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Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
 

Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)

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    Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft) Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft) Document Transcript

    • INDEX CHAPTER ITEM PAGES CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION I 1-6 ACTION PLAN KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION II 7-12 PROCESS III ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS 13-16 IV POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT 17-30 V MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT 31-42 VI EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES 43-62 VII THE WAY FORWARD 63-66
    • COVERING NOTE TO DOCUMENT TITLED “ CONSOLIDATING AP’S POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN ” Ref: G.O.Ms.No.219, Dated: 07-07-2003 As has been discussed at the meeting of 25-07-2003 convened by the Chief Secre- tary, the present draft document has been prepared for consultations at the State Level before being forwarded to the World Bank and DFID. The primary purpose is to clarify to the World Bank and DFID that AP already has a viable Poverty Eradication Action Plan underway. Apart from the above primary purpose, the document also highlights certain lacunae in the manner in which the Action Plan of the State Poverty Eradication Mission is being operationalised, and which requires urgent and concerted action on the part of other Missions and key Departments for redressal. The institutional linkages outlined, the model for better management of indicators, new methodologies such as disaggre- gated poverty analysis and spatial analysis tools, logical framework approach and a suggested Plan Management and Impact Assessment System (PMIAS) discussed in the present document, provide a framework for Missions and Departments to refine and further evolve their action plans and integrate it with the Log Frame of the State Pov- erty Eradication Mission’s (SPEM) Action Plan. In the process, they will also require to achieve clarity on how they will inter- face with the Poverty and Social Analysis Monitoring Unit (PSAMU) under SPEM. The following factors need to be highlighted in the context of the consolidation process that this document represents: 1. Currently a valid mechanism is required to ensure that the various Missions are meeting and playing their mandated role in providing inputs required for taking forward the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. Appropriate secretariats and exter- nal professional resources and institutional support networks have also to be in place for each Mission.
    • 2. The State Poverty Eradication Mission has to coordinate inputs from other Missions and departments and ensure that their ‘past year performance review’ and ‘ next year plans’ are integrated with SPEM’s own reviews and Annual Plans. This requires SPEM to exercise its prerogatives as the lead Mission for Poverty Eradication and mandate the PSAMU to lead the process. 3. Given the diverse externalities impacting the health sector and the cross-sectoral de- pendencies in achieving targets in health, there is a need to formally constitute a Health Mission (From the point of view of the Action Plan, the assumption adopted is that the Department of Health, Medical and Family Welfare has been functioning in a Mission mode.) 4. While the draft document has identified a few sets of intermediate and final indica- tors, Missions, in consultation with the Departments and other bodies falling within the scope of their mandate, will have to identify the necessary range of indicators re- quired by their Sectoral Action Plans. In the process, they also have to identify appro- priate Annual Review mechanisms aligned to SPEM’s Year-end Review - and Next Year Plan process. 5. To complete the Sectoral strategies and plans, linking indicators, professional support is required to put this in the logical framework approach. 6. The PSU has made valuable learnings in the process of drafting this document, and is willing to deploy these learnings and its resources in continuing to play a facilitation role in taking forward the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. The last section of the document outlines the steps for the Missions and Departments to take the consolidation process forward to a ‘Final’ Action Plan, which reflects a partici- patory process and which, in its Annual and Five year cycles, truly incorporates community- level, Mandal-level and District-level plans. The PSU thanks the Chief Secretary, Principal Secretaries, Commissioners and Offi- cials of various departments in supporting the Programme Support Unit’s efforts in draft- ing this document. S.P.Tucker, IAS Coordinator - PSU
    • CHAPTER I CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN
    • CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN BACKGROUND The State of Andhra Pradesh has a total geographical area of 27.44 million hectares. Out of a total population of 7.5 crore, the rural population com- prises 5.5 crore. As a part of the State’s As a part of the State’s poverty eradication plan, a large number of poverty eradication Women’s Self Help Groups have been formed (with a total savings of over plan, a large number of Rs.1500 crore) and networked into federations. Each of the 45,000 habita- Women’s Self Help tions today has at-least one Self-Help Group. The membership of Self- Help Groups have been Groups is estimated to cross 8.5 million from the present 6 million in the next formed (with a total few years. savings of over Rs.1500 The extreme poor in the State, including the disabled, child labour crore) and networked and other disadvantaged sections, are being organised under a programme into federations. with special focus termed VELUGU. The Velugu Programme includes the Dis- trict Poverty Initiative Project (Velugu Phase–I, with a Rs. 593 crore outlay) and the A.P. Poverty Reduction Project (Velugu Phase– II, with a Rs.1486 crore outlay). Velugu proposes to cover 30 lakh families. The state has initiated plans to develop 10 million hectares of ‘wasted’ lands or dry lands, which are also pockets of acute rural poverty. Alongside, pro- grammes such as the DFID-supported Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Pro- gramme (which has joined the ongoing Watersheds Programme) have been taking forward the need for diversification and non-farm activities and also bringing previously marginalized sections within the ambit of Sustainable Natural Resources Management-based developmental initiatives. The Liveli- hoods Approach thus becomes the focus of the 20,000 proposed watersheds in the State, of which more than 7,500 are already underway. The Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the poor (APUSP) is a Rs. 745 crore DFID-supported programme already under implementation in 32 urban cen- tres (Class I Towns). The Project covers poverty eradication, livelihoods, envi- ronmental and infrastructure issues through participatory processes for as- sessing needs. The Programme learnings will be scaled up to cover the poor falling under all the urban local bodies in the State. PSU-APRLP 6
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN As a result of the initiatives of Swarna Andhra Pradesh and Janmabhoomi, rural poverty in Andhra Pradesh has come down to 11% and urban poverty to 26.6% ( Lakdawalla Methodology). The total number of people being covered by anti-poverty initiatives is much more than that indicated in the lead programmes of Velugu and APUSP. This is especially so since the multi-pronged approach to poverty eradication has led to poverty-focused strategies and actions in various sec- The progress being tors, where, too, inclusion in programmes is based on Participatory Identifica- made by Andhra tion of the poor (PIP). Pradesh in addressing The progress being made by Andhra Pradesh in addressing poverty poverty effectively is effectively is on account of holistic strategies for pro-poor growth and an in- on account of holistic tegrated Poverty Eradication Action Plan. strategies for pro-poor To facilitate the integration of resources and achieve convergence, growth and an inte- AP has strategically addressed poverty issues through four key Missions grated Poverty Eradica- (the Poverty Eradication, Water Conservation and Utilisation, Literacy, tion Action Plan. and Employment Generation Missions) and a focused approach in the De- partment of Health, Medical and Family Welfare. Each of these Missions, along with the Departments, Commissionerates and special initiatives contrib- uting to achieving their goals have set targets and identified indicators. These were integrated into the Poverty Eradication Strategy of the State Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM) and the resultant Action Plan. However, it has been the State’s strategy to have a dynamic ap- proach to the operationalisation of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. This is essential for optimal plan cycle management and effective feedback for corrective steps, where required. The process also ensures that the plan moves through the appropriate stages in becoming truly participatory. In or- der to achieve these objectives, the government has, in 2003, initiated steps to consolidate the Poverty Eradication Action Plan and outline the way for- ward from the critical juncture it has reached. The consolidation process will facilitate: a. Enhanced synergy among various Missions and Departments and clarify their linkages. 7 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN b. Build a stronger sense of ownership among all stakeholders in the State’s Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan. c. Find agreement on key indicators, both intermediate and final. d. Facilitate mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation that are participa- tory. e. Create an enabling environment for inclusive policies and mid-course cor- rections. Processes have been f. Integrate the Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan more effec- initiated based on clear tively with the budgetary process. understanding of the g. Align various sectoral reforms with the Poverty Eradication Strategy and purpose, for further in- goals tegrating sectoral strategies and Action h. Achieve role clarity, and define the stake and contributions of various Plans with the State constituents in the Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan. Wide Action Plan of the i. Create a conducive and transparent environment for the Union Govern- Poverty Eradication ment’s initiatives in Poverty Eradication and also for initiatives by Donor Mission. Agencies / Lending Agencies, and their closer alignment with the State’s goals and Strategy in Poverty Eradication. Processes have been initiated, based on a clear understanding of the purpose, for further integrating sectoral strategies and Action Plans with the State- Wide Action Plan of the Poverty Eradication Mission, keeping the fol- lowing guidelines in mind: 1. As with the Poverty Eradication Strategy, the Action Plan assumes Sector Wide Approaches and Mission Mode, and the institutional implications of this needs to be further clarified. 2. The plan horizon for each sector shall be of five years, with Participatory Annual Reviews and Social Audits. 3. At each stage of review, Intermediate Indicators shall be used to ap- praise performance vis-à-vis Five Year Plans, Millennium Development Goals and Andhra Pradesh is Vision 2020. 4. The Action Plan for each sector shall have a Communication Strategy that addresses the needs of participatory processes. PSU-APRLP 8
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN AP’s POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN LEAD MISSIONS AND THEIR MAJOR OBJECTIVES STATE POVERTY ERADICA- WATER MIS- EDUCATION EMPLOYMENT GENERA- DEPT. OF HEALTH, MEDI- TION MISSION SION FOR ALL TION MISSION CAL & FAMILY WELFARE o To develop a clear vision o Conservation o The primary o To develop a vision and o Every person will have for poverty eradication and and judicious goal of the strategy for employ- access to responsive ba- recommend strategies for use of water state is to in- ment generation and to sic healthcare and spe- time bound achievement of in the State. crease over- prepare a time bound cialised healthcare at this vision. all literacy action plan for imple- affordable prices. o To formulate levels from mentation of the same. o Take measures for ensuring the current o Women will have safe convergence of all sectoral - Effective 54% of the o To suggest measures to and successful pregnan- plans and programmes. plans and population to derive synergy of the cies. Infant / child mortal- methods for over 95% plans and programmes ity due to ailments like o Ensure technical updation conserving wa- before 2005. of various departments ARI and diarrhoea will for sustainable development ter working directly or indi- be reduced drastically. of the poor. o Special focus rectly for employment - Time-bound on the back- generation. o The spread of AIDS will action plan for ward and less be contained o Suggest time bound and conservation of specific measures for em- literate areas o Advise on institutional water of the State. and organisational ployment security, food se- o Communicable diseases curity and universal provi- o To implement mechanisms for effec- like Malaria and TB will sion of health care, drinking the conserva- o Universalisa- tive implementation of be effectively prevented. water, housing and elemen- tion and use tion of Ele- the Action Plan for em- tary education among all of water with mentary edu- ployment generation. o Families will be small and poor households. the co- cation. better spaced. Equitable ordination of o Regularly monitor and access to quality health o Effective implementation of all function- o During the oversee employment care will be ensured. the entitlements and rights ally related next 3 years generation action plans Health sector will be of the poor. Especially of departments. take adult in the State and advise equipped to deliver women, the scheduled literacy, on the future steps to be quality services for non castes., scheduled tribes, the o To carry-out through the taken. communicable diseases backward classes and the water conser- Akshara and trauma and injury minorities. vation pro- Sankranthi o Initiate public debate cases. grammes eco- Programme, on important policy is- o Promote social mobilisation: nomically to sues related to employ- o Life expectancy levels the self-help and other func- 105,00,000 ment generation and will reach 68 years for tional groups as the princi- o Encourage Adult illiter- build consensus for pol- males and 70.6 years for pal mechanism for poverty local people’s ates. icy reforms related to it. females from the current eradication. participation 62 years and 64 years in water con-oAdequate o Advise on Human Re- respectively. o Provide guidance on the servation infrastructure source Development best practices in the national and socio through institution build- o Enhancing technical effi- and international spheres. o Monitor and economic con- ing and suggest a ciency of key programs assess con- ditions to be framework for optimum and clinical effectiveness. o Advocate and recommend tinuously the c r e a t e d utilization of the infra- suitable pro-poor policies water conser- through con- structure available for o Ensuring micro/macro and ensure adequate budg- vation pro- certed sus- training on a continuous economic effectiveness in etary allocation. grammes tained and basis and identify fresh the use of resources multi pronged requirements of infra- o Monitor periodically. o To obtain the action. structure and the re- o Improving quality of people’s sources for training. care/consumer satisfac- views and o To use mod- tion suggestions ern technol- o To facilitate manpower on the ways, ogy to im- planning in key sectors o Assuring systems for long- means and prove deliv- of the economy. term sustainability. methods in ery of high respect to quality edu- o To identify and advise water conser- cation to un- on the regulatory as- vation. reached ar- pects of training. eas. 9 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN Source: Vision 2020 Swarna Andhra Pradesh Source: Vision 2020 Swarna Andhra Pradesh PSU-APRLP 10
