INDEX
CHAPTER                     ITEM                     PAGES

          CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION
   I ...
COVERING NOTE TO DOCUMENT TITLED
        “ CONSOLIDATING AP’S POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN ”



                       ...
2. The State Poverty Eradication Mission has to coordinate inputs from other Missions and
   departments and ensure that t...
CHAPTER I

     CONSOLIDATION OF THE
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN
CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION
ACTION PLAN

BACKGROUND
The State of Andhra Pradesh has a total geographical area...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                           I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN




    ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                        I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN




b. Buil...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                   I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN
...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                        I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                  I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN

...
CHAPTER II

 KEY ELEMENTS OF THE
CONSOLIDATION PROCESS
KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS
LEVERAGING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
AP has a highly enabling environment, the as...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                       II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS



   ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                    II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS




•   I...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                         II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS




...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                         II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS




                ...
CHAPTER III

         ORIENTING THE
     CONSOLIDATION PROCESS




18                           PSU-APRLP
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                      III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS




ORIENTIN...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                         III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS


SELECTE...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                         III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS




     ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                        III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS




      ...
CHAPTER IV

   POVERTY AND THE
ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                 IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




POVERTY AND...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                    IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




        ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                              IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




       However...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                       IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




CLUSTERING OF DISTRIC...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                     IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




APRLP I...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                           IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




 ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                       IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




     ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                   IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




         ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                   IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




Conservat...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                     IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




       ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                    IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




EDUCATIO...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                     IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




       ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                   IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




The need ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                    IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT




        ...
CHAPTER V

MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT
MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT

APPROACH TO THE PLAN

The last decade of the 20th Century has seen a visible shift in th...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN   V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT




40                                              ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                        V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT




INDICATORS ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                            V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT




       ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                          V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT




         ...
POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN                                         V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT




          ...
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)
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Poverty Eradication Action Plan Andhra Pradesh 2003 (draft)

