF. AFPRO will be working togetherwith National and International Consortium partners, through sharing, learningand incorporating the ideas for successful implementation of the V & Aprogramme.All the proposed activities for implementation are in Yearly Plan of Operation(YPO), 2006.Note: 1. All the Participatory Technology Developments will be implemented through Pilot Farmers. 28AFPRO
  29. 29. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP 2. Where ever possible some of the activities will be implemented through convergence with ongoing programmes.ANNEXURESI. SUCCESS STORIES OF NGOs IN ANDHRA PRADESHII. MAPS OF KONDURG MANDALIII. SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS INFORMATION OF SRIRANGAPUR VILLAGE, KONDURGMANDALIV. YPO, 2006 29AFPRO