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS At the Millennium Summit in September 2000, the states of the United Nations reaffirmed their commitment to working towards a world in which sustaining development and eliminating poverty would have the highest priority. The Millennium Development Goals grew out of the agreements and resolutions of world conferences organized by the United Nations in the past decade. The goals have been commonly accepted as a framework for measuring development progress There are 8 Goals / 17 Targets and 49 Indicators. The Goals and Targets are given below. 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target for 2015: Halve the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day and those who suffer from hunger. 2. Achieve universal primary education Target for 2015: Ensure that all boys and girls complete primary school. 3. Promote gender equality and empower women Targets for 2005 and 2015: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015. 4. Reduce child mortality Target for 2015: Reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate among children under five 5. Improve maternal health Target for 2015: Reduce by three-quarters the ratio of women dying in childbirth. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Target for 2015: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. 7. Ensure environmental sustainability Targets: • Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environ- mental resources. • By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water. • By 2020 achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. 8. Develop a global partnership for development Targets: • Develop further an open trading and financial system that includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction – nationally and internationally • Address the least developed countries’ special needs, and the special needs of landlocked and small island developing States • Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt problems • Develop decent and productive work for youth • In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries • In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies – especially information and commu- nications technologies. 11 PSU-APRLP
    • CHAPTER II KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS
    • KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS LEVERAGING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT AP has a highly enabling environment, the aspects of which include: 1. A definite pro-poor policy focus. 2. A government committed to inclusive policies, governance reforms and harnessing ICT and other tools for greater transparency and re- sponsiveness. 3. A large number of Self Help Groups whose networking has created a tremendous opportunity for building social capital 4. A clear cut vision (Vision 2020) which covers Millennium Development Goals and exceeds their targets and also identifies the growth en- gines and reforms that support Poverty Eradication Strategies. SWARNA ANDHRA PRADESH—VISION 2020 1. a. 1999 • Andhra Pradesh takes stock of its standing on key points • Vision 2020 is initiated. • Growth engines identified b. Fourteen Cabinet Sub-committees constituted. • Strategies for realizing Vision 2020 goals evolved c. AP recognizes Poverty Eradication as a core element of socio-economic development d. Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan aligned with the people-owned Janmabhoomi movement e. Poverty Eradication Action Plan put in Mission mode with sector-wide approaches f. State Poverty Eradication Mission to lead the Action Plan g. Other key Missions are: 1. Employment Generation Mission 2. Water Mission (NRM & Environment) 3. Education-For-All Mission h. Department of Health, Medical and Family Welfare works in a Mission mode. i. Sectoral Strategies, Approach Papers and Action Plans drawn up. • Convergence, Participatory process, Gender and other Equity issues become dominant themes 2. Poverty Eradication Action Plan linked to macro-economic policies, Planning and Budgetary processes. • Public Investment Programme focusing on pro-poor growth 3. Reforms in various sectors and Juridical initiatives to strengthen Poverty Eradication Action Plan 4. 2003 Consolidation Process of Poverty Eradication Action Plan initiated: • Review of progress • Adoption of Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System • Establishment of Poverty Monitoring and Social Analysis Unit (PMASU) • Creation of Logical Framework for Action Plan and move to Project-based approaches • Disaggregated Poverty Analysis, better models for managing indicators and agreement of Intermediate and Final Indicators • Processes for taking the plan forward as a true People’s plan through participatory tools. PSU-APRLP 13
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS In this context, it is important to bear in mind that AP’s human and other resources have the potential for an economic surge similar to that of the South East Asian Countries. The Poverty Eradication Action Plan is therefore integrated with the State’s overall growth plan and stresses the following: RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH • Human Capital Development • Developing Social Capital of the poor • Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods • Focus on backward Mandals ALONGSIDE, WE HAVE TO ENSURE • More inclusive policy • Access to assets and markets • Public Investment Programme on Education, Health, Transport/ Infrastructures and Communications • Initiatives targeting Insecurities and Vulnerabilities of the poor and mechanisms for social protection LINKING WITH GROWTH ENGINES The expression “Pro-poor Growth” is being preferred to ‘Poverty Reduction’, because it focuses on the key driver of Poverty Eradication. Growth- en- hancing reforms matter a lot for Poverty Eradication, provided, of course, that non-income dimensions of poverty are strongly reflected in policies, strategies and actions. The Janmabhoomi initiative has created a very powerful plat- A PRO-POOR GROWTH STRATEGY form and is a powerful leverage for all sectors in the Poverty REQUIRES, AMONG OTHERS Eradication Strategy of AP. It provides a thematic setting for • Strong incentives for investment convergence and the execution of the communication strategy (more capital per worker). essential to the success of the Action Plan. Sectoral Action Plans • Fostering trade and business link- have to reflect how the Janmabhoomi Platform will be lever- ages for faster transfer of knowl- aged synergistically. Aligning on a common platform, along edge. with other elements of the Action Plan, will also address the criti- • Policies and investments for inter- cism of AP’s Poverty initiatives being fragmented and having nal market integration. avoidable redundancies and duplications. 14 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS • Increased external economic integration. • More competitive agricultural markets. • Reducing spatial disparities in Infrastructure (In this context, at the macro plan level, it is worthwhile to relook policies on the manufacturing sector.) From Garments and Leather products to Medicinal Herbs and Agro-services, over 40 areas have been identified as pro-poor growth engines. In one way or another, these areas also find a place in Vision 2020 as the engines of The growth of social GSDP growth. The Sectoral and Sub-sectoral Action Plans and the State- networks in AP has wide Action Plan for Poverty Eradication have to now establish clear links been remarkable and with these engines of growth. This will also facilitate positive responses in the State has succeeded embedding the Action Plan in the budgetary process. in organising a range of LEVERAGING AND STRENGTHENING groups based on needs and programmes, etc., SOCIAL CAPITAL which has led to accu- The growth of social networks in AP has been remarkable and the State has mulation of social capi- succeeded in organising a range of groups based on needs and pro- tal. grammes, etc., which has led to accumulation of social capital. The State’s move from an individual beneficiary approach to group based approaches has been a key element of its Poverty Eradication Strategy and has pro- moted collective action of the poor and augmented greater participation and more bargaining power for access to developmental resources. THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS OF THE ACTION PLAN HAS TO ADDRESS THREE ISSUES IN THIS REGARD 1. The routing of development resources through groups has the attendant risk of the very poor being excluded. However, the State has begun ad- dressing these issues through DPIP, APRLP and APUSP initiatives. Sectoral Action Plans could use the learnings of these initiatives and adapt their practices for ensuring participation and coverage of the very poor. 2. Social Capital being a critical resource in Poverty Reduction Actions, the Poverty Eradication Action Plan has to make provisions for investment in social capital and incorporate, over time, indicators for monitoring social capital along with other socio-economic parameters. PSU-APRLP 15
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS POVERTY MAPPING 3. The Poverty Eradication Action Plan The most critical and important milestone in rural poverty reduction is to identify the target poor. In addition to the in its consolidation needs to incorpo- Govt. of India using the Participatory Poverty Assessment rate steps to maximize the potential of approach, Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP) was Self-Help Group through: done. Tools like Transect Walk, Social Mapping, Vulnerabil- a)) Training Needs Assessment based ity Analysis, Disability Mapping and Well Being Analysis were used to collect information and identify the poorest of on their productive and reproductive the poor and the poor through community participation. workload. b)) Leverage the SHG movement for Capacity Building and consequent POOREST OF THE POOR POOR strengthening of Social Capital • Can eat when they • Not possessing land c) ) Utilize SHGs as a platform for sen- get work, part of • Can live on daily wages sitization and action on gender and social support from the State. • School going children are sent other equity issues. for work • No shelter No proper clothing • Can get some credit • Cannot send chil- • Not able to repay debts dren to school • No proper shelter • Cannot get credit • No respect in the society Spatial distribution of SHGs Number of SHGs per habitation Dec 2001 Number of SHGs per habitation 5 20 50 183 APRLP Mandals Other Mandals National highway State highway Railway N 0 10 20 km DPAP 16 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS The circled areas are pockets of ex- treme female literacy Poverty. PARTICIPATORY IDENTIFICATION OF THE POOR (PIP) AS A PLANNING TOOL PIP is emerging as the dependable tool not only for identifying the poorest of the poor, but also the spatial distribution of concentrated poverty pockets. Plotting infor- mation generated through PIP, using GIS tools and cross mapping it with information on related indicators in health, education, etc., creates a Geographic Management Information System on Poverty. This provides a critical Decision Support System to AP’s two-track approach in poverty eradication, facilitating priority-based and fo- cused action in chronic, high intensity poverty pockets. PSU-APRLP 17
    • CHAPTER III ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS 18 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS POLICIES FOR PRO-POOR GROWTH It is observed that, the ability of the poor to earn higher incomes will depend on three factors: (1) Growth factor: the production potential of the economy; (2) The employment factor: that is, the extent to which potential growth en- hances the employment potential. How the increased demand for labour gets split up between the quality and quantity of employment depends on the na- ture of the growth process that is employment intensive; (3) the integrability factor: that is, the extent to which the working poor are able to integrate into economic processes so that, when growth occurs and employment potential expands, they can take advantage of such opportunities. If growth and em- ployment opportunities are such that the capabilities they demand do not match the capabilities of the poor, then either non-poor workers will seize the opportunities or they won’t be seized at all. Lack of integrability may also result from market failures, especially failure of the credit market, poor in- frastructure, and lack of information. ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT AND NETWORKS The Vision 2020 document of Andhra Pradesh states that around 18-20 million new jobs will have to be created by 2020 in Andhra Pradesh to achieve its goals. Presently around 70 per cent of the workers are dependent on agriculture. By the year 2020, only 35-40% of the workers are expected to be dependent on agriculture in the state. It means that significant job opportunities need to be created in other sectors of the economy in the state. Macro-economic (GSDP) growth emerges as the foremost indicator of the success of our pro-poor growth strategy. The micro-enterprise growth plan of the State has private stake holding built into the model as a major influencer. The government shall encourage private-public sector partnership models, with the aim of enhancing private investment. Efforts are under way to promote activities based on growth engines and sub-sectors identified on the principle of comparative advantage. The network of SHGs and their Federations are seen as a ‘potential producer’ as well as a ‘consumer’ of produce and the SHGs have reached a stage where they are looking for new business propositions with their huge un- utilised savings. PSU-APRLP 19