  1. 1. INDEX CHAPTER ITEM PAGES CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION I 1-6 ACTION PLAN KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION II 7-12 PROCESS III ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS 13-16 IV POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT 17-30 V MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT 31-42 VI EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES 43-62 VII THE WAY FORWARD 63-66
  2. 2. COVERING NOTE TO DOCUMENT TITLED “ CONSOLIDATING AP’S POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN ” Ref: G.O.Ms.No.219, Dated: 07-07-2003 As has been discussed at the meeting of 25-07-2003 convened by the Chief Secre- tary, the present draft document has been prepared for consultations at the State Level before being forwarded to the World Bank and DFID. The primary purpose is to clarify to the World Bank and DFID that AP already has a viable Poverty Eradication Action Plan underway. Apart from the above primary purpose, the document also highlights certain lacunae in the manner in which the Action Plan of the State Poverty Eradication Mission is being operationalised, and which requires urgent and concerted action on the part of other Missions and key Departments for redressal. The institutional linkages outlined, the model for better management of indicators, new methodologies such as disaggre- gated poverty analysis and spatial analysis tools, logical framework approach and a suggested Plan Management and Impact Assessment System (PMIAS) discussed in the present document, provide a framework for Missions and Departments to refine and further evolve their action plans and integrate it with the Log Frame of the State Pov- erty Eradication Mission’s (SPEM) Action Plan. In the process, they will also require to achieve clarity on how they will inter- face with the Poverty and Social Analysis Monitoring Unit (PSAMU) under SPEM. The following factors need to be highlighted in the context of the consolidation process that this document represents: 1. Currently a valid mechanism is required to ensure that the various Missions are meeting and playing their mandated role in providing inputs required for taking forward the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. Appropriate secretariats and exter- nal professional resources and institutional support networks have also to be in place for each Mission.
  3. 3. 2. The State Poverty Eradication Mission has to coordinate inputs from other Missions and departments and ensure that their ‘past year performance review’ and ‘ next year plans’ are integrated with SPEM’s own reviews and Annual Plans. This requires SPEM to exercise its prerogatives as the lead Mission for Poverty Eradication and mandate the PSAMU to lead the process. 3. Given the diverse externalities impacting the health sector and the cross-sectoral de- pendencies in achieving targets in health, there is a need to formally constitute a Health Mission (From the point of view of the Action Plan, the assumption adopted is that the Department of Health, Medical and Family Welfare has been functioning in a Mission mode.) 4. While the draft document has identified a few sets of intermediate and final indica- tors, Missions, in consultation with the Departments and other bodies falling within the scope of their mandate, will have to identify the necessary range of indicators re- quired by their Sectoral Action Plans. In the process, they also have to identify appro- priate Annual Review mechanisms aligned to SPEM’s Year-end Review - and Next Year Plan process. 5. To complete the Sectoral strategies and plans, linking indicators, professional support is required to put this in the logical framework approach. 6. The PSU has made valuable learnings in the process of drafting this document, and is willing to deploy these learnings and its resources in continuing to play a facilitation role in taking forward the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. The last section of the document outlines the steps for the Missions and Departments to take the consolidation process forward to a ‘Final’ Action Plan, which reflects a partici- patory process and which, in its Annual and Five year cycles, truly incorporates community- level, Mandal-level and District-level plans. The PSU thanks the Chief Secretary, Principal Secretaries, Commissioners and Offi- cials of various departments in supporting the Programme Support Unit’s efforts in draft- ing this document. S.P.Tucker, IAS Coordinator - PSU
  4. 4. CHAPTER I CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN
  5. 5. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN BACKGROUND The State of Andhra Pradesh has a total geographical area of 27.44 million hectares. Out of a total population of 7.5 crore, the rural population com- prises 5.5 crore. As a part of the State’s As a part of the State’s poverty eradication plan, a large number of poverty eradication Women’s Self Help Groups have been formed (with a total savings of over plan, a large number of Rs.1500 crore) and networked into federations. Each of the 45,000 habita- Women’s Self Help tions today has at-least one Self-Help Group. The membership of Self- Help Groups have been Groups is estimated to cross 8.5 million from the present 6 million in the next formed (with a total few years. savings of over Rs.1500 The extreme poor in the State, including the disabled, child labour crore) and networked and other disadvantaged sections, are being organised under a programme into federations. with special focus termed VELUGU. The Velugu Programme includes the Dis- trict Poverty Initiative Project (Velugu Phase–I, with a Rs. 593 crore outlay) and the A.P. Poverty Reduction Project (Velugu Phase– II, with a Rs.1486 crore outlay). Velugu proposes to cover 30 lakh families. The state has initiated plans to develop 10 million hectares of ‘wasted’ lands or dry lands, which are also pockets of acute rural poverty. Alongside, pro- grammes such as the DFID-supported Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Pro- gramme (which has joined the ongoing Watersheds Programme) have been taking forward the need for diversification and non-farm activities and also bringing previously marginalized sections within the ambit of Sustainable Natural Resources Management-based developmental initiatives. The Liveli- hoods Approach thus becomes the focus of the 20,000 proposed watersheds in the State, of which more than 7,500 are already underway. The Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the poor (APUSP) is a Rs. 745 crore DFID-supported programme already under implementation in 32 urban cen- tres (Class I Towns). The Project covers poverty eradication, livelihoods, envi- ronmental and infrastructure issues through participatory processes for as- sessing needs. The Programme learnings will be scaled up to cover the poor falling under all the urban local bodies in the State. PSU-APRLP 6
  6. 6. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN As a result of the initiatives of Swarna Andhra Pradesh and Janmabhoomi, rural poverty in Andhra Pradesh has come down to 11% and urban poverty to 26.6% ( Lakdawalla Methodology). The total number of people being covered by anti-poverty initiatives is much more than that indicated in the lead programmes of Velugu and APUSP. This is especially so since the multi-pronged approach to poverty eradication has led to poverty-focused strategies and actions in various sec- The progress being tors, where, too, inclusion in programmes is based on Participatory Identifica- made by Andhra tion of the poor (PIP). Pradesh in addressing The progress being made by Andhra Pradesh in addressing poverty poverty effectively is effectively is on account of holistic strategies for pro-poor growth and an in- on account of holistic tegrated Poverty Eradication Action Plan. strategies for pro-poor To facilitate the integration of resources and achieve convergence, growth and an inte- AP has strategically addressed poverty issues through four key Missions grated Poverty Eradica- (the Poverty Eradication, Water Conservation and Utilisation, Literacy, tion Action Plan. and Employment Generation Missions) and a focused approach in the De- partment of Health, Medical and Family Welfare. Each of these Missions, along with the Departments, Commissionerates and special initiatives contrib- uting to achieving their goals have set targets and identified indicators. These were integrated into the Poverty Eradication Strategy of the State Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM) and the resultant Action Plan. However, it has been the State’s strategy to have a dynamic ap- proach to the operationalisation of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. This is essential for optimal plan cycle management and effective feedback for corrective steps, where required. The process also ensures that the plan moves through the appropriate stages in becoming truly participatory. In or- der to achieve these objectives, the government has, in 2003, initiated steps to consolidate the Poverty Eradication Action Plan and outline the way for- ward from the critical juncture it has reached. The consolidation process will facilitate: a. Enhanced synergy among various Missions and Departments and clarify their linkages. 7 PSU-APRLP
