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Participatory methods for understanding communities in rural areas

Participatory methods for understanding communities in rural areas

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  • 1. 30TH October 2012, Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, GEO VILLAGE VISIT Behavior, Capitals and PLA Tools Dr. MCR HRD IAP, Hyderabad87th Foundation Course forCivil Service Officers http://www.e-geo.org
  • 2. Index • Behavior • Capitals ___________________ • Physical Capital – Timeline – Venn Diagram – List • Natural Capital – Resource Mapping – Transect walk – Seasonality – Imageries – Energy issues – HH visits – Climate Change indicators – Disaster Management • Schemes Implementation • Success Stories • Suggested Actions
  • 3. Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) • One of the participatory approaches • Processes of communication • Methods for seeking villagers participation • Sensitization to bring about attitudinal and behavioral change; and • Using participatory techniques to build rapport, elicit support, information and participation of the people in their own development.
  • 4. PLA is used• To ascertain needs• To establish priorities for development activities• Within the scope of feasibility studies• During the implementation phase of projects• Within the scope of monitoring and evaluation of projects• For studies of specific topics• For focusing formal surveys on essential aspects, and identifying conflicting group interests.• For action plans preparation
  • 5. Areas of applicationNatural resource managementAgriculturePoverty alleviationWomen in development programsHealth and nutritionPreliminary and primary educationVillage and district-level planningInstitutional and policy analysis.
  • 6. BEHAVIOR
  • 7. Behavior with community• Greeting• Introduction• Sitting• Space and Energy• Respecting their opinion• Leader• Sharing the results• Thanking the community• Appearance – Dress – Shoes – Etc.
  • 8. •Comment on these photos
  • 9. Community
  • 10. Greeting
  • 11. Pride and Dignity of people
  • 12. 11/1/2012
  • 13. Capitals
  • 14. SL framework: Determinants of adaptive capacityLivelihood ExamplesresourcesHuman Knowledge, SkillsSocial Women’s savings and loans groups, farmer- CBOsPhysical Irrigation infrastructure, seed and grain storage facilitiesNatural Reliable water source, productive landFinancial Micro-insurance, diversified income sources Policies, institutions and power structures
  • 15. Capitals
  • 16. Land Degradation • Steep slopes • Sandy / silt soils Water scarcity Low • Uncertain agriculture Rainfall yield • Climate change Sustainable Small LandFood Security Livelihoods holdings
  • 17. Seasonal Migration Corruption • Unemployment Poor Communal education / conflict IlliteracyPoverty• Exploitation Sustainable High IMR,• Unskilled Livelihoods UMR
  • 18. Poor accessibility Poor access,utilization and Poor delivery of communicationgovt. services Sustainable Livelihoods
  • 19. Non- cooperation between Conflict families Communal between conflicts SC/ST Growing SustainableIgnorance Livelihoods suspicion, heartedness
  • 20. Natural Sustainable Social &Human Livelihoods Economic Physical & Policy
  • 21. • Soil and moisture conservation Agriculture • Seeds • Agriculture equipment • Micro-watersheds • Dug wellsWater resources • Water harvesting and conservation technologies • Skills developmentNon-agriculture • Enterprises • SHGs and microfinance Convergence • Government schemes Conflict • Reconciliation • Meetings between communitiesresolution and • Joint economic ventures peace • Sports
