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Responding to cyclones Lessons learned 3 Aug 11 Program on Cyclone Risk Mitigation and Management Dr. N. SaiBhaskar Reddy, CEO, GEO http://e-geo.org Center for Disaster Preparedness (CDP) Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP
Cyclone A weather system consisting of an area of low pressure, in which winds circulate at speeds exceeding 61 km/hr, also known as ‘Cyclone’ or Tropical Storm.
Cyclones Vulnerability A long coastline of about 7,516 km of flat coastal terrain, shallow continental shelf, high population density, geographical location and physiological features of its coastal areas makes India, in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) Basin, extremely vulnerable to cyclones and its associated hazards like storm tide (the combined effects of storm surge and astronomical tide), high velocity wind and heavy rains.
Thirteen coastal states and Union Territories (UTs) in the country, encompassing 84 coastal districts, are affected by tropical cyclones. Four states (Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal) and one UT (Puducherry) on the east coast and one state (Gujarat) on the west coast are more vulnerable to hazards associated with cyclones.
Tropical Cyclones Most widespread destructive weather hazard For example: Hurricane Floyd (1999) only a moderate level hurricane caused US$5.6 billion in damage in the Bahamas and North Carolina (USA) and 57 fatalities (Left) Three different cyclones spinning over the western Pacific Ocean on August 7, 2006.
Tropical Cyclones Background: Can be deadly! For example, in 1991 a large cyclone in Bangladesh killed >138,000 people in just two days!
How do cyclones form? The above figure shows how cyclones form. The green arrows show where warm air is rising. The red arrows indicate where cool air is sinking.
Cyclone Categories The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina was the most costly and most deadly hurricane in the history of the USA. Category 5 At least 1,836 fatalities Damage estimated at US$ 81.2 billion
What damage is produced? Storm Surge water that is pushed toward the shore by the force of the cyclone winds.
What damage is produced? Wind responsible for the loss of power and utilities wind damage affects larger areas than surge flying debris tree loss
Super Cyclone The super cyclone of October 1999 generated a wind speed of 252 km/h with an ensuing surge of 7–9m close to Paradip in Orissa which caused unprecedented inland inundation up to 35 km from the coast. It is worth noting that, at times, persistent standing water was identified in the satellite imageries even 11 days after the cyclone landfall, as it happened in the Krishna delta in May 1990 and in several other instances. The Andhra Pradesh cyclone in 1977 which hit DiviSeemaalso generated winds exceeding 250 km per hour.
AP state response after 1996 Cyclone In the aftermath of another devastating cyclone that affected the north Andhra Pradesh coast in 1996, the Government of Andhra Pradesh has set up a separate Disaster Management Unit (DMU) to implement the World Bank-funded Andhra Pradesh Hazard Mitigation and Emergency Cyclone Recovery Project (APHM & ECRP), and is currently functioning as the Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Mitigation Society (APSDMS).
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 lays down institutional and coordination mechanism for effective Disaster Management (DM) at the national, state, district and local levels. As mandated by this Act, the Government of India (GoI) created a multi-tiered institutional system consisting of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) headed by the Prime Minister, the State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) by the respective Chief Ministers and the District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) by the District Collectors and co-chaired by Chairpersons of the local bodies. These bodies have been set up to facilitate a paradigm shift from the hitherto reliefcentric approach to a more proactive, holistic and integrated approach of strengthening disaster preparedness, mitigation and emergency response.
National Disaster Management Authority The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), as the apex body in the GoI, has the responsibility of laying down policies, plans and guidelines for DM and coordinating their enforcement and implementation for ensuring timely and effective response to disasters
In essence, NDMA will concentrate on prevention, preparedness, mitigation, rehabilitation, reconstruction and recovery and also formulate appropriate policies and guidelines for effective and synergisednational disaster response and relief. It will also coordinate the enforcement and implementation of policies and plans.
National Disaster Response Force The DM Act 2005 has mandated the constitution of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) for the purpose of specialised response to a threatening disaster situation or disaster. The general superintendence, direction and control of the force is vested in, and exercised by, NDMA and the command and supervision of this force is vested in the Director General of NDRF. Presently, NDRF comprises eight battalions with further expansion to be considered in due course.
National Institute of Disaster Management The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) has institutional capacity development as one of its major responsibilities along with training, documentation of research, networking and development of a national level information base. NIDM will function closely within the broad policies and guidelines laid down by NDMA and assist in developing training modules, impart training to trainers and DM officials and strengthening of Administrative Training Institutes (ATIs) in the state. It will also be responsible for synthesisingresearch activities. NIDM will be geared towards emerging as a ‘Centre of Excellence’ at the national and international levels.