  7. 7. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN b. Build a stronger sense of ownership among all stakeholders in the State’s Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan. c. Find agreement on key indicators, both intermediate and final. d. Facilitate mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation that are participa- tory. e. Create an enabling environment for inclusive policies and mid-course cor- rections. Processes have been f. Integrate the Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan more effec- initiated based on clear tively with the budgetary process. understanding of the g. Align various sectoral reforms with the Poverty Eradication Strategy and purpose, for further in- goals tegrating sectoral strategies and Action h. Achieve role clarity, and define the stake and contributions of various Plans with the State constituents in the Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan. Wide Action Plan of the i. Create a conducive and transparent environment for the Union Govern- Poverty Eradication ment’s initiatives in Poverty Eradication and also for initiatives by Donor Mission. Agencies / Lending Agencies, and their closer alignment with the State’s goals and Strategy in Poverty Eradication. Processes have been initiated, based on a clear understanding of the purpose, for further integrating sectoral strategies and Action Plans with the State- Wide Action Plan of the Poverty Eradication Mission, keeping the fol- lowing guidelines in mind: 1. As with the Poverty Eradication Strategy, the Action Plan assumes Sector Wide Approaches and Mission Mode, and the institutional implications of this needs to be further clarified. 2. The plan horizon for each sector shall be of five years, with Participatory Annual Reviews and Social Audits. 3. At each stage of review, Intermediate Indicators shall be used to ap- praise performance vis-à-vis Five Year Plans, Millennium Development Goals and Andhra Pradesh is Vision 2020. 4. The Action Plan for each sector shall have a Communication Strategy that addresses the needs of participatory processes. PSU-APRLP 8
  8. 8. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN AP’s POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN LEAD MISSIONS AND THEIR MAJOR OBJECTIVES STATE POVERTY ERADICA- WATER MIS- EDUCATION EMPLOYMENT GENERA- DEPT. OF HEALTH, MEDI- TION MISSION SION FOR ALL TION MISSION CAL & FAMILY WELFARE o To develop a clear vision o Conservation o The primary o To develop a vision and o Every person will have for poverty eradication and and judicious goal of the strategy for employ- access to responsive ba- recommend strategies for use of water state is to in- ment generation and to sic healthcare and spe- time bound achievement of in the State. crease over- prepare a time bound cialised healthcare at this vision. all literacy action plan for imple- affordable prices. o To formulate levels from mentation of the same. o Take measures for ensuring the current o Women will have safe convergence of all sectoral - Effective 54% of the o To suggest measures to and successful pregnan- plans and programmes. plans and population to derive synergy of the cies. Infant / child mortal- methods for over 95% plans and programmes ity due to ailments like o Ensure technical updation conserving wa- before 2005. of various departments ARI and diarrhoea will for sustainable development ter working directly or indi- be reduced drastically. of the poor. o Special focus rectly for employment - Time-bound on the back- generation. o The spread of AIDS will action plan for ward and less be contained o Suggest time bound and conservation of specific measures for em- literate areas o Advise on institutional water of the State. and organisational ployment security, food se- o Communicable diseases curity and universal provi- o To implement mechanisms for effec- like Malaria and TB will sion of health care, drinking the conserva- o Universalisa- tive implementation of be effectively prevented. water, housing and elemen- tion and use tion of Ele- the Action Plan for em- tary education among all of water with mentary edu- ployment generation. o Families will be small and poor households. the co- cation. better spaced. Equitable ordination of o Regularly monitor and access to quality health o Effective implementation of all function- o During the oversee employment care will be ensured. the entitlements and rights ally related next 3 years generation action plans Health sector will be of the poor. Especially of departments. take adult in the State and advise equipped to deliver women, the scheduled literacy, on the future steps to be quality services for non castes., scheduled tribes, the o To carry-out through the taken. communicable diseases backward classes and the water conser- Akshara and trauma and injury minorities. vation pro- Sankranthi o Initiate public debate cases. grammes eco- Programme, on important policy is- o Promote social mobilisation: nomically to sues related to employ- o Life expectancy levels the self-help and other func- 105,00,000 ment generation and will reach 68 years for tional groups as the princi- o Encourage Adult illiter- build consensus for pol- males and 70.6 years for pal mechanism for poverty local people’s ates. icy reforms related to it. females from the current eradication. participation 62 years and 64 years in water con-oAdequate o Advise on Human Re- respectively. o Provide guidance on the servation infrastructure source Development best practices in the national and socio through institution build- o Enhancing technical effi- and international spheres. o Monitor and economic con- ing and suggest a ciency of key programs assess con- ditions to be framework for optimum and clinical effectiveness. o Advocate and recommend tinuously the c r e a t e d utilization of the infra- suitable pro-poor policies water conser- through con- structure available for o Ensuring micro/macro and ensure adequate budg- vation pro- certed sus- training on a continuous economic effectiveness in etary allocation. grammes tained and basis and identify fresh the use of resources multi pronged requirements of infra- o Monitor periodically. o To obtain the action. structure and the re- o Improving quality of people’s sources for training. care/consumer satisfac- views and o To use mod- tion suggestions ern technol- o To facilitate manpower on the ways, ogy to im- planning in key sectors o Assuring systems for long- means and prove deliv- of the economy. term sustainability. methods in ery of high respect to quality edu- o To identify and advise water conser- cation to un- on the regulatory as- vation. reached ar- pects of training. eas. 9 PSU-APRLP
  9. 9. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN Source: Vision 2020 Swarna Andhra Pradesh Source: Vision 2020 Swarna Andhra Pradesh PSU-APRLP 10
  10. 10. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS At the Millennium Summit in September 2000, the states of the United Nations reaffirmed their commitment to working towards a world in which sustaining development and eliminating poverty would have the highest priority. The Millennium Development Goals grew out of the agreements and resolutions of world conferences organized by the United Nations in the past decade. The goals have been commonly accepted as a framework for measuring development progress There are 8 Goals / 17 Targets and 49 Indicators. The Goals and Targets are given below. 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target for 2015: Halve the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day and those who suffer from hunger. 2. Achieve universal primary education Target for 2015: Ensure that all boys and girls complete primary school. 3. Promote gender equality and empower women Targets for 2005 and 2015: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015. 4. Reduce child mortality Target for 2015: Reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate among children under five 5. Improve maternal health Target for 2015: Reduce by three-quarters the ratio of women dying in childbirth. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Target for 2015: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. 7. Ensure environmental sustainability Targets: • Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environ- mental resources. • By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water. • By 2020 achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. 8. Develop a global partnership for development Targets: • Develop further an open trading and financial system that includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction – nationally and internationally • Address the least developed countries’ special needs, and the special needs of landlocked and small island developing States • Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt problems • Develop decent and productive work for youth • In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries • In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies – especially information and commu- nications technologies. 11 PSU-APRLP
  11. 11. CHAPTER II KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS
  12. 12. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS LEVERAGING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT AP has a highly enabling environment, the aspects of which include: 1. A definite pro-poor policy focus. 2. A government committed to inclusive policies, governance reforms and harnessing ICT and other tools for greater transparency and re- sponsiveness. 3. A large number of Self Help Groups whose networking has created a tremendous opportunity for building social capital 4. A clear cut vision (Vision 2020) which covers Millennium Development Goals and exceeds their targets and also identifies the growth en- gines and reforms that support Poverty Eradication Strategies. SWARNA ANDHRA PRADESH—VISION 2020 1. a. 1999 • Andhra Pradesh takes stock of its standing on key points • Vision 2020 is initiated. • Growth engines identified b. Fourteen Cabinet Sub-committees constituted. • Strategies for realizing Vision 2020 goals evolved c. AP recognizes Poverty Eradication as a core element of socio-economic development d. Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan aligned with the people-owned Janmabhoomi movement e. Poverty Eradication Action Plan put in Mission mode with sector-wide approaches f. State Poverty Eradication Mission to lead the Action Plan g. Other key Missions are: 1. Employment Generation Mission 2. Water Mission (NRM & Environment) 3. Education-For-All Mission h. Department of Health, Medical and Family Welfare works in a Mission mode. i. Sectoral Strategies, Approach Papers and Action Plans drawn up. • Convergence, Participatory process, Gender and other Equity issues become dominant themes 2. Poverty Eradication Action Plan linked to macro-economic policies, Planning and Budgetary processes. • Public Investment Programme focusing on pro-poor growth 3. Reforms in various sectors and Juridical initiatives to strengthen Poverty Eradication Action Plan 4. 2003 Consolidation Process of Poverty Eradication Action Plan initiated: • Review of progress • Adoption of Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System • Establishment of Poverty Monitoring and Social Analysis Unit (PMASU) • Creation of Logical Framework for Action Plan and move to Project-based approaches • Disaggregated Poverty Analysis, better models for managing indicators and agreement of Intermediate and Final Indicators • Processes for taking the plan forward as a true People’s plan through participatory tools. PSU-APRLP 13