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS SELECTED GROWTH ENGINES SEMI-SKILLED POPULATION/ILLITERATES EDUCATED UNEMPLOYED Sector Activity Sector Activity Primary 1. Agro-processing and services Primary 1. Agricultural services 2. Vegetable cultivation, processing and 2. Agriculture extension trading 3. Input supply marketing 3. Horticulture and floriculture 4. Produce marketing 4. Sericulture 5. NTFP processing Secon- 1. Handicrafts (including Handlooms) Secon- dary 2. Leather tanning and goods dary 3. Stoneware & ceramics 4. Cement & construction material Tertiary 1. Rural services Tertiary 1. IT enabled services 2. Paramedics and Paravets 2. Tourism and hospitality 3. Transportation 3. Education and health care services 4. House-keeping 4. Business and financial services (including micro-finance, micro-insurance etc.) Basically the pro-poor growth should be labour intensive. Economic growth is necessary for Poverty Reduction. A pro-poor development Strategy requires more than economic growth alone. The impact of growth on poverty depends also on the character or pattern of growth. For growth to have the biggest impact on poverty, policy makers need to complement macroeconomic and adjustment policies with equity-enhancing sectoral and redistributive meas- ures. These include policies to foster more agricultural development and faster development of small and medium enterprises. MONITORING & EVALUATION, REVIEW AND MIDCOURSE CORRECTIONS The way Monitoring and Evaluation processes are incorporated in the Action Plan will make all the difference to its effectiveness. Through the PIP initiative of DPIP, AP has formalized the participatory approach to poverty mapping. The question in the Action Plan process is to see how PIP (Participatory Identification of Poor) can help us to use analyti- cal tools in its context and take the Poverty Eradication agenda forward. This has a synergy with how Social Capital can energise the agenda. 20 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS The process of consolidating the Action Plan should enable us to re- think the policy implications of PIP and social capital resources. In terms of the structuring of the Action Plan, a critical implication of this is for the Monitoring and Evaluation processes. Currently, different initiatives, departments, etc., gather large amounts of data from the community level which are archived without feed- ing back into management decisions or policy. The M & E process in- corporated into the Ac- The Action Plan has to address this by incorporating MIS nodes at all tion Plan should have critical interfaces and institutionalise feedback cycles that translate into Deci- clear-cut provisions for sion Support Systems at various levels, and also as a Policy Resource and State-Level Reviews tool for midcourse corrections where required. and be supplemented The M & E process incorporated into the Action Plan should have by workshops and other clear-cut provisions for State-Level Reviews and be supplemented by work- initiatives to realize the shops and other initiatives to realize the vision of a Learning Community. vision of a Learning The process will also respect that Poverty is not a static concept and Community. that participatory poverty mapping will alter indicators over time. The M & E process should also be able to evaluate the performance of engines of growth at the macro level vis-à-vis their impact on Poverty Reduction. CONTINUITY, LEARNING, PROCESS DOCUMENTATION Missions, Departments and Commissionerates are coordinated by various Ministries. Processes have to be in place to ensure that the strategies and Action Plan benefit from mechanisms for continuity in implementation. This requirement in continuity also extends to the consolidation of individual and collective learnings. A key requirement in this area is Process Documentation. Process documentation not only consolidates learnings in an experiential mode, but also serves to reflect upon the how of things and communicate experiences and best practices to other constituents / actors of the Poverty Eradication Plan. PSU-APRLP 21
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS Process documentation also translates the significance of their work to all the personnel of Departments, Missions and Commissionerates, beyond mere statistics, in a motivating fashion and in the context of the larger picture spanning all sectors. The role of Process Documentation in implementing the Action Plan has to be stressed and seen as different from Annual Reports / Progress Reports. Process documentation PROGRAMME-PROJECT MODES AND ADDRESSING not only consolidates REDUNDANCIES AND DUPLICATIONS learnings in an experi- ential mode, but also Chapter 2 (2.8) of the Draft Tenth Five-Year Plan of the Government of In- serves to reflect upon dia mentions that “the rapid growth in the number of schemes also entailed the how of things and an undesirable build up of unproductive cost on administration and expendi- communicate experi- ture”. Though it has been remarked that A.P. too has a significant amount of ences and best prac- redundancy/duplication in its Poverty Eradication Programme, programmes tices to other constitu- such as the APRLP (Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) ents / actors of the Pov- and Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor (APUSP) have already be- erty Eradication Plan. gun an alternative approach of joining ongoing programmes and bringing to them extended scope, holistic agendas and also new and best practices, apart from other resources. The success of these experiences also hold yet another important point for AP’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan. This is the need to implement programmes in the Project Mode. This has critical value in optimising re- sources, effective planning and better evolution of outcomes. The broad heads discussed above are critical saliences and coordi- nates which should guide the consolidation of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. 22 PSU-APRLP
    • CHAPTER IV POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT MACRO POLICY AND LEAD INSTITUTIONS In order to give concrete shape to its poverty eradication approaches and to realize the Vision 2020 goals, the State Government constituted a State Level Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM). The SPEM is a committee of government officials and representatives from research institutes and civil society, whose role is to coordinate and provide guidance on poverty SERP focuses on the reduction efforts in the state. very poor and communities not The SPEM’s strategy paper in 2001 lists a broader set of measures to covered by previous reduce poverty, which include: poverty reduction a. Generation of faster growth, especially in agriculture; initiatives, and also acts b. Promotion of health and education services; as a forum of advocacy c. Enhancing social capital through Self Help Groups (SHGs) for the formulation and d. Promoting sustainable livelihoods of the poor; implementation of pro- poor policies, plans and e. Focusing on backward regions and poorer sections of the society; and programmes. f. Improving the administrative machinery in order to improve the delivery services for the poor and promote greater convergence of social development and other poverty-focused programs in the state. The State government has promoted the Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty (SERP) to facilitate implementation of the strategies and approaches by SPEM. The Velugu-I Project, known during its pilot phase as the AP-District Poverty Initiative Programme (AP-DPIP), and currently known as the Velugu-II or AP Rural Poverty Reduction Project (AP-RPRP), is implemented by SERP, with special emphasis on empowerment of poor through social mobilization and institutional building, capacity building and research. It focuses on the very poor and communities not covered by previous poverty reduction initiatives, and also acts as a forum of advocacy for the formulation and implementation of pro-poor policies, plans and programmes. PSU-APRLP 24
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT While SERP focuses on rural poverty, needs of the urban poor are specially catered for through the APUSP or the AP Urban Services for the Poor project. The APUSP basically addresses urban poverty issues through Slum Improvement Programmes (SIPs) in several towns and cities governed by Municipal Corporations and Municipalities. In addition to the above initiatives, poverty issues are also addressed through the Water, Employment and Literacy Missions and the Dept. of The selection of poor at Health and Family Welfare. the community or The Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) under the household levels has Water Mission is concentrating its efforts in the same locations developed undergone several under the Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP). The APRLP initiatives are positive transitions from systematic in their approach with special emphasis on community ad hoc identifications participation and empowerment to identify, design and implement livelihood through baseline study options. approaches to Participatory Poverty IDENTIFYING THE POOR Appraisal (PPA). The most critical and primary task before the state government and the agencies entrusted with poverty eradication goals has been to identify the areas that need attention, and the target communities or individuals who need to be included in the designed programme. While the selection of districts to plan and implement pro-poor initiatives is still mostly done on the basis of SC / ST population concentrations, the selection of poor at the community or household levels has undergone several positive transitions from ad hoc identifications through baseline study approaches to Participatory Poverty Appraisal (PPA). DISTRICT PRIORITISATION Poverty is a manifestation of several inter-related factors. During the early days, district selection for poverty eradication programme implementation was taken up more on the initiatives of an area representative on some limited criteria or parameters. Later, with the definition of “Poverty Line”, the selection of districts was based on the concentration of BPL (Below Poverty Line) households generated from baseline surveys. 25 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT However, with the process for below poverty level enumeration always being under a grey cloud, the need to identify districts on a more logical set of parameters or indicators became imperative. In line with the approach proposed here, it may be logically assumed that the positive development scenario in a better off district is due to a ripple phenomena set off by the abundance of one or two resources. A graphic analyses of data to demonstrate the relationship between impact of development and backwardness is given below: PSU-APRLP 26
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT CLUSTERING OF DISTRICTS WITH THEIR SALIENT FEATURES 27 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT APRLP INNOVATIONS FOR AREA SELECTION The Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) has adopted innovative techniques to identify its priority Mandals. Focusing on watershed development as the main canvas for its operations, APRLP has utilised the Poverty Atlas, a Remote Sensing Database and a Socio-economic Database. Since APRLP seeks to consider people’s livelihood situations in their entirety, it has sought to integrate the indicators identified through the above- APRLP seeks to mentioned sources and develop indices of Natural Resources Degradation and consider people’s Multiple Deprivations. The watershed analysis carried out by APSRAC livelihood situations in (Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Applications Centre), giving the four their entirety. modified categories of Natural Resources Degradation, and the Multiple Deprivation (also called social and material deprivation) categories are given equal importance. When integrated, they generated sixteen typologies (Box – 1). Prioritisation of areas to be selected was based on these typologies, with areas categorised under typologies 1, 2, 3 and 4 receiving the highest priority in addition to areas which confirm to typologies 5, 9 and 13 as they have high poverty incidence irrespective of the natural resource status. The process of area selection is further strengthened by the use of nine-point selection criteria (Box – 2). Weightage is given to each of these nine parameters based on marks allocated for different manifestations of these parameters. The final selection of areas for implementation is also supported through qualitative observations as a ground-truth verification exercise. Box – 1 : Deprivation Typologies Box – 2 : 9 Point Selection Criteria for Selection of Micro Watershed Areas Adopted by APRLP Typologies 1 – 4 Very high NRM deprivation with high, medium • Percentage of small and marginal farmers moderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Percentage of SC / ST holdings Typologies 5 – 8 • Percentage of women organised in SHGs and Medium NRM deprivation with high, medium participating in programme moderate or low levels of poverty respectively Typologies 9 – 12 • Status of ground water Moderate NRM deprivation with high, medium • APSRAC prioritisation moderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Livestock population Typologies 13 – 16 • No. of families affected / involved in migration Low NRM deprivation with high, medium moderate or • Contiguity of proposed low levels of poverty respectively • Availability of fallow / wasteland & CPR for the poor to utilise usufruct PSU-APRLP 28
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT THE AP-DPIP INITIATIVES The AP-District Poverty Box – 3 : Indicators for BPL Identification Initiative Programme (AP- 1. Size of operational holding of land 2. Type of house DPIP), in particular, has 3. Average availability of normal wear clothing (per person in pieces) extended beyond the scope of 4. Food security 5. Sanitation GoI guidelines by adopting 6. Ownership of consumer durables 7. Literacy status of the highest literate adult the PIP approach in tandem 8. Status of the household in labour force The PIP process is 9. Means of livelihood with the routine BPL survey 10. Status of children (5-14 years) (Any child) used with sufficient based on the 13 GoI 11. Type of indebtedness from household Preference 12. Reasons for migration care to ensure total recommended indicators for assistance community (Box – 3). Separate BPL lists participation through are prepared using the BPL survey as well as the PIP process and the lists preliminary rapport are compared to shortlist the common households. While the disaggregated establishment, information on these indicators is used for identifying the poorest of the poor informal meetings and the marginally poor sections of the community, aggregated information with key community from these indicators is used for policy formulation. members, community meetings, sharing of Using the Participatory Poverty Assessment approach, specifically the information and PIP (Participatory Identification of the Poor) process, DPIP has adopted tools involvement & like Transect Walk, Social Mapping, Vulnerability Mapping, Disability approval of the Mapping and Well Being Analysis to gather the required information that village panchayats. helps identify the poorer households. The PIP process is used with sufficient care to ensure total community participation through preliminary rapport establishment, informal meetings with key community members, community meetings, sharing of information and involvement & approval of the village panchayats. Till the 31st March, 2003, DPIP has managed to undertake PIP exercises in 14, 585 villages spread across 792 Mandals in 16 Districts. PRO-POOR GROWTH STRATEGIES UNDERLYING THE ACTION PLAN Andhra Pradesh undertook many reforms in the last seven years. They are: fiscal reforms, power reforms, governance reforms and institutional reforms. The objectives of these reforms are to step up economic growth and alleviate poverty while protecting the environment. Reforms are underway in the power and irrigation sectors for expanding their capacity by improving efficiency and cost-recovery. 29 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Significant strides have been made in respect of participatory management of land, water and forest resources through the watershed development committees, water user associations and joint forest management. Women’s Self-Help Groups are a success story in the State and have formed a central element in the Strategy for poverty eradication through social mobilization, community empowerment and capacity building. These reforms will yield significant results in course of time and will Women’s self help facilitate realising the Goals of the Action Plan. groups are a success The reforms reflect the State’s strategies for achieving MDG’s by story in the State and 2015 and eradicate poverty by 2020 through a focus on the following have formed a central policy areas: element in the Strategy for poverty eradication ECONOMIC GROWTH through social mobilization, community The distance between AP and all India and fast performing State’s widened empowerment and in the post-reform period on account of weak social and economic capacity building. infrastructure. Therefore, the State is increasing capital outlays substantially to build up infrastructure. AGRICULTURE The experience of developing countries shows that agricultural growth is considered as pro-poor because the majority of the poor are dependent on this sector. Agriculture has been an area of strength for AP but has not received adequate priority in the last two decades. At the aggregate level for agriculture, the following policy issues are focuses for higher growth: (a) Augmenting the investment in agriculture and rural infrastructure; (b) Improving the quality and reach of technology dissemination, particularly in rain-fed areas; (c) Re-examining the legal framework for land-leasing to ensure adequate safeguard for both the tenants and the landowner, as this is likely promote greater investment in agriculture; (d) Providing an enabling environment to facilitate the farmers to benefit from the emerging opportunities thrown up by the liberalization and globalisation; PSU-APRLP 30
