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Natural Resource Management Approaches incorporating Disaster risk reduction Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, CEO, GEO http://e-geo.org 8th Nobember 2012 Centre for Disaster Management Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP, India
1. Disasters and disaster trendsDisaster impacts are generally increasing as a result of the combination of increasing populations, greaterconcentrations of people and assets in vulnerable areas, greater use of insurance and the modification anddegradation of natural environments, such as floodplain settlement, coastal exploitation, wetlanddestruction, river channelling, deforestation, soil erosion and fertility decline. Vulnerability to hazards isexacerbated by poverty, disease, conflict and population displacement
The context of natural hazards in the continuum of human experience
Disaster to includes– death toll;– traumatized population (through injury, homelessness, loss of livelihoods);– environmental and economic impacts that overwhelmed the coping capacity of the affected people)D. Bashir & M. Garba 8
Disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, econom ic and/or environmental losses which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources (UN- ISDR, 2002)
Why is climate change adaptation needed? • Climate changing is undermining the sustainability of livelihoods. • Climate change is overwhelming the natural resources on which livelihoods depend. • Climate change is increasing climate-related disaster risk.Photo: Shehab Uddin/DRIK/Oxfam GB
Who are most vulnerable and why?• Those who depend on climate-sensitive resources and ecosystems for their livelihoods; agriculture, fisheries, forests.• Those who live in marginalised and hazard prone areas; deforested hillsides, flood plains, urban slums.• Those with limited assets and political voice to enable them to respond to the impacts of climate change; low adaptive capacity.
Factors Affecting Disaster Impacts• Impacts of disasters are exacerbated by a number of factors that include: – poor land-use planning, – population growth, – environmental mismanagement, – increasing levels of vulnerability, – poor planning, – poor governance, – climate change, – lack of regulatory mechanisms, & – corruption
Impacts of Climate Change• Water related hazards are likely to get worse in this century due to climate change• IPCC estimated the impact of global warming and predicted that: – "Drought-affected areas will likely increase in extent; – Heavy precipitation events, which are very likely to increase in frequency, will augment flood risk."
Coping, resilience and adaptation (a) coping (b) resilience (c) climate change impactsWell-being Gradual changes undermining well-being time time time disaster disaster more frequent disasters (d) climate change adaptation Well-being time hazards
Disaster Risk Reduction agenda and challenge Prior to 1990s - Civil Defence, Relief Reactive organizations: humanitarian response to emergencies During 1990s – International Decade on Natural Disaster (IDNDR), Yokohama strategy which also consider linkage between emergence of disasters/development Since 2000 – International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR): reduce disaster riskProactive HFA: 2005-2015 – Building the resilient communities and nations to disasters as part of Development & linked to Humanitarian agenda
Elements of Drought Risk Red. Framework & Practices
Drought Risk Reduction elements1. Policies and governance To ensure that drought risk reduction is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementationGuiding principles Political commitment, strong institutions and appropriate governance, as part of SD Bottom-up approach with community participation Capacity building and knowledge development Policies emphasize mitigation and preparedness, based o sound risk identification Policy mechanisms Long-term investment in mitigationMain subjects Building political and public alliance: roles and responsibilities of actors Capacity development Components of a drought policy National drought policy case studies Provincial drought policies
Drought Risk Reduction elements (cont.)2. Drought risk identification, impact assessment, and early warning (local, national & trans-boundary scope) Drought risk is a combination of hazard and vulnerability Understand hazard: monitoring and early warning system Vulnerability analysis: physical, socio-economic, livelihoods, cultural, political, environmental, etc. Drought scenarios and impact assessment Forecast and EW
Drought Risk Reduction elements (cont.) IV3. Awareness and knowledge management Promote a culture of prevention and resilience. Effective information management and knowledge exchange. Awareness campaigns with political and public commitment. Identification and promotion of indigenous knowledge, skills and good practices. Education and training opportunities to reduce risk. Sustained political commitment.
Drought Risk Reduction elements (cont.) IV4. Reducing underlying factors of drought risk and innovation Sustainable ecosystems and environmental management. DRR strategies integrated with CC Adaptation. Analysis of food security causes. Land-use planning and rural development Financial risk sharing mechanisms. Public-private partnership, etc.
Drought Risk Reduction elements (cont.) IV5. Effective drought mitigation and preparedness measures Promote a culture of drought mitigation and preparedness. Dialogue/communication between mitigation/response actors. Unify top-down and bottom-up approaches. Enhance capacities and included locals in implementation. Implementation of mitigation and preparedness measures, structural and non structural.
TEMPERATURE PRECIPITATIONS5 degrees = What separates us from the last glacial era (-15 000 BC) Models’ forecasts : +1,4 to +5,8 degrees by 2100. Source : IPCC/SRESA2
Impact of Climate Change on society…Sandy, Katrina, Rita, Stan, Wilma… Climate change will cause heavier tropical cyclones.