  13. 13. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS In this context, it is important to bear in mind that AP’s human and other resources have the potential for an economic surge similar to that of the South East Asian Countries. The Poverty Eradication Action Plan is therefore integrated with the State’s overall growth plan and stresses the following: RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH • Human Capital Development • Developing Social Capital of the poor • Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods • Focus on backward Mandals ALONGSIDE, WE HAVE TO ENSURE • More inclusive policy • Access to assets and markets • Public Investment Programme on Education, Health, Transport/ Infrastructures and Communications • Initiatives targeting Insecurities and Vulnerabilities of the poor and mechanisms for social protection LINKING WITH GROWTH ENGINES The expression “Pro-poor Growth” is being preferred to ‘Poverty Reduction’, because it focuses on the key driver of Poverty Eradication. Growth- en- hancing reforms matter a lot for Poverty Eradication, provided, of course, that non-income dimensions of poverty are strongly reflected in policies, strategies and actions. The Janmabhoomi initiative has created a very powerful plat- A PRO-POOR GROWTH STRATEGY form and is a powerful leverage for all sectors in the Poverty REQUIRES, AMONG OTHERS Eradication Strategy of AP. It provides a thematic setting for • Strong incentives for investment convergence and the execution of the communication strategy (more capital per worker). essential to the success of the Action Plan. Sectoral Action Plans • Fostering trade and business link- have to reflect how the Janmabhoomi Platform will be lever- ages for faster transfer of knowl- aged synergistically. Aligning on a common platform, along edge. with other elements of the Action Plan, will also address the criti- • Policies and investments for inter- cism of AP’s Poverty initiatives being fragmented and having nal market integration. avoidable redundancies and duplications. 14 PSU-APRLP
  14. 14. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS • Increased external economic integration. • More competitive agricultural markets. • Reducing spatial disparities in Infrastructure (In this context, at the macro plan level, it is worthwhile to relook policies on the manufacturing sector.) From Garments and Leather products to Medicinal Herbs and Agro-services, over 40 areas have been identified as pro-poor growth engines. In one way or another, these areas also find a place in Vision 2020 as the engines of The growth of social GSDP growth. The Sectoral and Sub-sectoral Action Plans and the State- networks in AP has wide Action Plan for Poverty Eradication have to now establish clear links been remarkable and with these engines of growth. This will also facilitate positive responses in the State has succeeded embedding the Action Plan in the budgetary process. in organising a range of LEVERAGING AND STRENGTHENING groups based on needs and programmes, etc., SOCIAL CAPITAL which has led to accu- The growth of social networks in AP has been remarkable and the State has mulation of social capi- succeeded in organising a range of groups based on needs and pro- tal. grammes, etc., which has led to accumulation of social capital. The State’s move from an individual beneficiary approach to group based approaches has been a key element of its Poverty Eradication Strategy and has pro- moted collective action of the poor and augmented greater participation and more bargaining power for access to developmental resources. THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS OF THE ACTION PLAN HAS TO ADDRESS THREE ISSUES IN THIS REGARD 1. The routing of development resources through groups has the attendant risk of the very poor being excluded. However, the State has begun ad- dressing these issues through DPIP, APRLP and APUSP initiatives. Sectoral Action Plans could use the learnings of these initiatives and adapt their practices for ensuring participation and coverage of the very poor. 2. Social Capital being a critical resource in Poverty Reduction Actions, the Poverty Eradication Action Plan has to make provisions for investment in social capital and incorporate, over time, indicators for monitoring social capital along with other socio-economic parameters. PSU-APRLP 15
  15. 15. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS POVERTY MAPPING 3. The Poverty Eradication Action Plan The most critical and important milestone in rural poverty reduction is to identify the target poor. In addition to the in its consolidation needs to incorpo- Govt. of India using the Participatory Poverty Assessment rate steps to maximize the potential of approach, Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP) was Self-Help Group through: done. Tools like Transect Walk, Social Mapping, Vulnerabil- a)) Training Needs Assessment based ity Analysis, Disability Mapping and Well Being Analysis were used to collect information and identify the poorest of on their productive and reproductive the poor and the poor through community participation. workload. b)) Leverage the SHG movement for Capacity Building and consequent POOREST OF THE POOR POOR strengthening of Social Capital • Can eat when they • Not possessing land c) ) Utilize SHGs as a platform for sen- get work, part of • Can live on daily wages sitization and action on gender and social support from the State. • School going children are sent other equity issues. for work • No shelter No proper clothing • Can get some credit • Cannot send chil- • Not able to repay debts dren to school • No proper shelter • Cannot get credit • No respect in the society Spatial distribution of SHGs Number of SHGs per habitation Dec 2001 Number of SHGs per habitation 5 20 50 183 APRLP Mandals Other Mandals National highway State highway Railway N 0 10 20 km DPAP 16 PSU-APRLP
  16. 16. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS The circled areas are pockets of ex- treme female literacy Poverty. PARTICIPATORY IDENTIFICATION OF THE POOR (PIP) AS A PLANNING TOOL PIP is emerging as the dependable tool not only for identifying the poorest of the poor, but also the spatial distribution of concentrated poverty pockets. Plotting infor- mation generated through PIP, using GIS tools and cross mapping it with information on related indicators in health, education, etc., creates a Geographic Management Information System on Poverty. This provides a critical Decision Support System to AP’s two-track approach in poverty eradication, facilitating priority-based and fo- cused action in chronic, high intensity poverty pockets. PSU-APRLP 17
  17. 17. CHAPTER III ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS 18 PSU-APRLP
  18. 18. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS POLICIES FOR PRO-POOR GROWTH It is observed that, the ability of the poor to earn higher incomes will depend on three factors: (1) Growth factor: the production potential of the economy; (2) The employment factor: that is, the extent to which potential growth en- hances the employment potential. How the increased demand for labour gets split up between the quality and quantity of employment depends on the na- ture of the growth process that is employment intensive; (3) the integrability factor: that is, the extent to which the working poor are able to integrate into economic processes so that, when growth occurs and employment potential expands, they can take advantage of such opportunities. If growth and em- ployment opportunities are such that the capabilities they demand do not match the capabilities of the poor, then either non-poor workers will seize the opportunities or they won’t be seized at all. Lack of integrability may also result from market failures, especially failure of the credit market, poor in- frastructure, and lack of information. ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT AND NETWORKS The Vision 2020 document of Andhra Pradesh states that around 18-20 million new jobs will have to be created by 2020 in Andhra Pradesh to achieve its goals. Presently around 70 per cent of the workers are dependent on agriculture. By the year 2020, only 35-40% of the workers are expected to be dependent on agriculture in the state. It means that significant job opportunities need to be created in other sectors of the economy in the state. Macro-economic (GSDP) growth emerges as the foremost indicator of the success of our pro-poor growth strategy. The micro-enterprise growth plan of the State has private stake holding built into the model as a major influencer. The government shall encourage private-public sector partnership models, with the aim of enhancing private investment. Efforts are under way to promote activities based on growth engines and sub-sectors identified on the principle of comparative advantage. The network of SHGs and their Federations are seen as a ‘potential producer’ as well as a ‘consumer’ of produce and the SHGs have reached a stage where they are looking for new business propositions with their huge un- utilised savings. PSU-APRLP 19