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT (e) Aggressively pursuing diversification in agriculture to optimise income and employment (f) Focusing on non-farm employment opportunities, by promoting appropriate agro-based processing industries; agro-based processing industries; (g) Promoting rapid rural growth in drought-prone and rainfed areas of the State. In these areas, horticulture, forestry and livestock will play a larger role. Basically, this signifies high priority for irrigation, agricultural research, especially in biotechnology focused on dry land farming, extension services and ensuring access to institutional credit for resource-poor farmers. NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (WATER MISSION) Vision 2020 document of the State of Andhra Pradesh has accorded prime importance for the devel- opment of agriculture, targeting an overall growth rate of 5.7 per cent. Six major “growth engines” have been identified for the sector (Watershed development, Agro services, Oilseeds, Vegetables, Spices and Dairy). Strategies for development of agriculture feeds into three major missions viz. Wa- ter Mission, Employment Mission as well as the Poverty Mission. Further the activities of eight govern- ment departments are being coordinated under the popularly known programme Neeru–Meeru (Water and You). • Under a 10-year perspective watershed development plan from 1997 to 2007, it is aimed at de- veloping 10 million ha wastelands. • A rainwater harvesting space of 0.71 bcm (25 tmc) has been created, resulting in additional an- nual groundwater recharge of about 6.09 bcm (215 tmc). There is focus on community mobilisation and production enhancement through: • Formation of 2 lakh Rythu Mitra User / Self-Help Groups. • 1 million acres of land to be brought under horticulture with drip irrigation systems, further in- creasing water use efficiency and reducing water demand, contributing to the objectives of Water Mission. • Productivity increase in Oilseeds is being pursued by the Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses and Maize. • Livestock and rain-fed farming systems support each other very well. Feed and fodder, and the relations between livestock and management of natural resources are addressed as being of cru- cial importance for sustainable livestock production. 31 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Conservation of surface and groundwater has become imperative. This is best achieved when water and power are priced according to the volume of consumption. Involvement of rural communities is essential in setting user charges as well as for assessing individual consumption. INDUSTRY Slow industrial growth has been an area of concern. Strengthening infrastructure, such as, power, roads and ports, expansion of institutional There is thrust in policy credit for small scale and rural industries, and good governance by cutting framework in AP down delays in giving clearances and reducing corruption stand out towards making IT an prominently as areas of reform for attracting private investment domestic as enabler in development well as foreign. and equalizer of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY opportunities. There is thrust in policy framework in AP towards making IT an enabler in development and equalizer of opportunities. With the spread of education and decentralization of governance, IT can become a powerful tool in the hands of the people at large for their socio-economic betterment and overall empowerment. LABOUR - INTENSIVE PATTERN OF GROWTH One of the main elements of pro-poor growth is labour intensive pattern of growth. In all the sectors (agriculture, industry and services), there is a focus on increasing employment. Given the problem of unemployment for edu- cated and unemployment and underemployment for the masses, twin strate- gies for improving the livelihoods are developed. The first sub-strategy aims at rural and urban masses that are illiterate/semi-literate, unskilled, and semi-literate/skilled. The second sub-strategy addresses the problems of educated unemployed. It will be on Selected Growth Engines and Clusters for these two categories. The current strategy of social mobilization for watershed develop- ment aims to be sustained in the long run by making land use more remu- nerative through new dry land technologies and the development of infra- structure. PSU-APRLP 32
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT POLICIES FOR FULFILLING TARGETS IN NON-INCOME DIMENSIONS OF POVERTY A. SOCIAL SECTOR EXPENDITURES The trends in social sector expenditures in A.P is positive. The Social Sector, is defined as the total of expenditure on ‘Social Services’ and ‘ Rural A.P. spent around 6 to Development’ as given in Central and State budgets. The head ‘Social 11 per cent of its GSDP Services’ includes, among other things, education, health & family welfare, on the social sector in water supply and sanitation. The expenditure under the head ‘Rural the last two decades. It Development’ (which is listed under ‘Economic Services’ in the budget may be noted that the classification) relates mostly to anti-poverty programmes. A.P. spent around impact on the outcomes 6 to 11 per cent of its GSDP on the social sector in the last two decades. It in social sector depends may be noted that the impact on the outcomes in social sector depends on on both and the both expenditures and on the effective utilization of these expenditures. effective utilization of these expenditure. B. EDUCATION There are three issues that the State is addressing in improving literacy and primary education in the State. First, is resources allocation to education particularly to primary education from the budget. Second, the quality of education in terms of curriculum, better infrastructure and improvement of teaching. Third, retaining children in the schools which is more difficult than enrolling them. The A.P. government has designed schemes such as ‘Mabadi’ (our school), ‘Chaduvkundam’ (back to school) and akshara sankranti to improve access to children and women of disadvantaged communities. Retaining of children in the schools needs intensive institutional arrangements such as social mobilization of the community on child labour and education. Such attempts are being made successfully at the micro level. 33 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT EDUCATION FOR ALL MISSION Vision 2020 of Andhra Pradesh states that "Andhra Pradesh will not be just a literate society, but a knowledge society capable of meeting the challenges posed by the 21st century. It will be a state in which every person will be able to realise his or her full potential through access to edu- cational opportunities regardless of the class or region to which he or she belongs". To achieve the goals of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) and Universalisation of Adult Education (UAE), Government of A.P has constituted a State-level-Education-for-All Mission. The Mission’s objectives are: • To review the existing situation in the state in regard to literacy. • To identify areas of strength and critical areas of weakness. • To review all ongoing programmes relating to universalisation of elementary educa- tion and adult literacy in the state and suggest measures for coordinating, integrating and strengthening them to achieve the best results. • To suggest measures to control dropout rate, promote retention, and improve quality at both primary and secondary levels in schools. • To draw upon the best national and international practices in literacy and school edu- cation identify new strategies and approaches to achieve the Vision 2020 objectives in the state. • To draw up a coordinated plan for promoting education among disadvantaged groups, in particular girls, minority communities, SCs and STs, Girl Child in remote tribal areas. C. HEALTH Great stress has been placed on improving the major element of public healthcare, i.e. the Primary Health Centres. Hospital Advisory Committees have been created and active public healthcare system managements. PSU-APRLP 34
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Public expenditure on the health sector is beng increased. It is not enough to allocate more resources to the sector. The efficiency of public spending is also being improved. More resources are being spent on preventive care. Poor benefit more from this. Primary healthcare services are being made accountable to the local communities. The share of private sector in the total health care sector is high and has increased over time. One cannot ignore, therefore, the role of private sector in the State. Efforts are on Primary healthcare to make the private sector accountable to the poor. The Government is services are being planning to promote institutions to regulate the private sector. made accountable to the local communities. HEALTH (DEPT. OF HEALTH, MEDICAL AND FAMILY WELFARE) AP’s Vision 2020 is succinct and challenging in the goals it sets for the health sector. By 2020, the state aims at: • Achieving health indicators of international standards / levels • Stabilize population growth To realize the Vision 2020 goals, AP’s health sector focuses on the following priorities: 1. Universal access to primary healthcare 2. Specific programmes to promote family welfare, particularly, the health of women and chil- dren and family planning. 3. Focusing on improving health status in disadvantaged groups and backward regions. 4. Ensuring a strong prevention focus 5. Enhance the reach and performance of the public health system. 6. Formulation of a state IEC (Information, Education and Communications) programme, including leveraging the electronic media. (Contributing to disease prevention, control, nutrition, sanita- tion, personal hygiene and fitness) 7. Free health care access (basic and specialized) for poor and vulnerable groups and health in- surance for other sections for access to these services. 8. Major diseases such as TB, malaria and HIV/AIDS to be contained and prevented. 9. Eliminate malnutrition. 35 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT The need to promote community health insurance schemes (e.g. SEWA’s scheme) in order to provide health services at low cost to poor is a priority. D. FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY PROGRAMMES Major programmes that improve food and nutrition security are Public Distribution system (PDS), Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), and Antyodaya Anna Yojana. PDS improves food security at household level while ICDS helps in increasing nutrition of women and children. Antyodaya Major programmes that Anna Yojana improves the food security of destitutes. improve food and These programmes are being strengthened in order to reach the benefits to nutrition security are the target population more effectively. In all the above pro-poor policies, the Public Distribution special problems of disadvantage sections of SCs and STs are recognized. system (PDS), Integrated Child URBAN POVERTY Development Services (ICDS), and Antyodaya Large -scale rural to urban migration of populations in search of more secure Anna Yojana. livelihoods triggers urban poverty. Unskilled labour force living in unorganised slums and working as manual labourers in construction jobs, as domestic servants and as odd-job contract labour lead pathetic lives. While some of these migrants reach urban settlements lured by the opportunities to earn quick incomes, a large segment of rural to urban migrants are forced to come to the urban areas due to severe drought conditions, causing loss of livelihoods. In addition to causing high pressure on the planned civic amenities, the migrants, especially the women and children, are exploited in every conceivable way by vested interest groups. Unfortunately, there is a lack of appropriate processes to measure and document the inflow of migrants, whether seasonal or permanent. PSU-APRLP 36
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Concerning identification of the urban poor, the APUSP project has also adopted similar procedures by gathering information on seven non-economic parameters. Each parameter consists of six attributes indicating the condition from ‘worst’ to ‘better’. Accordingly, weightage scores are assigned to each attribute, i.e. from ‘100’ (worst condition) to ‘0’ (better condition). Thus, a household scoring an average of 100 will be given top priority under the programme Plan. Example of Household Rating for BPL Qualification by APUSP Parameter Attributes Score 1. Roof Asbestos 60 2. Floor Bajri 80 3. Water No water supply 100 4. Sanitation Community dry latrine 80 5. Education level Middle pass 60 6. Type of Employment Semi skilled 80 7. Status of Children in a House Working & attending 80 Literacy classes Sometimes ----------------- Total 540 ----------------- Average weighted score for a household = 540 / 7 = 77.1 i.e., future beneficiary 37 PSU-APRLP
    • CHAPTER V MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT
    • MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT APPROACH TO THE PLAN The last decade of the 20th Century has seen a visible shift in the focus of de- velopment planning from the mere expansion of production of goods and services, and the consequent growth of per capita income, to planning for en- The State has adopted hancement of human well being. This approach is most succinctly captured in a Plan Cycle Manage- the MDGs (millennium development goals) adopted by the United Nations in ment Approach and its Millennium Declaration. Similar to MDGs, the Tenth Plan, for the first time, created a Logical sets monitorable targets for the Tenth Plan period (2002-07) and beyond. Framework for its Pov- Some of the major targets at the national level are: (1) Reduction in poverty erty Reduction Action ratio by 5 percentage points by 2007 and 15 percentage points by 2012; Plan. (2) Providing gainful and high-quality employment at least to the addition to the labour force over the Tenth Plan period; (3) All children in school by 2003; all children to complete 5 years of schooling by 2007; (4) Reduction in gender gap in literacy and wage rates by at least 50 per cent by 2007; (5) Reduction of infant mortality rate (IMR) to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 28 by 2012; (6) Reduction of maternal mortality rate (MMR) to 2 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 1 by 2012. The Vision 2020 docu- ment of the GoAP reflects these goals. Andhra Pradesh’s Poverty Reduction / Eradication Strategy and Action Plan have emerged from this background. The State has adopted a Plan Cycle Management Approach and created a Logical Framework for its Poverty Reduction Action Plan. PSU-APRLP 39
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT 40 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT INDICATORS OF POVERTY AND TARGETS A baseline assessment of well being for A.P. that builds on the MDG’s, aug- mented by the development goals of Vision 2020 as well as the national de- velopment goals of the Tenth Five Year Plan has been done. Some of the in- dicators that emerged through this process are given in the table below. These serve as the intermediate indicators of the Action Plan Log Frame and will be refined/replaced/augmented as the Draft Plan progresses towards the Final Action Plan. Table: Selected Indicators and Targets for Andhra Pradesh Indicator in Vision Development Goal AP:MDG Indicator 2000 or closest 2020 in 2015 year 2020 Poverty and Nutrition Head count poverty ratio 21.6* 13.1 0 Under nutrition under age 37.7 24.6 Reduce 5 malnutri- tion Child Labour 9.98 or 25 0 Universal primary Net enrolment ratio 90.3 99 100 education (primary) Students reaching from -- 95 90 grade 1 to grade 5 Literacy rate (7+) 61.1 99 Reduce child Infant mortality rate (per 66 23.3 10 1000 live births) mortality Under five mortality rate 85.5 30.3 20 (per 1000 live births) Improve maternal Maternal mortality ratio 154 75 -- health (per 100,000 live births) Source: World Bank (2003) except head count ratio for 2000. * Deaton adjusted estimates. PSU-APRLP 41
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT MONITORING OUTCOMES AND INDICATORS The log frame approach to the Poverty Reduction Action Plan is not a simplis- tic force-fit of Goals, Targets and Indicators into prevailing formats of Logi- cal Frameworks for development projects. It is rather, an adaptation of a conceptual framework and enlarging its scope to encompass the complexities of a Statewide Action Plan which subsumes sectoral Action Plans, District Ac- tion Plans, Mandal Level Action Plans and community Level plans. It also pro- A Statewide Action vides for managing Intermediate Indicators in relation to targeted outcomes Plan which subsumes across annual and other time horizons. Sectoral Action Plans, District Action Plans, The Action Plan Log Frame, therefore, has features that go beyond a Mandal Level Action conventional log frame and deploy management tools and strategies which Plans and Community do not fall in the scope of standalone projects. Critical aspects, therefore, Level plans. include: a) Combine the principles and best practices of Large Enterprise Man- agement and Good governance. b) A plan Cycle Management strategy that employs PERT/CPM Tools, which make it possible to integrate sectoral, sub-sectoral and District Plans into the Statewide plan. c) Adapt develop Enterprise-wide tools specific to the state for Re- source Planning, Management Information System and Forecasting. d) Institutional Change Management and ‘Business Process Reengineer- ing’ to ensure that the system is optimally geared to execute the Ac- tion Plan. These and other aspects of the plan emphasize the need to harness universally valid management strategies and Tools with the clear understand- ing that governance and the Development field are not isolated islands of esoteric practices immune to management science. Equally much, the Log Frame approach takes into account that the execution of the Action Plan itself will alter the socio-economic realities it addresses. 42 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT The Action Plan, therefore, unfolds across a dynamic and complex en- vironment, where changes in social structures, both desirable and dysfunc- tional, have to be accounted for. In fact, given the complex social fabric of the state, cultural factors and social change have to be part of the Action Plan’s anchorages and references. The State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan, in assonance with the above, provides for sectoral plans, District plans, Mandal plans and Commu- The Log Frame ap- nity level plans to go beyond mere econometric modeling and incorporate proach to the Action social capital and planned social change (Caste, gender and attitudes/ Plan, in order to realize perceptions/practices in other areas which have a direct or indirect causal its true potential, is relationship with poverty) as critical elements. This is especially so in the Com- complemented by a munity level, Mandal and District plans that emerge from and feedback into Plan Monitoring and Im- the State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan. pact Assessment Sys- The Log Frame approach to the Action Plan, in order to realize its tem. true potential, is complemented by a Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System. The Monitoring and Impact Assessment System of AP’s Poverty Reduc- tion Action Plan assumes the following in common with its strategy and Log Frame: a) The Poverty Reduction Action Plan has to synergies with the overall state plan and the Government of India’s Five Year Plans. b) The Draft Action Plan has to become a “People’s Plan” in its final form, through Participatory Processes. c) It has to account for social change and social capital, however dif- ficult these may be to monitor. d) It has to be the key driver of the “bottom-up approach” to for- mulate inclusive macro policies and planning for pro-poor growth. It has to have, as an integral element, plan cycle management and provide for two-way feedback cycles, spanning all MIS nodes of the Action Plan dendogram, essential for midcourse correction. PSU-APRLP 43
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT Although the main objective of the monitoring system is to trace the progress in outcomes and impacts, both final (outcome and impact) and inter- mediate indicators (input and output) are to be tracked. Monitoring final in- dicators helps to judge progress toward the goals set. But final indicators are the result of several factors, many of which are outside the control of policy makers and programme administrators. Intermediate indicators, on the other hand, generally change as a result of actions by the Government and other Participatory Plan Moni- agents. Moreover, final indicators generally change slowly over time while, toring and Impact As- intermediate indicators change more rapidly, giving an indicators with which sessment is part of the is happening to some of its determinants. process of integrating stakeholder participa- Participatory Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment is part of the tion not only in planning process of integrating stake holder participation not only in planning and im- and implementation but plementation but also in reviewing the progress of plan implementation and also in reviewing the evaluating outcomes. Such plan monitoring and Impact Assessment System will progress of plan imple- facilitate Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) and becomes a Learning, mentation and evaluat- Capacity Building and Empowerment tool too. ing outcomes. In this context, it has to be noted that the Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System (PMIAS) mooted in the Action Plan is a conceptual frame- work which will have to be made concrete through further processes. The conceptual framework for the PMIAS stresses the following. · Going beyond monitoring inputs and outputs, to also focus on out- comes. · Incorporate the logical consequences of participation being a continu- ous process and, therefore, the need to go beyond “snap shots” and quantitative parameters. 44 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT • Identify mechanisms to assess the extent of facilitation by field staff for community participation. • Processes for data capture that translate the PMIAS also into a decision support system and a key component of MIS at various levels. The Action Plan addresses the multi-faceted nature of poverty, and the scope for analyses it affords facilitates actions plans of missions, depart- The PMIAS mooted in ments and districts, with step-by-step approaches to operationalization, ca- the Action Plan facili- pacity building needs assessment, focus of stakeholders role clarity and an- tates for primary stake- nual plan to achieve short term targets based on intermediate indicators. holders a major stake in The PMIAS mooted in the Action Plan facilitates for primary stake- planning and implemen- holders a major stake in planning and implementation. The key tenet is that tation. The key tenet is communities must be empowered to take steps at their level and very poor that communities must and other marginalized / resource poor sections have to be enabled to join be empowered to take in the deliberations and negotiations. Participatory methodologies, stake- steps at their level and holder role analysis, wealth / poverty ranking etc., create the spaces for this. very poor and other The PMIAS mooted in the Action Plan facilitates for primary stake- marginalized / resource holders a major stake in planning and implementation. The key tenet is that poor sections have to communities must be empowered to take steps at their level and very poor be enabled to join in the and other marginalized / resource poor sections have to be enabled to join deliberations and nego- in the deliberations and negotiations. Participatory methodologies, stake- tiations. holder role analysis, wealth / poverty ranking, etc., create the spaces for this. The Action Plan’s PMIAS also tries to correct the prevailing trend of secondary stakeholders trying to gather information for decision making, and in its place suggests primary stakeholder empowerment for planning imple- mentation and monitoring through social audits. PSU-APRLP 45
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT The Community-level generation of information should be cross checked through Random Audits at the District Level to ensure accuracy and validate the processes. The Government and Secondary stakeholders have to “Manage” the statewide Action Plan and its components by utilizing the PMIAS. In the AP Scenario, the Janmabhoomi initiatives create such capacities In the AP Scenario, the and an enabling environment for primary stakeholder’s empowerment and Janmabhoomi initiatives “People’s Planning”. create such capacities Sectoral lead actors and various departments and other constituents and an enabling envi- of the Action Plan have to have six-monthly initiatives to consolidate learn- ronment for primary ings through the PMIAS and from pilot initiatives and NGO initiatives to stakeholder’s empower- benchmark best practices and introduce new practices. In tandem with Annual ment and “People’s Plans, departments have to undertake comprehensive reviews and introspec- Planning”. tions, and carry out Annual Random Evaluation of outcomes and processes. PARTICIPATORY MONITORING PARTICIPATORY MONITORING The MIS IMPACT ASSESSMENT SYSTEM (PMIAS) nodes sustained by the PMIAs, spatial ANNUAL PLANS ANNUAL PLANS planning and critical evaluation of the FIVE YEAR STATEWIDE PLAN FIVE YEAR STATEWIDE PLAN NEXT YEAR PLANS NEXT YEAR PLANS previous years plan FIVE YEAR TARGETS along projected ver- INTERMEDIATE INDICATORS FINAL INDICATORS sus actual outcomes TARGETS VISION 2020 GOALS VISION 2020 GOALS MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT analysis, can enable ANDHRA PRADESH STATE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDG) 2015 ANDHRA PRADESH STATE GOALS (MDG) 2015 the next year’s plan to be drawn up with more insight. STATE WIDE ANNUAL PLAN SECTOR WIDE ANNUAL PLAN DEPARTMENTAL ANNUAL PLAN DISTRICT ANNUAL PLAN MANDAL LEVEL PLAN COMMUNITY LEVEL PLANS & PMIAS 46 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT The Poverty and Social Analysis and Monitoring Unit (PSAMU) will, in this scheme, function as a macro-level integrate of PMIAS feedback cycles and also analyze and monitor social change and social capital on institutional linkages and the dependability and efficacy of MIS nodes at various levels. PSU-APRLP 47