  • 22. List of programmes
  • 23. INFO FROM SECONDARY STAKEHOLDERS• Interaction and discussions with various officials and representatives of organizations in the District• Chief Executive Officer (CEO)• Chief Planning Officer (CPO)• Project Director, District Water Management Agency (DWMA)• Ground Water Department• Officers at Agriculture Department• Mandal level officials, MDO, MRO, Statistical officers, Agriculture officers, etc of the potential Mandals.• Village level secretaries• Secondary data collection and analysis
  • 24. POSSIBLE DELIVERY SYSTEMS AT VILLAGE LEVELNRM1. MGNREGA Infrastructure2. DWMA Housing Department3. Rural Infrastructure Development Fund4. Ground Water Dept. Services5. Forest Dept. Electricity6. Agriculture Dept. Road Transport Corporation7. Animal Husbandry8. Fisheries Artisans / Industries / enterprise9. Irrigation Dept (Minor / Medium / Major) NEDCAP Industries DeptSocial Handlooms and Textiles1. Dist. Rural Dev. Agency (DRDA) / District Poverty Initiatives Programme (DPIP) Other Programmes2. DPEP / Education APRLP3. Medical and Health UNDP4. SC Corporation5. ST Welfare/Tribal Welfare6. BC Welfare / BC Corporation7. Social Welfare8. ICDS
  • 25. Government departments (AP)• Agriculture and Co-Operation • Labour, Employment Training and• Animal Husbandry and Fisheries Factories• Backward Classes Welfare • Law• Consumer Affairs Food & Civil • Minorities Welfare Supplies • Municipal Administration and Urban• Energy Development• Environment, Forests, Science and • Panchayat Raj and Rural Technology Development• FinanceFinance (PMU)Finance • Planning (Project Wing) • Public Enterprises• General Administration • Rain Shadow Areas Development• Health, Medical and Family Welfare • Revenue• Higher Education • School Education (SE Wing)• Home • School Education (SSA Wing)• Housing • Social Welfare• Industries and Commerce • Transport, Roads and Buildings• Information Technology and • Women Development, Child Welfare Communications and Disabled Welfare• Infrastructure and Investment • Youth Advancement, Tourism and• Irrigation Culture http://www.aponline.gov.in/apportal/departments/portallistoforgsbydepts.aspx?i=3
  • 26. PLA
  • 27. PLA BEST QUALITATIVE APPROACHES• PLA=an effective, low-cost, empowering, participatory method of gathering qualitative & semi- structured info (beliefs, behaviors)• Can discuss controversial/sensitive topics in a non-threatening way• Heterogeneous—in age, gender, income, religion, ethnicity, social class, etc• Flexible: people come and go--anything goes• No pre-set, leading questions
  • 28. PHYSICAL CAPITAL
  • 29. Functioning of Village Level Institutions
  • 30. Infrastructure facilitiesFacilities Available Facilities not Available • All weather road • High School • PDS Shop • Hospital (4km away ) • Primary school • Post office (4km away ) • Primary Health sub- • Bank (4km away ) center • Police station (18km • Overhead water tank away) • Electricity supply • Medical store • Community hall • Panchayat Bhawan
  • 31. Demography………No of Households 873Total Population 4260 Population below 06 yrs 610Male Population 2190 Population below 06 Male 311Female Population 2070 Population below 06 Female 299Total Agriculture Labour 240Marginal Agriculture Labour - 58 Marginal Agriculture Labour - 182Male FemaleLiterate Polulation 1826 Illiterate Population 2434Male Literate 1100 Male illiterate population 1090Female Literate 726 Female illiterate population 1344No of Households 873 Working Population 1989