  19. 19. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS SELECTED GROWTH ENGINES SEMI-SKILLED POPULATION/ILLITERATES EDUCATED UNEMPLOYED Sector Activity Sector Activity Primary 1. Agro-processing and services Primary 1. Agricultural services 2. Vegetable cultivation, processing and 2. Agriculture extension trading 3. Input supply marketing 3. Horticulture and floriculture 4. Produce marketing 4. Sericulture 5. NTFP processing Secon- 1. Handicrafts (including Handlooms) Secon- dary 2. Leather tanning and goods dary 3. Stoneware & ceramics 4. Cement & construction material Tertiary 1. Rural services Tertiary 1. IT enabled services 2. Paramedics and Paravets 2. Tourism and hospitality 3. Transportation 3. Education and health care services 4. House-keeping 4. Business and financial services (including micro-finance, micro-insurance etc.) Basically the pro-poor growth should be labour intensive. Economic growth is necessary for Poverty Reduction. A pro-poor development Strategy requires more than economic growth alone. The impact of growth on poverty depends also on the character or pattern of growth. For growth to have the biggest impact on poverty, policy makers need to complement macroeconomic and adjustment policies with equity-enhancing sectoral and redistributive meas- ures. These include policies to foster more agricultural development and faster development of small and medium enterprises. MONITORING & EVALUATION, REVIEW AND MIDCOURSE CORRECTIONS The way Monitoring and Evaluation processes are incorporated in the Action Plan will make all the difference to its effectiveness. Through the PIP initiative of DPIP, AP has formalized the participatory approach to poverty mapping. The question in the Action Plan process is to see how PIP (Participatory Identification of Poor) can help us to use analyti- cal tools in its context and take the Poverty Eradication agenda forward. This has a synergy with how Social Capital can energise the agenda. 20 PSU-APRLP
  20. 20. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS The process of consolidating the Action Plan should enable us to re- think the policy implications of PIP and social capital resources. In terms of the structuring of the Action Plan, a critical implication of this is for the Monitoring and Evaluation processes. Currently, different initiatives, departments, etc., gather large amounts of data from the community level which are archived without feed- ing back into management decisions or policy. The M & E process in- corporated into the Ac- The Action Plan has to address this by incorporating MIS nodes at all tion Plan should have critical interfaces and institutionalise feedback cycles that translate into Deci- clear-cut provisions for sion Support Systems at various levels, and also as a Policy Resource and State-Level Reviews tool for midcourse corrections where required. and be supplemented The M & E process incorporated into the Action Plan should have by workshops and other clear-cut provisions for State-Level Reviews and be supplemented by work- initiatives to realize the shops and other initiatives to realize the vision of a Learning Community. vision of a Learning The process will also respect that Poverty is not a static concept and Community. that participatory poverty mapping will alter indicators over time. The M & E process should also be able to evaluate the performance of engines of growth at the macro level vis-à-vis their impact on Poverty Reduction. CONTINUITY, LEARNING, PROCESS DOCUMENTATION Missions, Departments and Commissionerates are coordinated by various Ministries. Processes have to be in place to ensure that the strategies and Action Plan benefit from mechanisms for continuity in implementation. This requirement in continuity also extends to the consolidation of individual and collective learnings. A key requirement in this area is Process Documentation. Process documentation not only consolidates learnings in an experiential mode, but also serves to reflect upon the how of things and communicate experiences and best practices to other constituents / actors of the Poverty Eradication Plan. PSU-APRLP 21
  21. 21. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS Process documentation also translates the significance of their work to all the personnel of Departments, Missions and Commissionerates, beyond mere statistics, in a motivating fashion and in the context of the larger picture spanning all sectors. The role of Process Documentation in implementing the Action Plan has to be stressed and seen as different from Annual Reports / Progress Reports. Process documentation PROGRAMME-PROJECT MODES AND ADDRESSING not only consolidates REDUNDANCIES AND DUPLICATIONS learnings in an experi- ential mode, but also Chapter 2 (2.8) of the Draft Tenth Five-Year Plan of the Government of In- serves to reflect upon dia mentions that “the rapid growth in the number of schemes also entailed the how of things and an undesirable build up of unproductive cost on administration and expendi- communicate experi- ture”. Though it has been remarked that A.P. too has a significant amount of ences and best prac- redundancy/duplication in its Poverty Eradication Programme, programmes tices to other constitu- such as the APRLP (Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) ents / actors of the Pov- and Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor (APUSP) have already be- erty Eradication Plan. gun an alternative approach of joining ongoing programmes and bringing to them extended scope, holistic agendas and also new and best practices, apart from other resources. The success of these experiences also hold yet another important point for AP’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan. This is the need to implement programmes in the Project Mode. This has critical value in optimising re- sources, effective planning and better evolution of outcomes. The broad heads discussed above are critical saliences and coordi- nates which should guide the consolidation of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. 22 PSU-APRLP
  22. 22. CHAPTER IV POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT
  23. 23. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT MACRO POLICY AND LEAD INSTITUTIONS In order to give concrete shape to its poverty eradication approaches and to realize the Vision 2020 goals, the State Government constituted a State Level Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM). The SPEM is a committee of government officials and representatives from research institutes and civil society, whose role is to coordinate and provide guidance on poverty SERP focuses on the reduction efforts in the state. very poor and communities not The SPEM’s strategy paper in 2001 lists a broader set of measures to covered by previous reduce poverty, which include: poverty reduction a. Generation of faster growth, especially in agriculture; initiatives, and also acts b. Promotion of health and education services; as a forum of advocacy c. Enhancing social capital through Self Help Groups (SHGs) for the formulation and d. Promoting sustainable livelihoods of the poor; implementation of pro- poor policies, plans and e. Focusing on backward regions and poorer sections of the society; and programmes. f. Improving the administrative machinery in order to improve the delivery services for the poor and promote greater convergence of social development and other poverty-focused programs in the state. The State government has promoted the Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty (SERP) to facilitate implementation of the strategies and approaches by SPEM. The Velugu-I Project, known during its pilot phase as the AP-District Poverty Initiative Programme (AP-DPIP), and currently known as the Velugu-II or AP Rural Poverty Reduction Project (AP-RPRP), is implemented by SERP, with special emphasis on empowerment of poor through social mobilization and institutional building, capacity building and research. It focuses on the very poor and communities not covered by previous poverty reduction initiatives, and also acts as a forum of advocacy for the formulation and implementation of pro-poor policies, plans and programmes. PSU-APRLP 24
  24. 24. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT While SERP focuses on rural poverty, needs of the urban poor are specially catered for through the APUSP or the AP Urban Services for the Poor project. The APUSP basically addresses urban poverty issues through Slum Improvement Programmes (SIPs) in several towns and cities governed by Municipal Corporations and Municipalities. In addition to the above initiatives, poverty issues are also addressed through the Water, Employment and Literacy Missions and the Dept. of The selection of poor at Health and Family Welfare. the community or The Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) under the household levels has Water Mission is concentrating its efforts in the same locations developed undergone several under the Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP). The APRLP initiatives are positive transitions from systematic in their approach with special emphasis on community ad hoc identifications participation and empowerment to identify, design and implement livelihood through baseline study options. approaches to Participatory Poverty IDENTIFYING THE POOR Appraisal (PPA). The most critical and primary task before the state government and the agencies entrusted with poverty eradication goals has been to identify the areas that need attention, and the target communities or individuals who need to be included in the designed programme. While the selection of districts to plan and implement pro-poor initiatives is still mostly done on the basis of SC / ST population concentrations, the selection of poor at the community or household levels has undergone several positive transitions from ad hoc identifications through baseline study approaches to Participatory Poverty Appraisal (PPA). DISTRICT PRIORITISATION Poverty is a manifestation of several inter-related factors. During the early days, district selection for poverty eradication programme implementation was taken up more on the initiatives of an area representative on some limited criteria or parameters. Later, with the definition of “Poverty Line”, the selection of districts was based on the concentration of BPL (Below Poverty Line) households generated from baseline surveys. 25 PSU-APRLP