State Disaster Management Authority At the state level, the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) headed by the Chief Minister, will lay down policies and plans for DM in the state. It will, inter alia, approve the state plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by NDMA,
District Disaster Management Authority At the cutting edge level, the District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) headed by the District Magistrate, with the elected representative of the local authority as the cochairperson,willact as the planning, coordinating and implementing body for DM and take all necessary measures for the purposes of DM in the district in accordance with the guidelines laid down by NDMA and SDMA.
Local Authorities This includes Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), PanchayatiRaj Institutions (PRIs), district and Cantonment Boards and Town Planning Authorities for control and management of civic services. These bodies will ensure capacity building of their officers and employees in DM, carry out relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in the affected areas and will prepare DM plans in consonance with guidelines of NDMA, SDMAs and DDMAs
Civil Defence In any disaster, it is the community that is always the first responder. Outside help comes in only later. Training the community and making such response organised is therefore of utmost importance.
Early Warning Systems WMO IMD Hydrological Oceanographic Meteorological satellite data from ships, observations from ocean data buoys, coastal radars (conventional and Doppler) and national and international satellites (geo-stationary and polar orbiting) Automatic weather stations Rain gauges Wind profilers
Community Preparedness EFICOR formed the Disaster Management Committee (DMC) in each target habitation. The DMC has takenup the ownership of community assets (raised borewells pump sets, etc.). The Village level DMC's were attached to a single management structure, called Disaster Management Society. Core members of the Federation were provided necessary training and exposure for managing the future disasters. This federation is also tapping government resources and managing their own programmes. Each DMC in consultation with DMS is mobilizing the available resources from the Govt. and other sources during the time of disaster occurrence. In each DMC at least 2 to 3 women members were nominated. DMC also ensures the consistency of Task force s, periodic mock drill exercises that are to be performed in the habitations in every quarter. DMC also makes sure that there is a review and updation of Task Force and DMC in every 3 years, for active participation from all levels in the habitations.
The Disaster Management Bill, 2005 Disaster Management Act, 2005 The National Disaster Management Authority National Disaster Response Force State Disaster Management Authority DM COMMITTEE DM COMMITTEE DM COMMITTEE DM COMMITTEE DM COMMITTEE DM COMMITTEE DM COMMITTEE DM COMMITTEE District Disaster Management Authority DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT CELL / TASK FORCE / RELIEF AND REHABILITATION CELL MP / MLA ZP CHAIRPERSON DISTRICT COLLECTOR / JOINT COLLECTOR / CEO SC / ST CORPORATION ITDA IEM RDO / SUB-COLLECTOR LAW AND ORDER ENGINEER DM SOCIETY MRO / MDO AGRICULTURE MPTC / ZPTC HEALTH DMC / DMS Organisational Structure DMCs of each village in the area GRAM PANCHAYAT DM COMMITTEE TASK FORCE TEAMS CBOs – RYTHU MITHRA GROUPS, SELF-HELP GROUPS, ETC. FIRST AID SHELTER MANAGEMENT RELIEF RESCUE WARNING
Conducting meeting in the village regarding the possible extent of flood and actions to be taken. Checking of all rescue material. i.e.- bottles, coconut, ropes, thermocoal boats, etc Early warning group preparation Identification of old people, pregnant ladies, kids Identification of high raised place Rice collected from all households First aid material made ready Kept ear on Radio news by warning groups
Announcement in the village Evacuation to safer place to old age people, ladies, kids, sick people & live stock Moved people to safer place (i.e. aged people, pregnant women, children, sick people etc…) Arrangement for temporary shelter Approached Govt. for emergency relief Availed rice and dal from Government for camp. Used EFICOR high raised bore well for drinking water Monitored the Water levels and receding status.