  • 32. Demography………Main working population 328Main Working Population Male 92 Main Working Population 236 FemaleMain Casual Working 69 Total Casual labourPopulationMain Casual Working 21 Main Casual Working 48Population PopulationMale FemaleNumber of SC 1164Male SC Population 611 Female SC Population 553Number of ST 125Male ST Population 64 Female ST Population 61
  • 33. Important activitiesrelevant to the communities
  • 34. Time Line Last Drought 1981 Primary School Cotton 1947 Cultivation 1986 SHG movement Gram Panchayat 2000 PUC 1961 1987 Grameen Bank High School 1968 2001 1st Tractor 1989 Ragi Cultivation Post Office 1969 1912 Telephone Chickengunya Exchange 1995 Disease 2007 Start of PHC 1970 Settlements Sugarcane Cultivation 1811 1961 Library 1998 Last Panchayat Electricity Board Election 2009 1973
  • 35. Time Line YEAR Event1850 Forest department rest house1850-57 Kundan Singh reign (popular local tribal king)1960 Primary school1975 Veterinary hospital1985 Government bus connectivity1987 Water pump1990 Electricity supply1995 Private bus transport begins1995-96 Water tank1996 Major earthquake of 6.0 richter scale (no deaths)2001 Child marriage stopped; Ward election2004-05 Land pattas given to villagers by forest department; Government buses stopped2006-07 Tractor in the village2009 Two trained ASHA in the village2010 Total Sanitation Mission
  • 36. VENN DIAGRAM REPRESENTING THE INTERACTION AND INFLUENCE OFDIFFERENT COMMUNITIES ON THE LIVES OF THE VILLAGERS Police Anganwadi NGO Teacher Community Forest Officials BDO PRI Library TEHSILDAR
  • 37. Social MapSocial Map
  • 38. Matrix Scoring Sanitation/DrainageProblems M.Swamy Shobhawati (Jr. Deviramma(SHG Ramesh Aggregate Rank (Lingayat Health woman) (STMale, male) Asst),Anganwad Lack of doctors/Inadequate Medical Help Coolie) iIrrigation 2 3 8 8 21 (5)Drinking Water 3 7 6 Liquor 6 22 (6)Less Doctors/improper 4 4 4 1 13 (2)injection and diagnosis Road ConditionLoan Facilities 1 8 7 5 21 (5)School/College 6 5 5 7 23 (7) Loan facility/IrrigationAll weather roads 7 6 3 3 19 (4)Liquor 8 2 2 4 16 (3) Drinking WaterSanitation/Drainage 5 1 1 2 9 (1) School/College
  • 39. Natural Resources & Agriculture Surf ace wat er 1 00 80 CPR management Ground wat er 60 40 20Agricult ure ext ension 0 Drinking wat er Market ing & Value addit ion Soil moist ure Farmers Inst it ut ions
  • 40. Quantification of Qualitative InformationSurface water1 Adequate storage not created , not shared 0-25judiciously2 Adequate storage created , not shared judiciously 25-503 Adequate storage created sharing with informal 50-75system4 Adequate storage created sharing with institution 75-100
  • 41. Ashwini Bharini Kruthika Rohini Mrugasira Arudhra Punarvasu Pushyami Ashlesha Makha Pubba Uttara Hastha Chitta Swathi Vishaka Anuradha Jaishta Mula 1 Rainfall No rains Good High 2 Water availability (Irrigation) Very less Good Surplus 3 Water availability (Drinking) Less Surplus 4 Paddy ### OOO ###OOO### ###OOO Transplantation 5 Seed Cotton CCC## CCC 6 Jowar/ millets ###OOO ### ### OOO ###OOO### 7 Vegetables OO###OOO ###OOO ###OOO Brinjal, Mirchi, Bendi, leafy vegetables, tomato Mirch, Bendi, Leafy vegetables Tomato, Brinjal, Leafy vegetables 8 Migration OOOO### OOOO## 9 Wage Labour (Agriculture) #OC ###OOOCC No labour work Labour work10 Earnings from crops11 Farmers Debts OOO##12 Wage labour Debts OOO#13 Draught animals OOO OOO Purchasing Selling14 MFP collection ####OO OOO OOO Tunika Chenchu Gaddalu Gum Karaya ####OO ###OOOCCC Moduga Custard Apple OOOO## Fuelwood15 Fodder availability Less Good16 Potters OOO OOO# Clay collection Pot making17 Kammari OOO Major work Index # - Women O - Men C - Children18 Health Problems People: Fever, cough, conjectivities etc.