  25. 25. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT However, with the process for below poverty level enumeration always being under a grey cloud, the need to identify districts on a more logical set of parameters or indicators became imperative. In line with the approach proposed here, it may be logically assumed that the positive development scenario in a better off district is due to a ripple phenomena set off by the abundance of one or two resources. A graphic analyses of data to demonstrate the relationship between impact of development and backwardness is given below: PSU-APRLP 26
  26. 26. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT CLUSTERING OF DISTRICTS WITH THEIR SALIENT FEATURES 27 PSU-APRLP
  27. 27. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT APRLP INNOVATIONS FOR AREA SELECTION The Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) has adopted innovative techniques to identify its priority Mandals. Focusing on watershed development as the main canvas for its operations, APRLP has utilised the Poverty Atlas, a Remote Sensing Database and a Socio-economic Database. Since APRLP seeks to consider people’s livelihood situations in their entirety, it has sought to integrate the indicators identified through the above- APRLP seeks to mentioned sources and develop indices of Natural Resources Degradation and consider people’s Multiple Deprivations. The watershed analysis carried out by APSRAC livelihood situations in (Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Applications Centre), giving the four their entirety. modified categories of Natural Resources Degradation, and the Multiple Deprivation (also called social and material deprivation) categories are given equal importance. When integrated, they generated sixteen typologies (Box – 1). Prioritisation of areas to be selected was based on these typologies, with areas categorised under typologies 1, 2, 3 and 4 receiving the highest priority in addition to areas which confirm to typologies 5, 9 and 13 as they have high poverty incidence irrespective of the natural resource status. The process of area selection is further strengthened by the use of nine-point selection criteria (Box – 2). Weightage is given to each of these nine parameters based on marks allocated for different manifestations of these parameters. The final selection of areas for implementation is also supported through qualitative observations as a ground-truth verification exercise. Box – 1 : Deprivation Typologies Box – 2 : 9 Point Selection Criteria for Selection of Micro Watershed Areas Adopted by APRLP Typologies 1 – 4 Very high NRM deprivation with high, medium • Percentage of small and marginal farmers moderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Percentage of SC / ST holdings Typologies 5 – 8 • Percentage of women organised in SHGs and Medium NRM deprivation with high, medium participating in programme moderate or low levels of poverty respectively Typologies 9 – 12 • Status of ground water Moderate NRM deprivation with high, medium • APSRAC prioritisation moderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Livestock population Typologies 13 – 16 • No. of families affected / involved in migration Low NRM deprivation with high, medium moderate or • Contiguity of proposed low levels of poverty respectively • Availability of fallow / wasteland & CPR for the poor to utilise usufruct PSU-APRLP 28
  28. 28. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT THE AP-DPIP INITIATIVES The AP-District Poverty Box – 3 : Indicators for BPL Identification Initiative Programme (AP- 1. Size of operational holding of land 2. Type of house DPIP), in particular, has 3. Average availability of normal wear clothing (per person in pieces) extended beyond the scope of 4. Food security 5. Sanitation GoI guidelines by adopting 6. Ownership of consumer durables 7. Literacy status of the highest literate adult the PIP approach in tandem 8. Status of the household in labour force The PIP process is 9. Means of livelihood with the routine BPL survey 10. Status of children (5-14 years) (Any child) used with sufficient based on the 13 GoI 11. Type of indebtedness from household Preference 12. Reasons for migration care to ensure total recommended indicators for assistance community (Box – 3). Separate BPL lists participation through are prepared using the BPL survey as well as the PIP process and the lists preliminary rapport are compared to shortlist the common households. While the disaggregated establishment, information on these indicators is used for identifying the poorest of the poor informal meetings and the marginally poor sections of the community, aggregated information with key community from these indicators is used for policy formulation. members, community meetings, sharing of Using the Participatory Poverty Assessment approach, specifically the information and PIP (Participatory Identification of the Poor) process, DPIP has adopted tools involvement & like Transect Walk, Social Mapping, Vulnerability Mapping, Disability approval of the Mapping and Well Being Analysis to gather the required information that village panchayats. helps identify the poorer households. The PIP process is used with sufficient care to ensure total community participation through preliminary rapport establishment, informal meetings with key community members, community meetings, sharing of information and involvement & approval of the village panchayats. Till the 31st March, 2003, DPIP has managed to undertake PIP exercises in 14, 585 villages spread across 792 Mandals in 16 Districts. PRO-POOR GROWTH STRATEGIES UNDERLYING THE ACTION PLAN Andhra Pradesh undertook many reforms in the last seven years. They are: fiscal reforms, power reforms, governance reforms and institutional reforms. The objectives of these reforms are to step up economic growth and alleviate poverty while protecting the environment. Reforms are underway in the power and irrigation sectors for expanding their capacity by improving efficiency and cost-recovery. 29 PSU-APRLP
  29. 29. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Significant strides have been made in respect of participatory management of land, water and forest resources through the watershed development committees, water user associations and joint forest management. Women’s Self-Help Groups are a success story in the State and have formed a central element in the Strategy for poverty eradication through social mobilization, community empowerment and capacity building. These reforms will yield significant results in course of time and will Women’s self help facilitate realising the Goals of the Action Plan. groups are a success The reforms reflect the State’s strategies for achieving MDG’s by story in the State and 2015 and eradicate poverty by 2020 through a focus on the following have formed a central policy areas: element in the Strategy for poverty eradication ECONOMIC GROWTH through social mobilization, community The distance between AP and all India and fast performing State’s widened empowerment and in the post-reform period on account of weak social and economic capacity building. infrastructure. Therefore, the State is increasing capital outlays substantially to build up infrastructure. AGRICULTURE The experience of developing countries shows that agricultural growth is considered as pro-poor because the majority of the poor are dependent on this sector. Agriculture has been an area of strength for AP but has not received adequate priority in the last two decades. At the aggregate level for agriculture, the following policy issues are focuses for higher growth: (a) Augmenting the investment in agriculture and rural infrastructure; (b) Improving the quality and reach of technology dissemination, particularly in rain-fed areas; (c) Re-examining the legal framework for land-leasing to ensure adequate safeguard for both the tenants and the landowner, as this is likely promote greater investment in agriculture; (d) Providing an enabling environment to facilitate the farmers to benefit from the emerging opportunities thrown up by the liberalization and globalisation; PSU-APRLP 30
  30. 30. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT (e) Aggressively pursuing diversification in agriculture to optimise income and employment (f) Focusing on non-farm employment opportunities, by promoting appropriate agro-based processing industries; agro-based processing industries; (g) Promoting rapid rural growth in drought-prone and rainfed areas of the State. In these areas, horticulture, forestry and livestock will play a larger role. Basically, this signifies high priority for irrigation, agricultural research, especially in biotechnology focused on dry land farming, extension services and ensuring access to institutional credit for resource-poor farmers. NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (WATER MISSION) Vision 2020 document of the State of Andhra Pradesh has accorded prime importance for the devel- opment of agriculture, targeting an overall growth rate of 5.7 per cent. Six major “growth engines” have been identified for the sector (Watershed development, Agro services, Oilseeds, Vegetables, Spices and Dairy). Strategies for development of agriculture feeds into three major missions viz. Wa- ter Mission, Employment Mission as well as the Poverty Mission. Further the activities of eight govern- ment departments are being coordinated under the popularly known programme Neeru–Meeru (Water and You). • Under a 10-year perspective watershed development plan from 1997 to 2007, it is aimed at de- veloping 10 million ha wastelands. • A rainwater harvesting space of 0.71 bcm (25 tmc) has been created, resulting in additional an- nual groundwater recharge of about 6.09 bcm (215 tmc). There is focus on community mobilisation and production enhancement through: • Formation of 2 lakh Rythu Mitra User / Self-Help Groups. • 1 million acres of land to be brought under horticulture with drip irrigation systems, further in- creasing water use efficiency and reducing water demand, contributing to the objectives of Water Mission. • Productivity increase in Oilseeds is being pursued by the Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses and Maize. • Livestock and rain-fed farming systems support each other very well. Feed and fodder, and the relations between livestock and management of natural resources are addressed as being of cru- cial importance for sustainable livestock production. 31 PSU-APRLP