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT The PMIAS suggested by the Action Plan also helps manage indicators through appropriate disaggregations at different levels. Aggregate state- level indicators of the State-wide action plan can be effectively disaggre- gated so that they become extremely sensitive to community-level and dis- trict-specific contexts. Further, different sectoral plans will also be able to disaggregate indicators (eg. by geographic areas, geo climatic zones, gen- der, caste, etc.) and measure the functionality of its disaggregation type The purpose of the stra- through the PMIAS. A key feature of the PMIAS will be its ability to handle tegic Action Plan is then qualitative and quantitative data and link data requirements to evaluation to identify the correct methods. lever to adjust, by how much, and when and to OPERATIONALISING THE ACTION PLAN. assess or monitor The Log Frame approach enables the Strategic Action Plan to be converted whether the desired to tactical and operational management, by following the steps of Project outcome is being ob- Cycle Management. The macro-framework for strategic action plan provides tained. an overview of the PCM process. It suggests that at the four levels of plan- ning, balancing loops provide the key intervention areas. The balancing and reinforcing loops in the framework explain the dynamic nature of PCM. A “big picture” is necessary to be understood for setting “lever” targets to achieve the desired outcome at each level. The “levers” in the framework are the critical points that can be adjusted for the desired outcome. The frame- work also provides the dynamic linkages via loops to all other factors that affect the targets and outcomes. The purpose of the strategic Action Plan is then to identify the correct lever to adjust, by how much, and when, and to assess or monitor whether the desired outcome is being obtained. PROCESS DOCUMENTATION FOR STRENGTHENING AND SUSTAINING THE ACTION PLAN Reducing poverty requires multi-pronged action on various fronts and close coordination between different departments. Effective implementation of the PRAP will therefore require concerned departments to work closely and to understand each others activities as partners. It also requires us to look at outcomes, to understand processes and to revise them based on past experience. 48 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT Current methods of documentation and existing monitoring and review systems that are based on outputs are unlikely to support this. Reporting on quantitative outputs does not allow us to reflect on mistakes made in the past. Annual reports that provide figures on expenditure incurred over the last financial year do not allow us to understand why the expenditure was incurred, how effectively the money was spent and what lessons were learnt in the process. To become wiser about the impact of actions and practices APRLP, a complex, requires us to carefully and systematically observe and reflect on key multi-level programme, processes, to consult others and learn how to steer them. has initiated a process APRLP, a complex, multi-level programme, has initiated a process documentation system documentation system to create information flow and allow for coordination to create information between different project levels and to learn from past experience. This flow and allow for model has great relevance for AP’s Poverty Eradiation Action Plan (PEAP). coordination between APRLP is documenting its processes at the grassroots level to provide different project levels details of how project activities are being carried out to improve programme and to learn from past effectiveness, increase adaptability to grassroots problems and to serve as experience. This model an authoritative source of reference for continuity, training, and has great relevance for accountability. Learning from process documentation will also be used for AP’s PEAP. mainstreaming APRLP pilot initiatives effectively within the ongoing State watershed programme. Over a period of time such documentation provides a record of exactly how the activity was conducted. Instead of residing in a few people’s minds, details of important processes can now be accessed by anyone in the project. Newly recruited persons can now have easy access to how activities are to be performed, the quality of work expected from them and how they can ensure this quality. When a person moves on from a post his/her efforts can be acknowledged by successors in the form of processes put in place and its merits and disadvantages and not just as quantitative outputs. Such documentation will also make key actors/personnel involved with a plan, programme or project accountable to the processes they are following. Analysis of process documentation data is also being done to facilitate the formulation of appropriate policy for more effective project/plan management. Feedback from primary stakeholders about project/plan activities PSU-APRLP 49
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT can now reach managers periodically. Instead of simply knowing quantitative information about outputs- such as amount of Revolving Fund disbursed- managers can now know more about actual outcomes, such as how far poor persons have benefited and critical parameters in the process that are required to achieve desired outcomes. ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK FOR THE PEAP LOG FRAMES The log frame for AP’s Poverty Eradication Ac- Sustainable development being the foundation of any Poverty Eradication tion Plan, therefore, Strategy, a Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) has to identify the link- centres on the “Five ages between key components of sustainable development and their inter- Capitals” essential for faces with governmental and administrative structures and macro economic sustainable develop- determinants. ment and also “Political A basic premise of AP’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan is that it Capital” and builds on should be tailored to the specific context of the State. This means working their linkages. within the advantages, synergies and boundaries of being a large state within a large nation state. Agreeing on goals, targets and indicators through participative processes requires a clear understanding of the “Capital” available to address poverty reduction. The log frame for AP’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan, therefore, centres on the “Five Capitals” essential for sustainable development and also “Political Capital” and builds on their linkages. The interrelationship/ link- ages of each of these capi- tals is taken into account by each mission/ sector and ad- dressed in terms of strengths and vulnerabilities specific to the sector/ mission. The action plan log frame will also re- flect the interfacing of these capitals with policy, institu- tions and processes. 50 PSU-APRLP
    • CHAPTER VI EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES
    • EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES As has been repeatedly emphasized, based on Vision 2020, all concerned Missions and Departments in the State have drawn up strategies and action plans. However, these strategies and action plans have to be integrated into the State Wide Poverty Eradication Action Plan of SPEM in ways that facili- tate good plan cycle management, appropriate macro policies and reforms and participatory processes. The Logical Frame work The Logical Frame work approach is a powerful tool to achieve this. It approach is a powerful demands step-by-step action on the part of Missions in drawing up sectoral tool to achieve this. It plans in conjunction with Departmental and Commissionerate plans. demands step-by-step action on the part of In this process, it is useful to begin translating sectoral and departmental Missions in drawing up strategies into policy matrices as a preliminary step to converting Action sectoral plans in Plans into Logical Framework formats. conjunction with Log Frames of Action Plans have to incorporate the following Departmental and components Commissionerate plans. • Identify final goals and outcomes against a timeline (in the case of AP, it is Present to 2020) • Identify milestone targets along the way to final goals (AP uses the GoI’s Five Year Plan targets and their time-frames, as well as Millennium Development goals with its milestone date of 2015) • For each goal, identify strategies • Elaborate action required to implement strategy. • Identify lead actors and joint actors, and their linkages for each action planned. • Identify internal and external resources required at critical milestones along the timeline. • Identify current perceptions on internal and external enablers and thwarters. PSU-APRLP 52
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES • Identify reforms required and impact of ongoing reforms • Suggest juridical initiatives that are desirable • Identify time horizons for review and midcourse corrections (AP has Annual reviews, Five-yearly reviews coinciding with GoI’s Five Year Plans and macro level review in 2015 on MDG indicators While drawing up the The most critical component is Indicators. The use of Intermediate Input/ Log Frame of the Action Output Indicators and Final Indicators and a strategic model for managing Plans of SPEM, Missions indicators at the micro, meso and macro level are discussed elsewhere in this and Departments, it has document. to be kept in mind that TAKING FORWARD THE LOG FRAME PROCESS they will be revised and refined over a specified While drawing up the Log Frame of the Action Plan’s of SPEM, Missions and period, through partici- Departments, it has to be kept in mind that they will be revised and refined patory processes and over a specified period, through participatory processes and shall be struc- shall be structured to tured to reflect community- level, mandal-level and district- level planning reflect community - processes. They shall also provide for the two track approach of intense and level, mandal - level priority action in acute poverty pockets and regular state wide activity. and district - level plan- Through this participatory revision and refinement process of the sectoral and ning processes. departmental plans, mechanisms shall also be identified for annual reviews at all levels of the plan implementation, right down to the community level, and reliable feedback based on that in drawing up the next year’s plans. The State Wide Action Plan of SPEM in a Log Frame format will also enable the Cabinet, Finance Department and Planning Department to undertake ‘Sensitivity Analysis’ of the plan, keeping in view various externalities that are likely to affect the plan context and plan appropriate ‘Coping Strate- gies’. Similarly, the effective use of Indicators on which there is overall agreement among all stakeholders, also facilitates tracking and monitoring the plan in a Log Frame mode. 53 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Though the main objective of the PMIAS is to track progress in poverty reduc- tion and impact of activities, it is also important to track indicators. In order to do this, all stakeholders should have clarity of Intermediate Input and Output Indicators and Final Outcome and Impact Indicators. Monitoring final indicators helps assess progress towards the goals of the plan. How- ever, final indicators are the result of several factors, many of which are out- side the control of policymakers and plan managers. Intermediate Indicators, Tracking intermediate as this document repeatedly stresses, change more rapidly in comparison indicators is critical in with final indicators which change slowly over time. making midcourse cor- rections while the plan Therefore, tracking intermediate indicators is critical in making midcourse cor- is underway. rections while the plan is underway. Not only is it more easy to collect infor- mation on intermediate indicators, they are also extremely useful in plan cycle management, especially when they refer to key impact outcome deter- minants and/or when they vary across areas or groups overtime. This is es- pecially important to a plan such as AP’s which is built on disaggregated poverty analysis and spatial distribution modelling. In this context, it has to be observed that part of the consensual/ participatory decisions required in the consolidation process is that of the level of disaggregation of indicators, which is as important as the choice of indicators. In the case of AP’s plan, this has to be done bearing in mind the two track approach. Sub-projects within the plan to address acute poverty pockets. The section on managing indicators has already discussed the use of aggre- gate State Level Indicators for gaining a bird’s eye view at the macro policy level, and the need for progressive disaggregation of indicators at various levels of implementation of the plan. GETTING THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE ON LOG FRAMES Apart from the complexity of the processes outlined for translating strategies and Action Plans into the Log Frame format, Missions and Departments also have to note the supplementary tasks required with a Log Frame approach. PSU-APRLP 54
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Log frame approach is not a hold all solution. It has its strengthen and limita- tions which need to be addressed. Log Frame Strengths • Facilitates good plan design • Addresses past weaknesses in plan design Analysis of institutional • Easy tool to learn and use arrangements, resource • Missions, Departments, District Authorities can use it internally for design flow charts, and various and appraisal processes. overviews and analysis are essential for clarify- • Can equally be used externally with consultants. ing components of the • Can anticipate plan implementation requirements across the plan timeline plan and achieving role clarity among all stake- • Provides a framework for plan evaluation holders Log Frame Limitations • Log Frames are not a substitute for other technical, economic, social and environmental analysis. • Overemphasizing objectives and externalities specified during design can bring rigidity in plan management • Log Frame approach requires a team building and convergence process with good leadership at all levels, and focus on skill building. Against the background of the strengths and limitations of the log frame approach, there has to be a focus on preliminary activities before evolving log frames and also supplementary analysis, modelling and initia- tives. We have already mentioned the need for sectoral and departmental policy matrices. Similarly, analysis of institutional arrangements, resource flow charts, and various overviews and analysis are essential for clarifying components of the plan and achieving role clarity among all stakeholders. Such analysis is also critical from the point of view that building capacity for implementing the plan is not viable without having achieved role clarity among lead actors, joint actors and other stakeholders. 55 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES The following is an example of such an analysis in graphic form. Prepared by the PSU as background work on the present document, it presents the Ag- riculture and Livestock strategies which are part of the Water Missions Sec- toral Plans, and feed into the Poverty Eradication Action Plan of SPEM. Sample of graphic analysis required to supplement Log Frames Poverty Mission Water Mission Objectives Objectives Regeneration of CPR Reduction in Poverty More fodder availability Reduction in Increase in Rural Income NTFP Soil Erosion Better live- Soil Fertility More Water Increase in Rural income stock quality Manage- Availability ment Better use of Creation of better quality Creation of rural irrigation water rural employment infrastructure includ- ing marketing Surplus for processing and value addition Increase in Agricultural productivity and im- proved post harvest proc- Input suppliers essing Better Water Harvesting Capacity Building of user groups and autonomous scaling up Consortium Approach Strengthening user (for convergence) groups Watershed Research activities Institutions User Group Formation Line Crop diversification Departments Awareness Creation towards less water demanding crops Development agen- Social Mobilization cies Pro-Poor strategies in Agriculture and Livestock PSU-APRLP 56