Flood Area survey House damage survey Water logging sites survey Call to govt. medical team for medication Cleaning of Debris and cleaning whole Village. Bleaching powder spreading in water and logging areas House damage assessment Crop damage assessment (both the reports were given to the govt officials, they were so amazed to see that how accurately it has been done. Further the compensation and new houses were sectioned according to this assessment. Relief from Govt. & EFICOR distributed through DMC & Task force Govt. Relief distributed equally in the village Sick people were taken to hospital
How do we mitigate the hazard from a cyclone? Monitoring early warning systems Infrastructure cyclone walls communal shelters Education and planning
Intense tropical cyclone activity has increased in the North Atlantic since about 1970 - Hurricane Katrina, 2005: up to $200 billion cost estimate
Wetlands mitigate impact of tidal surge, cyclones, coastal erosion and tsunamis
What Is a Wetland? Although wetlands are often wet, a wetland might not be wet year-round. In fact, some of the most important wetlands are only seasonally wet. Wetlands are the link between the land and the water. They are transition zones where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients, and the energy of the sun meet to produce a unique ecosystem characterized by hydrology, soils, and vegetation
The frequency of heavy precipitation events has increased over most land areas
Rainfall in Mumbai (India), 2005:
1 million people lost their homes
Cyclonic Storm Laila Cyclonic Storm Laila (IMD designation: BOB 01, JTWC designation: 01B) is the first cyclonic storm to affect southeastern India in May since the 1990 Andhra Pradesh cyclone. The first tropical cyclone of the 2010 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, Laila developed on May 17 in the Bay of Bengal from a persistent area of convection. Strengthening as it tracked northwestward, it became a severe cyclonic storm on May 19. The next day, Laila made landfall in Andhra Pradesh, and it later dissipated over land. It caused flooding and damage along its path. Laila is an Arabic name, meaning Night. It is the worst storm to hit Andhra Pradesh over the last 14 years. The cyclone caused heavy destruction in Prakasam, Krishna and Guntur districts and preliminary reports prepared by the State government put the loss at over Rs 500 crore.
Cyclonic Storm Jal Cyclonic Storm Jal (IMD designation:BOB 05, JTWC designation:05B). Cyclone Jal, is the fifth named cyclonic storm and the fourth Severe Cyclonic Storm of the 2010 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. Jal developed from a low pressure area in the South China Sea that organized into a Tropical Depression on October 28. Jal is a Sanskrit word, meaning water. At least 54 people are known to have been killed in India. As a tropical depression, Jal produced torrential rains over parts of Thailand and Malaysia, triggering severe flooding which killed 59 and four people in the two countries respectively. In Sri Lanka, heavy rainfall with strong winds have caused flooding affecting around 80,000 people. A cyclone warning was issued to the east Indian coasts which were already hit by a strong monsoonal trough that caused severe flooding and killed hundreds of people displacing many more. Storm warning signals were hoisted in Ganjam and Jagatsinghpur districts of Odisha. Over 70,000 people evacuated from four districts of Andhra Pradesh, the authorities provided shelter in relief camps across interior Andhra Pradesh.
Orissa Super Cyclone 1999 Human Lives Lost- 10086 Persons injured - 12507 Population Affected - 15.6 million Houses damaged or washed away - 1.8 million Crop area damaged - 1.8 million hectare Collapse of communication network Administration paralyzed in initial phase
Long term rehabilitation World Bank Assisted US$ 500 million Orissa Cyclone reconstruction Project Project components: Construction of Multi-Purpose Cyclone Shelters Cyclone resistant building construction technology for house reconstruction Community based awareness programmes Training of disaster managers Establishment of disaster task forces at micro level Central, State, District and Local level Disaster Management Plans.
Livelihood restoration integrated in poverty alleviation program
High Powered Committee on disaster management set up,
Five Lessons Learnt in Recovery It is possible to reduce loss of life and property through preparedness Preparedness is necessary at every level – national, provincial, local and community Preparedness is necessary in every sector Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning to ensure better coordination among various sectors in different levels Such planning needs to be formalized in the shape of manuals and Standard Operating Procedures so that there is no confusion during and after disasters
Five principles of recovery Holistic - cover housing, infrastructure, education, livelihood, health, psycho-social care etc. Long term - provide livelihood support including development of skill, provisioning of credit and marketing support etc ‘Build back better’ - ensure that the houses and infrastructure constructed after disasters withstand the hazards and risks of nature and the hazards do not become disasters again Sustainable - integrate environmental issues, such regeneration of mangroves, conservation of water, Inclusive - care for poor and vulnerable - women, children, aged, physically and mentally challenged people
Recovery framework Recovery Pre- Disaster Recovery Planning Sort Term (0 -30 days) Intermediate (1 to 6 months) Long Term (6 m to 3 years)
Unfinished agenda…. India has developed a legal and institutional system of disaster management India has also taken important steps for better response and preparedness Lots to be done for preparedness to match acceptable risks Prevention and mitigation continues to remain weak Early warning of flood and extreme weather events needs lots of improvements Hazard resistant building bye laws notified, but standard of implementation is poor Strengthening of lifeline structures still unattended task Many metropolitan cities have accumulated risks and vulnerabilities that trigger mega disasters in future Country is yet to develop a risk transfer and risk insurance system