  31. 31. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Conservation of surface and groundwater has become imperative. This is best achieved when water and power are priced according to the volume of consumption. Involvement of rural communities is essential in setting user charges as well as for assessing individual consumption. INDUSTRY Slow industrial growth has been an area of concern. Strengthening infrastructure, such as, power, roads and ports, expansion of institutional There is thrust in policy credit for small scale and rural industries, and good governance by cutting framework in AP down delays in giving clearances and reducing corruption stand out towards making IT an prominently as areas of reform for attracting private investment domestic as enabler in development well as foreign. and equalizer of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY opportunities. There is thrust in policy framework in AP towards making IT an enabler in development and equalizer of opportunities. With the spread of education and decentralization of governance, IT can become a powerful tool in the hands of the people at large for their socio-economic betterment and overall empowerment. LABOUR - INTENSIVE PATTERN OF GROWTH One of the main elements of pro-poor growth is labour intensive pattern of growth. In all the sectors (agriculture, industry and services), there is a focus on increasing employment. Given the problem of unemployment for edu- cated and unemployment and underemployment for the masses, twin strate- gies for improving the livelihoods are developed. The first sub-strategy aims at rural and urban masses that are illiterate/semi-literate, unskilled, and semi-literate/skilled. The second sub-strategy addresses the problems of educated unemployed. It will be on Selected Growth Engines and Clusters for these two categories. The current strategy of social mobilization for watershed develop- ment aims to be sustained in the long run by making land use more remu- nerative through new dry land technologies and the development of infra- structure. PSU-APRLP 32
  32. 32. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT POLICIES FOR FULFILLING TARGETS IN NON-INCOME DIMENSIONS OF POVERTY A. SOCIAL SECTOR EXPENDITURES The trends in social sector expenditures in A.P is positive. The Social Sector, is defined as the total of expenditure on ‘Social Services’ and ‘ Rural A.P. spent around 6 to Development’ as given in Central and State budgets. The head ‘Social 11 per cent of its GSDP Services’ includes, among other things, education, health & family welfare, on the social sector in water supply and sanitation. The expenditure under the head ‘Rural the last two decades. It Development’ (which is listed under ‘Economic Services’ in the budget may be noted that the classification) relates mostly to anti-poverty programmes. A.P. spent around impact on the outcomes 6 to 11 per cent of its GSDP on the social sector in the last two decades. It in social sector depends may be noted that the impact on the outcomes in social sector depends on on both and the both expenditures and on the effective utilization of these expenditures. effective utilization of these expenditure. B. EDUCATION There are three issues that the State is addressing in improving literacy and primary education in the State. First, is resources allocation to education particularly to primary education from the budget. Second, the quality of education in terms of curriculum, better infrastructure and improvement of teaching. Third, retaining children in the schools which is more difficult than enrolling them. The A.P. government has designed schemes such as ‘Mabadi’ (our school), ‘Chaduvkundam’ (back to school) and akshara sankranti to improve access to children and women of disadvantaged communities. Retaining of children in the schools needs intensive institutional arrangements such as social mobilization of the community on child labour and education. Such attempts are being made successfully at the micro level. 33 PSU-APRLP
  33. 33. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT EDUCATION FOR ALL MISSION Vision 2020 of Andhra Pradesh states that "Andhra Pradesh will not be just a literate society, but a knowledge society capable of meeting the challenges posed by the 21st century. It will be a state in which every person will be able to realise his or her full potential through access to edu- cational opportunities regardless of the class or region to which he or she belongs". To achieve the goals of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) and Universalisation of Adult Education (UAE), Government of A.P has constituted a State-level-Education-for-All Mission. The Mission’s objectives are: • To review the existing situation in the state in regard to literacy. • To identify areas of strength and critical areas of weakness. • To review all ongoing programmes relating to universalisation of elementary educa- tion and adult literacy in the state and suggest measures for coordinating, integrating and strengthening them to achieve the best results. • To suggest measures to control dropout rate, promote retention, and improve quality at both primary and secondary levels in schools. • To draw upon the best national and international practices in literacy and school edu- cation identify new strategies and approaches to achieve the Vision 2020 objectives in the state. • To draw up a coordinated plan for promoting education among disadvantaged groups, in particular girls, minority communities, SCs and STs, Girl Child in remote tribal areas. C. HEALTH Great stress has been placed on improving the major element of public healthcare, i.e. the Primary Health Centres. Hospital Advisory Committees have been created and active public healthcare system managements. PSU-APRLP 34
  34. 34. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Public expenditure on the health sector is beng increased. It is not enough to allocate more resources to the sector. The efficiency of public spending is also being improved. More resources are being spent on preventive care. Poor benefit more from this. Primary healthcare services are being made accountable to the local communities. The share of private sector in the total health care sector is high and has increased over time. One cannot ignore, therefore, the role of private sector in the State. Efforts are on Primary healthcare to make the private sector accountable to the poor. The Government is services are being planning to promote institutions to regulate the private sector. made accountable to the local communities. HEALTH (DEPT. OF HEALTH, MEDICAL AND FAMILY WELFARE) AP’s Vision 2020 is succinct and challenging in the goals it sets for the health sector. By 2020, the state aims at: • Achieving health indicators of international standards / levels • Stabilize population growth To realize the Vision 2020 goals, AP’s health sector focuses on the following priorities: 1. Universal access to primary healthcare 2. Specific programmes to promote family welfare, particularly, the health of women and chil- dren and family planning. 3. Focusing on improving health status in disadvantaged groups and backward regions. 4. Ensuring a strong prevention focus 5. Enhance the reach and performance of the public health system. 6. Formulation of a state IEC (Information, Education and Communications) programme, including leveraging the electronic media. (Contributing to disease prevention, control, nutrition, sanita- tion, personal hygiene and fitness) 7. Free health care access (basic and specialized) for poor and vulnerable groups and health in- surance for other sections for access to these services. 8. Major diseases such as TB, malaria and HIV/AIDS to be contained and prevented. 9. Eliminate malnutrition. 35 PSU-APRLP
  35. 35. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT The need to promote community health insurance schemes (e.g. SEWA’s scheme) in order to provide health services at low cost to poor is a priority. D. FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY PROGRAMMES Major programmes that improve food and nutrition security are Public Distribution system (PDS), Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), and Antyodaya Anna Yojana. PDS improves food security at household level while ICDS helps in increasing nutrition of women and children. Antyodaya Major programmes that Anna Yojana improves the food security of destitutes. improve food and These programmes are being strengthened in order to reach the benefits to nutrition security are the target population more effectively. In all the above pro-poor policies, the Public Distribution special problems of disadvantage sections of SCs and STs are recognized. system (PDS), Integrated Child URBAN POVERTY Development Services (ICDS), and Antyodaya Large -scale rural to urban migration of populations in search of more secure Anna Yojana. livelihoods triggers urban poverty. Unskilled labour force living in unorganised slums and working as manual labourers in construction jobs, as domestic servants and as odd-job contract labour lead pathetic lives. While some of these migrants reach urban settlements lured by the opportunities to earn quick incomes, a large segment of rural to urban migrants are forced to come to the urban areas due to severe drought conditions, causing loss of livelihoods. In addition to causing high pressure on the planned civic amenities, the migrants, especially the women and children, are exploited in every conceivable way by vested interest groups. Unfortunately, there is a lack of appropriate processes to measure and document the inflow of migrants, whether seasonal or permanent. PSU-APRLP 36