  • 42. NATURAL / ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITAL
  • 43. RESORCE MAP Resource and Social Mapping of Hanubalu Village
  • 44. IMAGERIESName of The Village : HediyalaTaluka : NinjangudDistrict: MySoreDemography Star Pattern Settlements
  • 45. Transect Walk
  • 46. Road Mahabubnagar to Nawabpet Tank Zone Rani pet to Shadnagar Feeder channelTransect of Kakarlapahad Tank Bund Zone Residential Arable Residential Arable Scrub Arable Scrub Soil Chelka Chelka / Dubba Chelka Chelka Chelka Chelka Chelka Type Landuse Housing, Primary Dry crops in BC/SC Colony Dry Crops in Fallow since 30 Wet cultivation ½ Scanty school, High Kharif and Hostel Kharif, years acre vegetation, School, mostly barren Grampanchayat Vegetati Neem, Accacia, Castor Neem & Castor, Cotton, Thorny bushes, Paddy Accacia, on / Eucalyptus Eucalyptus Jowar Manga, Neem, Moduga crops Ullinta, Uduga, Accacia, Moduga Water Hand Borewells Rainfed Hand Borewells - - One Borewell Tank - Water source & Public Taps & Public Taps remains for one month in a year Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy Intervent - Piller posts are Roads are relaid - Pattadar grazes Terraced fields Area under ions erected in the under Food For his cattle, Watershed fields Work Programme Programme Problem Side drains They want to sell Side drains, One Earth Bunding, Surplus water - Surplus weir to s/ needed these lands to hand pump Silt application from the be repaired, needs prospective needed needed Rekulakunta Dam is to be buyers for Partyhenium flows leading to repaired housing plots weed problem soil erosion Any Entry road to the These fields are - Moduga leaves - Tank area is other village between BC/SC collection by vil under Patta, Colony and the main village SC FC OBC FC
  • 47. Cropping patterns• July- October- Paddy, Kodho, Black sesam, Urad,Maize• July-April- Arhar• August-January- Mustard• November-March/April-Wheat, gram, Masur, Pea, and alsiYield of different cropsMaize>Masur, Gram and Arhar>Alsi>Mustard>Paddy and wheat
  • 48. Agriculture Contd…
  • 49. Animal Husbandry
  • 50. Disaster preparednessNishtaar samiti (Van Sangrakshan Samiti) Alert mechanism for forest fire Mitigation of forest fire Catching and handing over of forest law violators to the forest department. Creating awareness about forest conservation among villagers.(Floods, Cyclones, Earthquakes, Drought, etc.)
  • 51. Climate Change vulnerability• Vulnerability to climate change is the risk of adverse things happening• Vulnerability is a function of three factors: – Exposure – Sensitivity – Adaptive capacity
  • 52. Exposure•Exposure is what is at risk fromclimate change, e.g., – Population – Resources – Property•It is also the climate changethat an affected system willface, e.g., – Sea level – Temperature – Precipitation – Extreme events
  • 53. Sensitivity• Biophysical effect of climate change – Change in crop yield, runoff, energy demand• It considers the socioeconomic context, e.g., the agriculture system• Grain crops typically are sensitive• Manufacturing typically is much less sensitive
  • 54. Adaptive Capacity• Capability to adapt• Function of: – Wealth – Technology – Education – Institutions – Information – Infrastructure – “Social capital”• Having adaptive capacity does not mean it is used effectively
  • 55. Adaptation • “adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm of exploits beneficial opportunities” (Third Assessment Report, Working Group II) – Notice includes “actual” (realized) or “expected” (future) changes in climate
  • 56. • Agriculture productivity increase Natural • Low input agriculture • Local jobs and equity Social • Local enterprises • Least skills Human • Biocharculture • Local technologies Physical • Low energy • Low carbon economy Financial • Low cost • Carbon sequestration and energy securityEnvironment • Mitigation and adaptation to climate change
  • 57. Secondary Air Side Air Primary Air Side Air
  • 58. CHARCOALPRODUCTION
  • 59. Observe the night sky
  • 60. WATER SOURCES & IRRIGATIONNo. of open wells: 77 nos. Functioning: 1 no.No. of Bore wells: 126 nos. Functioning: 126 nos.Small tanks: 10 nos.Total area under tank irrigation: 86 acresTotal area under bore well irrigation: 250 acres DCBC-APRLP/DPAP-Mahabubnagar
