Freshwater management in IndiaWater ConservationWatershed managementWater quality conservationInter basin water transferGW managementRecycle and reuse of waterPublic involvement and capacity building
What Is Rainwater Harvesting?RWH technology consists of simple systems to collect, convey,and store rainwater. Rainwater capture is accomplishedprimarily from roof-top, surface runoff, and other surfaces.RWH either captures stored rainwater for direct use (irrigation,production, washing, drinking water, etc.) or is recharged into thelocal ground water and is call artificial recharge.In many cases, RWH systems are used in conjunction with AquiferStorage and Recovery (ASR). ASR is the introduction of RWHcollected rainwater to the groundwater / aquifer through variousstructures in excess of what would naturally infiltrate thenrecovered for use
Why Rainwater Harvesting?Conserve and supplement existing water resourcesAvailable for capture and storage in most global locationsPotentially provide improved quality of waterSupply water at one of the lowest costs possible for asupplemental supply source.Capturing and directing storm water (run-off) and beneficiallyuse itCommitment as a corporate citizen - showcasingenvironmental concernsPublic Mandate (India)Replenishing local ground water aquifers where lowering ofwater tables has occured
Why Not RWH?Not applicable in all climate conditions over the worldPerformance seriously affected by climate fluctuations that sometimes are hard to predictIncreasingly sophisticated RWH systems (ASR) necessarily increases complexities in cost, design, operation, maintenance, size and regulatory permittingCollected rainwater can be degraded with the inclusion of storm water runoffCollected water quality might be affected by external factorsCollection systems require monitoring and continuous maintenance and improvement to maintain desired water quality characteristics for water end-useCertain areas will have high initial capital cost
Collection AreaRainfallDemandPrimary Use (Direct Use, Artificial Recharge (AR) or Aquifer Storageand Recovery (ASR))Storage capacityLevel of Security - risk of the storage tank running dry
Measure AreaRunoff Characteristics • Roof top 0.75 – 0.95 • Paved area 0.50 – 0.85 • Bare ground 0.10 – 0.20 • “Green area” 0.05 – 0.10 Water harvesting potential(m3) = Area (m2) X Rainfall (m) X Collection Efficiency
Quality IssuesRoofs contain:bird droppings,atmospheric dust,industrial andurban air pollution
Operational Procedures and Design Considerations Tar based roof coatings and materials should not be Screen to prevent Lead based paint must not used – Phenolics and otherbirds, animal and insects; be used on the roof; organics can leach from materials If roofs painted with acrylic paints, new concrete or metal roofing - first few Clean the gutters and tank rainfalls should not be every 3 months collected to avoid metals, detergents, and other chemicals
Operational Procedures and Design Considerations Storage tank – dark Tank in protected materials to exclude Corrosion resistant shaded area – lower light and algae materials temperature formation Regional wind direction For multiple storage and industrial activity – tanks – design for Lead, Mercury, other frequent turnover heavy metals
SANDCHARCOALGRAVEL AND SAND THREE 15 LITER TIN CANS, SAND, GRAVEL , TAP AND PVC PIPE
Storage1. Ponds and Reservoirs2. Artificial recharge of Groundwater3. Water Tanks4. Rainwater runoff in surface water5. Rainwater runoff in groundwater6. Rainwater runoff in tanks7. Effluent in surface water8. Effluent in ground water
Jn nurm – URBAN RAIN WATER HARVESTING Tackle water shortage during summers Recharge aquifers Reduced power consumption in pumping water Reduced water logging and flooding in low lying areas Reduced erosion Improved Groundwater quality through dilution. Eg: Coastal areas
Means of water conservation New dams - inter-basin Groundwater - transfer underdeveloped Water savings - Demand increase in Management efficiency, reduce evaporation.Water productivity Virtual water – - increases in Food production crop per drop
Water Conservation…Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of thewater. Water in which the vegetables & fruits havebeen washed - use to water the flowers & plants.At the end of the day if you have water left in yourwater bottle do not throw it away, pour it over someplants.Re-use water as much as possibleChange in attitude & habits for water conservation
Hyderabad RWH POTENTIALThe annual average rainfall in Hyderabad is about 700mm per year, the MCH area is about 170 square kilometers. The amount of rainfall every year on Hyderabad’s MCH area is 118000 Mega Liters per Year (MLY) which is equivalent to 32300 Mega Liter per Day (MLD). The overall installed supply capacities of all reservoirs are 930 MLD. So the amount of rain fall in Hyderabad is more than thirty times the amount the city gets supplied with from the reservoirs. And this is just the rain falling in the MCH area which is less than 20 % of the GHMC area. The question is what happens with these clean, unpolluted water masses falling every year in Hyderabad.
Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)Rainwater harvesting has been made mandatory in all new buildings with an area of 300 sq m or more.Tentative for enforcing this deadline was June 2001.• Mandatory to provide RWH in all Group Housing and Commercial Complexes• Mandatory for all categories of buildings including residential• All existing buildings in Municipalities/Municipal Corporations shall construct rain water harvesting structures within a period of one year from issue of this GO. Competent authority shall insist on implementation of RWH in all layouts and sub divisions for sanctioning the sameAndhra Pradesh Water, Land and Trees Act, 2002Government order for all Municipalities in Andhra Pradesh
Administrative Measures Implementation Technical Incentive s/ PenaltiesMeasur Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad Metropolitan Technical expertses Hyderabad (MCH) has also Water Supply and have questionedtaken made it mandatory to Sewerage Board HUDA norms for RWH provide RWH to any (HMWS&SB) has special structures and believe additional buildings/multi Cells at their office where that injection wells can stories in plots over 300 people can get information be made 5ft deep sqm regarding RWH instead of 6.5ft deep All existing Municipal In critical areas, as prescribed by building were made to HMWS&SB has HUDA undertake RWH within 1 constructed nearly 14,000 year from the issue of RWH structures NotificationShortfall Applications submitted for Government departments 50% RWH by citizens to ask residents to contact subsidy Municipal Corporation of listed contractors who announce Hyderabad (MCH), HMWS claim very high rates d on & SB and Hyderabad Urban Lack of coordination RWH Development Authority between different structures (HUDA) met with no or little Government Departments was lifted response dealing with RWH due to RWH has not spread widely Out of 5,000 applications poor due to non cooperation of submitted, only 500 are response. concerned departments implemented
Incentive for RWH• GO 302 – Andhra Pradesh Revised Building Rules, 2008• Incentives for owners rain water harvesting / recycling of waste water:• The following incentives in terms of rebate in Property tax will be given by the local authority for owners or their successors-in-interest who: Undertake both recycling of waste water and rain water harvesting structures: 10 % rebateDisincentive for lack of Greenery and RWH structures:• If the Greenery development as mentioned in Rule 9.9 is not provided and maintained and Rain water harvesting structures are not provided, 10% of additional Property tax every year would be imposed as penalty by the sanctioning authority till the said condition is fulfilled.
With a base period of 10 years a rainwater harvesting construction could gain an eco-nomic benefit of 1100 INR for the exemplary slum household and 2650INR for the ex-emplary middle class household. It would take about 7 years until the investment costs amortize.