  36. 36. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Concerning identification of the urban poor, the APUSP project has also adopted similar procedures by gathering information on seven non-economic parameters. Each parameter consists of six attributes indicating the condition from ‘worst’ to ‘better’. Accordingly, weightage scores are assigned to each attribute, i.e. from ‘100’ (worst condition) to ‘0’ (better condition). Thus, a household scoring an average of 100 will be given top priority under the programme Plan. Example of Household Rating for BPL Qualification by APUSP Parameter Attributes Score 1. Roof Asbestos 60 2. Floor Bajri 80 3. Water No water supply 100 4. Sanitation Community dry latrine 80 5. Education level Middle pass 60 6. Type of Employment Semi skilled 80 7. Status of Children in a House Working & attending 80 Literacy classes Sometimes ----------------- Total 540 ----------------- Average weighted score for a household = 540 / 7 = 77.1 i.e., future beneficiary 37 PSU-APRLP
  37. 37. CHAPTER V MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT
  38. 38. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT APPROACH TO THE PLAN The last decade of the 20th Century has seen a visible shift in the focus of de- velopment planning from the mere expansion of production of goods and services, and the consequent growth of per capita income, to planning for en- The State has adopted hancement of human well being. This approach is most succinctly captured in a Plan Cycle Manage- the MDGs (millennium development goals) adopted by the United Nations in ment Approach and its Millennium Declaration. Similar to MDGs, the Tenth Plan, for the first time, created a Logical sets monitorable targets for the Tenth Plan period (2002-07) and beyond. Framework for its Pov- Some of the major targets at the national level are: (1) Reduction in poverty erty Reduction Action ratio by 5 percentage points by 2007 and 15 percentage points by 2012; Plan. (2) Providing gainful and high-quality employment at least to the addition to the labour force over the Tenth Plan period; (3) All children in school by 2003; all children to complete 5 years of schooling by 2007; (4) Reduction in gender gap in literacy and wage rates by at least 50 per cent by 2007; (5) Reduction of infant mortality rate (IMR) to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 28 by 2012; (6) Reduction of maternal mortality rate (MMR) to 2 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 1 by 2012. The Vision 2020 docu- ment of the GoAP reflects these goals. Andhra Pradesh’s Poverty Reduction / Eradication Strategy and Action Plan have emerged from this background. The State has adopted a Plan Cycle Management Approach and created a Logical Framework for its Poverty Reduction Action Plan. PSU-APRLP 39
  39. 39. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT 40 PSU-APRLP
  40. 40. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT INDICATORS OF POVERTY AND TARGETS A baseline assessment of well being for A.P. that builds on the MDG’s, aug- mented by the development goals of Vision 2020 as well as the national de- velopment goals of the Tenth Five Year Plan has been done. Some of the in- dicators that emerged through this process are given in the table below. These serve as the intermediate indicators of the Action Plan Log Frame and will be refined/replaced/augmented as the Draft Plan progresses towards the Final Action Plan. Table: Selected Indicators and Targets for Andhra Pradesh Indicator in Vision Development Goal AP:MDG Indicator 2000 or closest 2020 in 2015 year 2020 Poverty and Nutrition Head count poverty ratio 21.6* 13.1 0 Under nutrition under age 37.7 24.6 Reduce 5 malnutri- tion Child Labour 9.98 or 25 0 Universal primary Net enrolment ratio 90.3 99 100 education (primary) Students reaching from -- 95 90 grade 1 to grade 5 Literacy rate (7+) 61.1 99 Reduce child Infant mortality rate (per 66 23.3 10 1000 live births) mortality Under five mortality rate 85.5 30.3 20 (per 1000 live births) Improve maternal Maternal mortality ratio 154 75 -- health (per 100,000 live births) Source: World Bank (2003) except head count ratio for 2000. * Deaton adjusted estimates. PSU-APRLP 41
  41. 41. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT MONITORING OUTCOMES AND INDICATORS The log frame approach to the Poverty Reduction Action Plan is not a simplis- tic force-fit of Goals, Targets and Indicators into prevailing formats of Logi- cal Frameworks for development projects. It is rather, an adaptation of a conceptual framework and enlarging its scope to encompass the complexities of a Statewide Action Plan which subsumes sectoral Action Plans, District Ac- tion Plans, Mandal Level Action Plans and community Level plans. It also pro- A Statewide Action vides for managing Intermediate Indicators in relation to targeted outcomes Plan which subsumes across annual and other time horizons. Sectoral Action Plans, District Action Plans, The Action Plan Log Frame, therefore, has features that go beyond a Mandal Level Action conventional log frame and deploy management tools and strategies which Plans and Community do not fall in the scope of standalone projects. Critical aspects, therefore, Level plans. include: a) Combine the principles and best practices of Large Enterprise Man- agement and Good governance. b) A plan Cycle Management strategy that employs PERT/CPM Tools, which make it possible to integrate sectoral, sub-sectoral and District Plans into the Statewide plan. c) Adapt develop Enterprise-wide tools specific to the state for Re- source Planning, Management Information System and Forecasting. d) Institutional Change Management and ‘Business Process Reengineer- ing’ to ensure that the system is optimally geared to execute the Ac- tion Plan. These and other aspects of the plan emphasize the need to harness universally valid management strategies and Tools with the clear understand- ing that governance and the Development field are not isolated islands of esoteric practices immune to management science. Equally much, the Log Frame approach takes into account that the execution of the Action Plan itself will alter the socio-economic realities it addresses. 42 PSU-APRLP
  42. 42. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT The Action Plan, therefore, unfolds across a dynamic and complex en- vironment, where changes in social structures, both desirable and dysfunc- tional, have to be accounted for. In fact, given the complex social fabric of the state, cultural factors and social change have to be part of the Action Plan’s anchorages and references. The State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan, in assonance with the above, provides for sectoral plans, District plans, Mandal plans and Commu- The Log Frame ap- nity level plans to go beyond mere econometric modeling and incorporate proach to the Action social capital and planned social change (Caste, gender and attitudes/ Plan, in order to realize perceptions/practices in other areas which have a direct or indirect causal its true potential, is relationship with poverty) as critical elements. This is especially so in the Com- complemented by a munity level, Mandal and District plans that emerge from and feedback into Plan Monitoring and Im- the State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan. pact Assessment Sys- The Log Frame approach to the Action Plan, in order to realize its tem. true potential, is complemented by a Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System. The Monitoring and Impact Assessment System of AP’s Poverty Reduc- tion Action Plan assumes the following in common with its strategy and Log Frame: a) The Poverty Reduction Action Plan has to synergies with the overall state plan and the Government of India’s Five Year Plans. b) The Draft Action Plan has to become a “People’s Plan” in its final form, through Participatory Processes. c) It has to account for social change and social capital, however dif- ficult these may be to monitor. d) It has to be the key driver of the “bottom-up approach” to for- mulate inclusive macro policies and planning for pro-poor growth. It has to have, as an integral element, plan cycle management and provide for two-way feedback cycles, spanning all MIS nodes of the Action Plan dendogram, essential for midcourse correction. PSU-APRLP 43
  43. 43. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT Although the main objective of the monitoring system is to trace the progress in outcomes and impacts, both final (outcome and impact) and inter- mediate indicators (input and output) are to be tracked. Monitoring final in- dicators helps to judge progress toward the goals set. But final indicators are the result of several factors, many of which are outside the control of policy makers and programme administrators. Intermediate indicators, on the other hand, generally change as a result of actions by the Government and other Participatory Plan Moni- agents. Moreover, final indicators generally change slowly over time while, toring and Impact As- intermediate indicators change more rapidly, giving an indicators with which sessment is part of the is happening to some of its determinants. process of integrating stakeholder participa- Participatory Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment is part of the tion not only in planning process of integrating stake holder participation not only in planning and im- and implementation but plementation but also in reviewing the progress of plan implementation and also in reviewing the evaluating outcomes. Such plan monitoring and Impact Assessment System will progress of plan imple- facilitate Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) and becomes a Learning, mentation and evaluat- Capacity Building and Empowerment tool too. ing outcomes. In this context, it has to be noted that the Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System (PMIAS) mooted in the Action Plan is a conceptual frame- work which will have to be made concrete through further processes. The conceptual framework for the PMIAS stresses the following. · Going beyond monitoring inputs and outputs, to also focus on out- comes. · Incorporate the logical consequences of participation being a continu- ous process and, therefore, the need to go beyond “snap shots” and quantitative parameters. 44 PSU-APRLP

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