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Example of Spatial analysis for the Two-Track DISTRIBUTION OF MANDALS TO FEMALE LITERACY RATES (1991-2001) 0-10 1991 Approach — Mahabubnagar – A high priority district 90-100 500 400 10-20 2001 300 200 80-90 20-30 The progress has been uneven across the state; there is 100 0 major variation across districts, with literacy rates ranging 70-80 30-40 from 29.6 to 71.52 per cent in 1991 and 45.53 to 79.04 60-70 40-50 in 2001. There is a correlation between poverty indices 50-60 and illiteracy, as can be seen from the graphs. The districts DISTRIBUTION OF MANDALS TO TOTAL LITERACY RATES (1991-2001) 0-10 1991 in the western part suffer both with poverty and low 90-100 500 10-20 2001 400 literacy. This has implications for social development and 300 200 80-90 20-30 the outcome of development interventions. 100 0 The Mahbubnagar district is an extreme case, with a 70-80 30-40 very low level of educational performance. For example, 60-70 40-50 the district has a high dropout rate when compared to the 50-60 rest of the State (the District is 59.5 as against 34.5 for the DISTRIBUTION OF MANDALS TO MALE LITERACY RATES (1991-2001) state). Further, the dropout rate is higher in the mandals 0-10 500 1991 2001 90-100 400 10-20 located in the western and eastern part of the district. 300 Traditionally, these are dry areas with high reliance on 200 80-90 20-30 100 0 migration. Another factor that concerns us is high variation 70-80 30-40 in drop out rate of SC children (65.8 against 41.3 for the state), ST (80.8 as against 62.6 for the state) and girls. 60-70 40-50 50-60 Drop out rate is less in urban pockets and irrigated areas. 57 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES BASELINE ANALYSIS Policy matrices and the identification of goals have to have baseline studies and analysis as their point of departure. The current context has to be under- stood and All-India and India best figures compared with AP’s figures. The process also leads to benchmarking on various aspects of the plan, especially on goals and indicators. The following Tables present analysis in this direction done by the PSU and also sourced from other studies. These are examples to guide preparatory work to log frames by Missions and Departments. Examples of comparative analysis of data: S.No Developmental Parameters India Pre- UMI Ref- AP Pre- Vision Remarks sent erence sent AP 2020 for India 2020 1 Poverty as % of population below poverty line 26.00 13.00 15.80 0.00 2 Income distribution (gini index 100 = equality) 37.80 48.50 3 Unemployment rate % 7.30 6.80 6.70 4 Male adult literacy rate (%) 68.00 96.00 71.40 100.00 5 Females adult literacy rate (%) 44.00 94.00 51.50 100.00 6 Net primary school enrolment ratio 77.20 99.90 90.30 100.00 7 Public expenditure on education as % GNP 3.20 4.90 1.80 8 Life expectancy at birth in years 64.00 69.00 64.00 70.60 9 Infant mortality rate per 1000 live births 71.00 22.50 66.00 10.00 10 Child malnutrition as % of children under 5 years based on weight Reduces to 45.00 8.00 37.70 minimum for age 11 Public expenditure on health as % GNP 0.80 3.40 1.00 12 Commercial energy consumption per capita (kg of oil equiv.) 486.00 2002.00 13 Electric power consumption per capita (kwh) 384.00 2460.00 281.40 14 Telephones per 1000 population 34.00 203.00 29.40 15 Personal computers per 1000 population 3.30 52.30 16 Scientists & engineers in R & D per million population 149.00 590.00 17 Sectoral Composition of GDP in % a. Agriculture 28.00 6.00 33.00 12.00 b. Industry 26.00 34.00 18.10 21.00 c. Services 46.00 60.00 49.00 67.00 18 International trade in goods as % of ppp GDP 3.60 35.00 All India 19 Foreign direct investment as % of gross capital formation 2.10 24.50 All India 20 Gross FDI as % of ppp GDP 0.10 3.50 All India PSU-APRLP 58
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Evaluation of Baseline data vis-à-vis MDGs and targets (Maria Louisa Ferreira 2003) Select Target and Indictors for AP: 2000 indi- Vision In- 10th 10th Vision World AP cator 2020 Goal Indicator cluded Plan Plan 2020 BDG MDG or in in 2007 2012 (2010) (2015) (2015) closest 2020 year Eradicate Under weight children under five Re- extreme years duce poverty and inci- hunger MDG 37.7 24.6 dence (Nutrition) of malnu- trition Consumption of iodised salt Vision 27.4 100% 2020 Reduce Under five mortality (per 1000 Child live births) MDG 85.5 26 30.3 20 Mortality Infant mortality (per 1000 lives MDG births) 66 45 28 20 23.3 10 Plan Proportion of 1 year old children immunized against measles (%) MDG 56 100 Improve Maternal Mortality Ratio (per MDG maternal 100,000 live births) 154 200 100 75 plan health Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel (%) MDG Vision 67.9 80 80 100 2020 Fertility Rate V 2020 2.25 1.15 Proportion of women getting pregnant under the age of 21 years V 2020 37.3 Proportion of women using ante- natal care V 2020 89.7 100 Space between births V 2020 3 Combat Contraceptive prevalence rate HIV/AIDS, malaria and MDG 0.6 other dis- eases Prevalence of death rates associ- ated with tuberculosis MDG 592 Proportion of TB cases detected and cured under DOTS MDG 0.45 59 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES FIRST STAGE SAMPLES OF LOG FRAMES The Log Frame of the State Wide Poverty Eradication Action Plan will include all the MDG’s, Tenth Five Year Plan targets and Vision 2020 Goals, and re- flect various sectoral and departmental Action Plans in analyzing risks, as- sumptions and concerns. The Log Frame also indicates cross-sectoral depend- encies and external and internal factors. The following are examples of the The Log Frame also in- matrices used for the purpose. dicates cross-sectoral The sectoral and departmental Action Plans drawn up based on Vision 2020 dependencies and ex- Goals now need to be integrated with the Log Frame of the Action Plan of ternal and internal fac- the State Poverty Eradication Mission. The following are first stage examples tors. of sectoral Log Frame/Policy Matrix structures and are intended to only guide Missions and Departments in evolving full scale Action Plan Log Frames. Area Poverty and Equality From: MDG / IDG Goal Reduce extreme poverty by half by 2015 Halve proportion of people suffering from hunger by 2015 Final Outcome Indicators Intermediate Input-output Concerns indicators activities/ strategies 1. Poverty gap ratio Productive Well defined Need for 2. Proportion of population below $1 per asset owner- safety net strengthening day ship (land, programmes, area focused 3. Share of poorest quintile in national con- cattle and/ specific focus approach sumption or other on developing 4. Prevalence of underweight of under 5s physical disadvan- Weak link- 5. Proportion of population below minimum capital) taged groups ages with so- level dietary energy consumption cial capital PSU-APRLP 60
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Area Education From: MDG / IDG Goal Universal Primary Education by 2015 Final Outcome Indica- Intermediate in- tors dicators Input-output activities/ strategies Concerns 1. Net en- 1. % children 5-9 1. Classification of children in five categories 1. Skewed rolment attending and developing strategies for each, availability ratio in school 2. Focus on female literacy, special pro- of schools pri- 2. % children ap- grammes to eradicate child labour, and teach- mary pearing for 3. Promotion of specific schemes for encourag- ers educa- class VII exam ing enrolment in schools, 2. Involvement tion 3. % Children 4. Focus on disadvantaged groups and loca- of commu- 2. Propor- qualifying in tion, nity through tion of VII exam 5. promotion strategies for full enrolment in school edu- pupils 4. Literacy rate primary education s cation com- com- of 15-35 6. Classification of children in different age/ mittees and pleting 5. Teacher to pu- class groups panchayat grade pil ratio 7. Focus on reduction in drop out and increase education 4 6. Adult average retention through education volunteers at committees (cohort) age of school- primary school level ing Area : Education From: MDG / IDG Final Outcome Indicators Intermediate indicators Input- Concerns output ac- tivities/ strategies 1.Ratio of literate female to males 1.Girls reaching grade 5 2.Ratio of girls to boys in primary, (cohort) secondary & tertiary education 2.Girls school life expectancy 3.Female illiteracy rate 3.Repetition rates (by level of 4.Proportion of seats held by schooling and gender) women in national parliament 4.Female control over earnings 61 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Area : Health Final Outcome Intermediate indicators Input-output activities/ strategies Concerns Indicators 1. Infant mortality 1. Immunization of children 1. Fixed day clinics at village by 1.Drop out of rate (%) (measles, DPT3, all, ANM measles 2. Under 5 mor- none) 2. Janani team (sarpanch, youth 2.Community tality rate 2. Vitamin A supplementa- rep, mother, anganwadi worker ownership of 3. Life expec- tion for children 3. Fixed dates throughout the coun- Janani com- tancy at birth 3. Treatment of diarrhoea try - National campaign mittee 4. Low birth- in children (%) 4. Communication for home-based 3.Strong supply weight babies 4. Treatment of ARI in care and improving knowledge side (% of births) children (%) on new born care. 4.High NNMR 5. Children un- 5. Universalisation of PHC 5. Home available fluid, ORS rate derweight (%) care 6. Communication on early detec- 5.Plateauing of 6. Prevalence of 6. Increasing Institutional tion & treatment (ANM/MO) & IMR anaemia delivery / skilled birth management of sick newborns. 6.Low accep- 7. Children with- attendant 7. AP: Round the clock (RTCPHC); tance among out respiratory 7. Ensure 3 post natal visits Extra support to keep RTCPHC community infection (%) within 1st week after open 7.Training of 8. Children delivery 8. Provision for gyn/ped services ANM on safe stunted (%) 8. Reduction in incidence once a week delivery, new of low birth weight ba- born care bies and prompt referral. 9. Elimination of death due to natal tetanus. PSU-APRLP 62
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Goal : Improving Child Health Final Inter- Input-output activi- Concerns Out- mediat ties/ strategies come e indi- Indica- cators tors 1. Reduction in the in- 1. Home management of diarrhoea and ARI cidence of diar- 2. Improve mother's knowledge on when to seek rhoeal deaths by referral of sick children 75% & episodes of 3. Ensure availability of ORS Improve skills of diarrhoea by 50% ANM in identifying signs of dehydration and 2. Reduction in acute pneumonia and prompt referral E respiratory infec- 4. Early case detection and promote treatment tion death by 75% of malaria 3. Universal immuni- 5. Posting of pediatrician at sub-district level zation of children (CHCs / Area Hospitals) Eradication of po- 6. Promote personal hygiene (hand washing) lio (by 2005) among household members, promote birth 4. Elimination of mea- spacing sles deaths 7. Immunization 5. Reduce incidence 8. Nutrition of malaria among children • Tribal and Backward areas: Networking with NGOs working in these areas and continued train- ing of the community health workers in tribal areas with special focus on malaria, epidemic man- agement and safe delivery • Strengthen the MIS through computerization of data • Download MPHS data and cleanse it for use by ANMs • Generate output using personal digital assistant with ANMs or computer at PHCs • Systems study & development of software for computerization of PHCs, DM&HO offices, Com- missioner of Family Welfare & DH office • Strengthen the functioning of community advisory boards / community based structure to partici- pate in planning processes and monitor services provided • Mobilize community based groups for various IEC activities including government incentives avail- able • Strengthen SHG to create corpus funds for emergency situations 63 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Area : Health From MDG Goal : Reduce maternal mortality ratio by 3/4th by 2015 Final Out- Intermediate come Indica- Input-output activities/ strategies Concerns indicators tors 1. M a t e r n a l 1. I n s t i t u - 1. Strong policy; analysis of infra- 1. Mobility in time of mortality tional de- structure availability key to urgency; ratio livery achieve; financial support pro- 2. Analysis of access 2. Proportion 2. F a m i l y vided through formal policy and mandal- wise; of births planning budget support 3. Focus on low access attended operations 2. 3 years gap between birth, mandals; by skilled 3. Spacing strong awareness campaigns ac- 4. Availability of SHGs health 4. Use of cess to multiple methods of con- in focus area; special personnel modern traceptives, strong monitoring monitoring in focus contracep- 3. Increase age of marriage from area tives (%) 18 -21 years, workshops for 5. Very strong data- 5. Age at adolescent girls, mothers, sar- base analysis and to birth of panches. be upgraded very first child 4. Focus on role of ANMs is critical regularly 6. % o f link; Para workers in critical 6. Availability of Gy- women re- (tribal and backward) areas. naecologist ceiving 5. National maternity benefit 7. Critical linkage with Compre- scheme ICDS hensive an- 6. 3 visits to institutional checkups 8. Increase institutional tenatal which includes nutritional coun- deliveries Skilled at- care seling tendance at birth for 7. Nutrition 7. IEC through community advisory all domiciliary deliv- boards or other community eries based structures on birth pre- 9. Increase in accessibil- paredness and complication ity to quality services readiness for medical termina- tion of pregnancies (including strict im- p l em e n t a t i o n of PNDT Act) and for treatment of RTI/STI and prevention of PSU-APRLP 64
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Area : Environmental Sustainability From MDG Goal : Integrate principles of sustainable development into country policies and program and reverse the loss of environmental resources 1. Change in land area cov- 1. Strong policy for conservation and protection of ered by forest forest areas. Joint forest management with com- 2. Land area protected to munity participation and saturation of fringe ar- maintain biological diver- eas. sity 2. A 10 year action plan to saturate waste lands 3. GDP per under of energy including forest lands. use 3. Rural electricity coverage to 100% habitations. 4. Carbon dioxide emissions 4. Minimum assured electricity supply for agricul- per capita ture purpose. 5. LPG assurance to women SHGs in rural and urban areas Area : Environmental Sustainability From MDG Goal : Halve proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 2015 Inter- medi Con- Final Outcome Indicators ate Input-output activities/ strategies cerns indi- cators 1. Proportion of population 1. Water User's Association and Participatory with sustainable access to Hydrological Management of irrigation an improved water source sources. 2. Water Mission to facilitate assured Drinking Water to communities. 3. Water and sanitation cover to be demand driven as community owned and maintained. Goal : A significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 1. Proportion of population 1. Rural Sanitation is given priority in Janmab- with access to improved hoomi and individuals as members of SHGs are sanitation being covered in the proposal. 2. Proportion of population with access to secure ten- ure (urban/rural disaggre- gation 65 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Area : Macro economic stability From MDG Interme- Final Outcome Indi- diate in- Input-output activities/ strategies Concerns cators dicators 1.Unemployment rate 3. U n e m - Increase availability of skilled man- Linkages & conver- of 15-24 years ployment power by gence among depts. 2.Per capita economic 4. Inflation 1. Establishing more technical insti- and Missions growth rate 5. Exchange tutions 1.Common platform rate fluc- 2. Enhancing capacity of existing for focused interac- tuation institutes tions 6. F i s c a l 3. Promotion of TTDC as a nodal 2.C o m b i n e d / deficit agency to integrate all trginings integrated data (through networking), collection/ 4. Promotion of cluster develop- association ment approach 3.Taking SHG to 5. Focus on identified growth en- higher level of em- gines ployment, Promo- 6. creating employment genera- tion/strengthening tion opportunities for SHG (6) of micro-markets Promotion of special corpora- 4.Effective /fast tions to focus on specified target credit support groups Area : Security From: IDG 1.Food consumption 1.U n e m - • variability ployment 2.Income variability rate 3.Malnutrition preva- 2.Variabil- lence ity in 4.Death rates due to p r od u c- violence tion of chief sta- ple s PSU-APRLP 66