  • 61. WOMEN & SHG Womens EmpowermentWomen Womens decision makingSHGsTotal: 1650 Womens self esteemIn groups: 390No. of Groups: 26 Womens ParticipationCorpus: Rs. 2,00,000/-Networked: No 0 1 2 3 4 5 8% Primitive 15% Consumption 39% Productive 38% Asset building DCBC-APRLP/DPAP-Mahabubnagar
  • 62. HEALTH, NUTRITION & EDUCATION No of Girls working as Wage … 100 No of Boys working as Wage … 50No of Girls not enrolled in School 50No of Boys not enrolled in School 10 No of eligible couples not … 10 No of disabled children 5 No of Infant deaths in last 3… 0 No of Meternal deaths in last 3 … 0 No of Children not Immunised 5 No not enroled in Anganvadi … 60 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 TOTAL NUMBERS DCBC-APRLP/DPAP-Mahabubnagar
  • 63. 80 Caste No. of HH 70 Caste Wise Households & Wellbeing 1 Komati 2 Reddy 6 8 60 3 Tenugu 11 50 4 Muslim 15 40 5 Ediga 5 30 6 Munuru Kapu 58 20 7 Pitchakuntla 27 10 8 Gollamushti 49 9 Ausala 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 10 Kummari 9 11 Kammari 11Very poor 0 0 5 4 1 6 2 24 0 4 3 4 0 11 9 12 Managali 5Average 0 3 6 8 4 47 25 25 3 5 8 1 5 63 0 13 Chakali 5 14 Madiga 75Well to do 6 5 0 3 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 15 Chenchu 9 Total Households in the village: 296 DCBC-APRLP/DPAP-Mahabubnagar
  • 64. Existing Livelihoods•Agriculture (Many)•Basket making (10) 1%•Mat weaving (14)•Tadkalu weaving (2) 25% Farmers•Carpentry and black smithy (9) 37%•Potters (2)•Piggery (1)•Tailoring (6)•Dhais (2)•Toddy tapping (5) 37%•Cobblers (2)•Washer men (5) <2 Acres 2 to 7.5 Acres 7.5 to 10 Acres >10 Acres(In paranthesis no. of families) DCBC-APRLP/DPAP-Mahabubnagar
  • 65. Important Issues / Problems1. Low productivity lands2. Majority of them possess small land holdings leading to disguised unemployment.3. High vulnerability due to small land holdings by most of the villagers.4. Sanitation is poor, lack of adequate drainage and toilets.5. Women are enthusiastic, they are ready to do something but unable to decide because of lack of awareness & skills.6. Girl child labour in cotton farms.7. Overall wage rates are low and also men are paid more than women.8. Due to increase in no of borewells for cultivation of water intensive crops, the ground water table is going down.9. People are good but, Men and women take country liquor in the evenings, some men beat their wives under the influence.10. Lack of marketing facilities leading to exploitation of moduga leaf plate makers and gum tapers.11. About 10% of the population is on seasonal migration for work.12. Forced migration due to non-sustainable traditional occupations.13. Most of the traditional LHs are no more sustainable such as black smithy, carpentry, pottery, chappal making, barbers and gold smithy. DCBC-APRLP/DPAP-Mahabubnagar
  • 66. Suggestions / recommendations1. There is need to select this village for livelihoods interventions.2. This village has potential of Women and youth for initiating activities.3. Need to involve community in the optimum utilization of groundwater resources.4. Has potential to form more SHGs with women.5. Networking with CBOs (SHGs, UGs, occupational groups and labour groups) at village level.6. Formation of labour and occupational groups for capacitating in new skills and / or upgrading existing skills.7. Formation of thrift groups with small and marginal farmers8. Farmers need to be organized for sustainable agricultural practices.9. Has the potential for Micro-enterprise activities for women groups.10. Promoting backyard poultry and dairy activities with women groups.11. Finding ME activities or other LH opportunities for the men commuting to Mahabubnagar to work as Hamalis.12. Marketing facilities for leaf-plate makers and trainings on value addition.13. Trainings on Gum karaya collection and grading and facilitating market linkages.14. Small and marginal Farmers need to be trained on better agricultural practices, like vegetables production, seed production.15. Need to train RMPs and Barefoot veterinary persons in the village. DCBC-APRLP/DPAP-Mahabubnagar