Less visual but with major impact Agriculture and food security Consequences of Crop yields, irrigation demands... climate change: Forest Composition, health and productivity... Water resources Water supply, water quality... Coastal areas Erosion, inundation, cost of prevention... Species and natural areas> Temperature increase Biodiversity, modification of ecosystems...> Sea level rise> More rain Human health Infectious diseases, human settlements...
VulnerabilityVulnerability to climate change is the risk of adverse things happeningVulnerability is a function of three factors: Exposure Sensitivity Adaptive capacity
Exposure•Exposure is what is at risk from climatechange, e.g., – Population – Resources – Property•It is also the climate change that anaffected system will face, e.g., – Sea level – Temperature – Precipitation – Extreme events
Sensitivity• Biophysical effect of climate change – Change in crop yield, runoff, energy demand• It considers the socioeconomic context, e.g., the agriculture system• Grain crops typically are sensitive• Manufacturing typically is much less sensitive
Adaptive Capacity• Capability to adapt• Function of: – Wealth – Technology – Education – Institutions – Information – Infrastructure – “Social capital”• Having adaptive capacity does not mean it is used effectively
Vulnerability is a Function of …• More exposure and sensitivity increase vulnerability• More adaptive capacity decreases vulnerability• An assessment of vulnerability should consider all three factors
Adaptation“adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm of exploits beneficial opportunities”(Third Assessment Report, Working Group II)Includes “actual” (realized) or “expected” (future) changes in climate
Adaptation (continued)Two types of adaptationAutonomous adaptation or reactive adaptation tends to be whatpeople and systems do as impacts of climate change becomeapparentAnticipatory or proactive adaptation are measures taken toreduce potential risks of future climate change
SL framework: Determinants of adaptive capacityLivelihood ExamplesresourcesHuman Knowledge, SkillsSocial Women’s savings and loans groups, farmer- CBOsPhysical Irrigation infrastructure, seed and grain storage facilitiesNatural Reliable water source, productive landFinancial Micro-insurance, diversified income sources Policies, institutions and power structures
WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (WDP)Improve and sustain productivity and production potentials of the dry/semi-arid regions of India through adoption of appropriate production and conservation technologies.Meet the needs of local rural communities for food, fuel, fodder and timber. Improve all types of lands, i.e., Government, Forest, Community and Private Lands falling within a watershed.
WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (WDP)WDPs, in short: A holistic approach to improve and develop the economic and natural resource base of dry/semi-arid/fragile regions. In a watershed development program the watershed is the unit for development rather than political or administrative boundaries
WDP Activities• i) Land Development: Levelling and terracing, improving soil quality and productivity; and watershed reclamation.• ii) Water Development: Promote in situ water harvesting and conservation, establish percolation ponds and open wells, tanks, small reservoirs, and improving water quality.
WDP Activitiesiii)Enterprises/Activities: Evolve appropriate farming systems, – encourage a crop mix of high value/high yield crops, – social/agro-forestry, – other income-generating activities like dairying, poultry-keeping, etc.
Some Illustrations of Benefits of WDPs• -Replacing seasonal/annual crops with agro- silvi, agrohorti, silvi-horti; systems on hill slopes/degraded lands. Benefits: reduce soil erosion; arrest surface run-offs.• -Training water to store excess water run-offs in farm ponds/percolation tanks. Benefits: improve groundwater recharge.• -Construction of earthen or vegetative bunds or barriers to surface run-offs in a watershed. Benefits: help in moisture conservation.
MGNREGA• National Rural Employment Guarantee Act2005 (NREGA)• Act guarantees 100 days of employment in a financial year to every household• A social safety net for the vulnerable groups and an opportunity to combine growth with equity• Structured towards harnessing the rural work-force, not as recipients of doles, but as productive partners in our economic process• Assets created result in sustained employment for the area for future growth employment and self-sufficiency
Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regionsPrecipitation is less thanpotentialevapotranspiration.Low annual rainfall of 25to 60 centimeters andhaving scrubby vegetationwith short, coarse grasses;not completely arid.
Nature of WorksWater based Land based• » Water conservation • » Land development• » Water harvesting• » Micro and minor Forest/ Agro--Forestry irrigation works• » Provision of irrigation • » Afforestation facilities • » Horticulture• » Desilting of tanks Infrastructure• » Renovation of traditional water bodies • » Rural roads• » Flood control and protection works
Conservation technologies climate-resilient Stress-tolerant, varieties of drip irrigation, seeds, raised-bed zero-tillage, laser-levelling, planting, Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI),can build adaptive capacities to cope with increasing water stress, providing “more crop per drop”.
“VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND ENHANSING ADAPTIVE CAPACITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN SEMI-ARID AREAS OF INDIA” Policies/Structures Vulnerability Adaptability Rural Poverty Livelihoods DiversificationCommunity Empowerment Energy Bio Diversity Agriculture Production Water Resources Climate Change Appropriate Skills Water Management SCENARIO 1 Human / Social Natural / Environmental / Physical Economic / Political AFPRO 51
Major challenges of Agriculture Climate change - Soil fertility Water variability - management extremes Impact of Burning of crop Alkalinity of soils hazardous residue pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers
Field level interventions ACTIVITY CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FACILITATION RESEARCH
INCREASED PRODUCTI SOIL SPIRITUAL CARBON ON TEMPERAT SEQUESTR URE ATION REGULATE D CREMATIO BELIEFS N TERMITES / MOISTURE ANTS RETENTION CULTURAL REPULSION ALTARS RITUALS ENERG Y EARTHWO WATER SOIL RMS CONSERVA FESTIVALS AMENDMENT INCREASE TION BIOCH AR NITROGEN BIOMASS BIOCHAR / PHOSPHOR COMPOST OUS INSECT FOOD PRESERV RETENTION REPELLE ING NT FOOD SOIL MICROBES NURSERIES FILTERIN CLEANIN DENSITY INCREASE PESTICIDES G MEDIA G ADBSORBTI ON GOOD STOVES SOAK MEDICIN •TLUDs PITS E •Other stoves POULTRY - PRACTICES CH4 REDUCTIONBIOCHAR MATTRE WASTEURINALS SS MANAGEM SOURCES CROP ENT (BIOMASS) RESIDUE •Sludge BIOCHAR TOOTH ANIMALS BRICKS POWDER AQUARI AIR POULTRY QUALITY LIVESTOCK - UM / LITTER FYM / WATER URINE AND TERRARI • CO2 / COMPOST TREATM DUNG UMS CH4 ENT Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, GEO http://e-geo.org | http://biocharculture.com
RITUAL / SPIRITUAL / SOIL AGRICUTURE ANIMALS ENERGY HABITAT SANITATION HEALTH WATER RELIGIOUS / PRACTICES PADDY APPLICATION IN ANIMAL PLACES BIOCHAR FIRE / ALTAR / METHANE BIOCHAR URINALS TO TAP URINE, SOURCE FROM YAGNAS / EMISSIONS BRICKS CLEANING SANITATION EFFICIENT TLUD AGNIHOTRA REDUCTION TEETH AND COOK STOVES EMISSIONSBIOCHAR REDUCTION BIOCHAR PESTICIDE & TOILETS COMPLEX BIOCHAR IN FIRE DURING CHEMICALS AQUARIUMS FESTIVALS AFFECTS RUMINANT WATER MITIGATION ANIMALS AS BY PRODUCT PURIFICATION – METHANE FROM GASIFIER BIOCHAR IN BIOCHAR COLOR, ODOR, EMISSIONS STOVES, CATTLE SHEDS TABLETS REMOVAL OF EMMISIONS REDUCTION AS BOILERS ETC HARMFUL REDUCTION FEED ADDITIVE ELEMENTS, ETC. BIOCHAR IN FROM FARM POULTRY CREMATIONS YARD FARMS CLEANING MANURES AND COMPOSTS PLATES /BIOCHAR UTENSILS SOAKING INCOMPOST CHARCOAL WITH ANIMALS BIOCHAR IN PRODUCTION NATURAL / URINE AND BIOCHAR IN FOOD AS PART FROM BIOMASS ARTIFICIAL CROP RESIDUE EXCRETA - FRIDGES, OF FOOD / WASTE FIRES IN MANAGEMENT VALUE MATTRESSES, BATHING PREPARATIONS MANAGEMENT FORESTS / ADDITION ETC. FIELDS, ETC.
Biocharculture Biocharculture is the process of using Biochar, including cultivation of crops• Biochar is the charcoal produced from carbonaceous source material. Sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems• Biocharculture is one of the means to integrate for sustainable cultivation and carbon sequestration.• Biochar is usually produced at around temperatures 300 to 600 degrees centigrade for example as found in the common biomass cook stoves.• Because of its macromolecular structure dominated by aromatic C, Biochar is more recalcitrant to microbial decomposition than uncharred organic matter
Biocharculture Adaptation benefits Lessen the impact of hazardous Securing the crop Reclaim the pesticides and from drought and water conservation, degraded soils, complex chemicals climate variabiiity & to reduce plant uptake. Conversion of cropreducing emissions increases in residue into Biocharand increasing the Increase in crop C, N, pH, and an option and sequestration of yield available P to the address carbon greenhouse gases plants sequestration Reduction in Increase in the soil Impacts of Biochar Temperature leaching of the bio / microbes / wormslast more than 1000 regulation in the chem fertilizers at the biochar and years. soil applied soil interface
CONTROL AND BIOCHAR - OKRA Farmers focus 80% ON CROP 20% ON SOIL