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES INDICATORS FOR PRO POOR STRATEGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK Objectives Intermediate outputs Indicators Final Out- puts Increased Increased number of multi Active exchange of information be- Increased synergy in disciplinary networks, tween the stakeholders in work- synergy in the the activities comprising line depart- shops and through sharing data- activities of of the differ- ments, development bases and reports different ent stake- agencies, research insti- Increased influence of Small and stakeholders holders of tutes, development pro- Marginal farmer groups, NGOs on of Rural De- Rural Devel- jects etc addressing spe- the agenda of research institutions velopment opment in cific issues of farming sys- where in the Increased participation of farmers’ Andhra tem through to Consor- stake holders organizations in testing out promis- Pradesh. tium approach complement ing technologies Increased number of each others Records of annual water budgets of farming system pro- works user departments planned every grammes where NGOs, All activities year farmer groups and Gov- and strate- Communications of NGOs actively ernment closely cooper- gies and co- involved in providing support to the ate and complement ordination ef- Govt in preparing water budget at each other’s roles forts are fi- the local level All seven Water User De- nally linked Cropping pattern recommended is to overriding partments develop effec- appropriate to the water budget policies and tive coordination mecha- which is unique to each watershed guidelines nisms in order to effi- ciently utilize available Annual water audit at the water- water shed level done The respective depart- 30% increase in employment gen- ments of growth engines erated by investing in growth iden- devise strategies in order tified growth engines. to exploit the compara- All the stakeholders are aware of tive advantage and in- the pros and cons of a globalized crease rural employment economy and its impact on rural potential communities especially the poorer sections Indicators, which have been given above, are primarily the process indicators, which help in monitoring the processes that goes in attaining the objectives. 67 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Objectives • Intermediate outputs • Indicators Final Outputs Increased • Increased integration of agriculture • Fodder cultivation • Farmers, Farmer availability and livestock programmes taken up in at least Groups are of technol- • Healthier and better quality of live- ___ No. of farms as a aware of the dif- ogy and in- stock maintained at the village level part of the initiative to ferent technolo- puts and as- by farmers increase farm diversity gies of farming sets for inte- • Emphasis on Participatory Technol- and fodder availabil- systems and are grated ogy Development (PTD) by research ity use it depending farming institutions for location specific re- • Better quality fodder upon their spe- systems search on farming systems through that can withstand cific needs the consortium approach wider variation in cli- • Increased diver- • Emphasis on crop diversification to- matic conditions have sity in farm enter- wards less water demanding crops been introduced and prises integrating like millets along with cereals are being cultivated crop and live- • Increase in soil fertility in marginal by farmers stock. lands through increase in pulse culti- • Fodder requirement on • Large area of vation and biological nitrogen fixa- a watershed basis is CPR regenerated tion assessed and is known and the outputs • Emphasis on regeneration and con- to all the stakeholders of these CPR are servation of Common Property Re- in the watershed for being used sus- sources (CPR) as a necessary base making fodder plans tainbly by the for livestock and farming systems • Agricultural residues farmers development are effectively recy- • Fertility status of • Water conservation measures with cled for fodder pur- the farms in- more emphasis on reducing erosion pose through enriching creased due to primarily through increase in ground them through low cost higher level of cover by flora as well as low cost silage preparation organic matter local structures constructed by the • ___% increase in the availability local communities with community area and ___% in- • Reduction in loss knowledge crease in production of of food grains • Reduction in erosion of soil due to millets and pulses and due to improved watershed management and in- similar less water de- and low cost crease in natural regeneration manding crops grain storage • Rural assets in the form of increased • Milk and other dairy methods adopted better quality cattle, and small rumi- production increased nants and poultry become a part of by____% and thereby the farming system enhancing the income of the rural community PSU-APRLP 68
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Objectives Intermediate outputs Indicators Final Outputs Increased The records of technologies tested Farmer groups, NGOs and Gender and availability and adapted in the PTD process Government departments use Social meth- of social address social and process include social methods in their ods main- methods in aspects of PTD such as gender planning streaming in organizing division of labour, and gender all agricul- platforms at specific perceptions about Equitable decision making, ac- ture and watershed technologies available cess and control of resources wa t e r s h e d level, includ- by men and women plans ing gender Availability of descriptions of social approaches promoted in agriculture, available in hand books or field manuals of NGOs and Governments departments Application of these methods by NGOs and departments autonomously Reduction in Reduction in the use of chemical __% Increase in farmers in- Enhanced external pesticides and fertilizers and come due to reduction in costs farm income chemical in- increasing substitution by natural leading to puts at the fertilizers resulting in enhanced Increase in biodiversity by __ reduction in farm level soil fertility and increased organic % due to reduction in pesticide poverty thereby re- matter usage ducing the Improved cost of culti- Reduction in the use of pesticide Enhanced bio diversity due to Rural and vation as resulting in improved ecological regeneration and conservation Agro eco- well as in- balance in agro eco systems of CPR by rural communities logical con- creasing ditions profitability ___ No. of people facilitated in CPR regeneration Farmers apply __% more or- 69 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Objectives Intermediate Indicators Final Outputs outputs Empower- Social coher- Collective decision making on input pur- Small and mar- ment of ence is chase, pest and disease management and ginal farmers women and strengthened marketing and especially small and among rural women are able marginal communities Women are empowered by increasing to contribute sig- farmers among men their knowledge and hence more self re- nificantly and through so- and women spect and respected by others because of confidently to im- cial learn- their capacity to effectively contribute to provement of ing proc- Social reali- farming systems farming systems esses zation of and thereby im- women as Mobility of women increased and they visit proving their own equal role agricultural knowledge centres, training livelihood and as part- centres and regional farmer meetings ners in agri- culture devel- Women are able to pursue a more eco opment friendly approach to agriculture in spite of pressure of pesticide dealers and husbands to go back to chemical farming Women gain more confidence in their own capacity to improve agriculture PSU-APRLP 70
    • CHAPTER VII THE WAY FORWARD 71 PSU-APRLP
    • THE WAY FORWARD While it is true that various departments and Commissionerates with a stake in the State’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan have clearly stated strategy papers and action plans, there is need to integrate these into a Statewide Poverty Eradication Action Plan to be led by the SPEM. Further, cross-sectoral processes for synergised planning, optimising resource use and synchroniza- tion of activities too will have to be coordinated. There is also the need to Missions and Depart- evolve a ‘final’ Action Plan, which incorporates sectoral Policy matrices and ments need to bring to reflects the models, tools and methodologies recommended in this draft docu- the Public domain their ment. long term plan (2020) For this to happen, missions and Departments need to bring to the with interim targets public domain their long term plan (2020) with interim targets (Five year (Five year plan targets plan targets and 2015 MDG targets). Putting these plans, with interim indi- and 2015 MDG tar- cators, into a Log Frame format is essential. gets) Departmental and Mission Action Plans will have to be discussed at the districts level and also at representative community levels. Mandal, dis- trict and State level workshops involving civil society, and partner/ resource organisations, academics, advocacy and policy groups etc., are required to finalize sectoral and Departmental Action Plans. In the process final sets of indicators can be adopted. The ‘Final’ Action Plan Log Frames of Missions and Departments will: • Be integrated with the Action Plan log frame of SPEM. • Provide the basis for State level annual review and ‘next year plan’ process. • Provide the basis for decentralized planning and review as per the model recommended in the present document. • Provide the framework for the Poverty Monitoring and Social Analysis Unit (PSAMU) to carryout its mandated responsibilities. PSU-APRLP 72
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VII. THE WAY FORWARD The Advantage of log frame approach to planning The Logical Frame work exercise to be undertaken by all Missions, Depart- ments and Commissionerates with stakes in the State’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan, facilitates a very dynamic process in monitoring of goals and outcomes. The Intermediate Output Indicators linked to target- driven activi- ties play a crucial role in Annual Reviews, enabling planners to zero down on The Intermediate Out- the factors that enabled planned outcomes and outputs, and those that pre- put Indicators linked to vented them being realized. targets driven activities The next year’s perspective plan could be much more localized and play a crucial role in ‘debugged’ as a result of the above process. The Log Frame approach, Annual Reviews ena- therefore enables a high order of detailing and spatio-temporal specificity, bling planners to zero without losing sight of the long-term goals. In this process, it has to be kept in down on the factors mind that final indicators involve several factors and complexities which are that enabled planned beyond the control of policy makers and plan implementers. Similarly, Inter- outcomes and outputs. mediate Indicators cannot be frozen, since they will change through the very implementation of the Action Plan. Draft Document: OVERVIEW OF THE WAY FORWARD “Consolidating AP’s Pov- erty Reduction Action Plan” Conversion of Action Plans of New Methodologies, other Missions and Depart- Tools, Processes etc. ments into Log Frame format Draft Action Plan Log Participatory Process, Frame of SPEM Public Discussions Consolidate Intermediate (input-output) Indicators Link to Vision Consolidate Intermediate and Final (outcome- 2020, MDG (input-output) Indicators and impact) Indicators 2015 10th Five Final (outcome) Indicators for Year Plan Sectoral Action Plans ‘Final’ Action Plan Log PSAMU Frame of SPEM ‘Final’ Sectoral Ac- ActionPlans of tionPlans (ActionPlan Depts., Commission- Log Frames of Mis- erates in Final sions) Log Frame form 73 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VII. THE WAY FORWARD A central feature of the Monitoring and Impact Assessment System and the Annual Review and Next Year Planning process is the recogni- tion of the apex role of the State Poverty Eradi- cation Mission in leading MONITORING AND REVIEW the Poverty Eradication The Monitoring and Review mechanism of the Poverty Reduction strategy of Action Plan. AP has already taken shape during the past four to five years. In adopting a log frame approach to the Action Plan, it will also be possible to incorpo- rate a Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System (PMIAS). The PMIAS method will facilitate both convergence at the community level and the man- agement of challenges of a complex system at the State Level. The Mission mode, in such a situation, facilitates inputs of the stake- holders and various departments falling within the purview of each sector, and also the managing of externalities to achieve optimum results. A central feature of the Monitoring and Impact Assessment System and the Annual Review and Next Year Planning process is the recognition of the apex role of the State Poverty Eradication Mission in leading the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. In this role, it will also have a coordination role; in the review of the annual plan performance of other Missions and Depart- ments to the extent of their relevance and impact on the Poverty Eradication Action Plan Log Frame. SPEM will be supported in this process by PSAMU in its mandated role and the PSU-APRLP as a Resource Agency. PSU-APRLP 74
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VII. THE WAY FORWARD 75 PSU-APRLP
    • Abbreviations AP Andhra Pradesh APRLP Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme AP-RPRP Andhra Pradesh Rural Poverty Reduction Project APSRAC Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Applications Centre APUSP Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor BPL Below Poverty Line BPR Business Process Reengineering CM Chief Minister CPR Common Property Resources DFID Department For International Development DPAP Drought Prone Area Programme DPIP District Poverty Initiative Project GDP Gross Domestic Product GIS Geographical Information System GoAP Government of Andhra Pradesh GoI Government of India ICDS Integrated Child Development Services ICM Institutional Change Management ICT Information and Communication Technology IDG International Development Goals IEC Information, Education and Communications IG Intermediate Goals IT Information Technology M&E Monitoring & Evaluation MDG Millennium Development Goals MIS Management Information System MPHS Multi - Purpose Household Survey PSU-APRLP 76
    • NGO Non-Government Organisation NRM Natural Resource Management PCM Project Cycle Management PDS Public Distribution System PEAP Poverty Eradication Action Plan PHC Primary Health Centers PHM Participatory Hydrological Management PIP Participatory Identification of Poor PLA Participatory Learning and Action PMIAS Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System PPA Participatory Poverty Appraisal PPMIA Participatory Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment PSAMU Poverty and Social Analysis and Monitoring Unit PSU Programme Support Unit PTD Participatory Technology Development RD Rural Development SC Scheduled Caste ST Scheduled Tribe SERP Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty SGE Selected Growth Engines SHG Self Help Group SIP Slum Improvement Programmes SPEM State Poverty Eradication Mission SWPRAP State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan UAE Universalisation of Adult Education UEE Universalisation of Elementary Education UG User Group 77 PSU-APRLP