Management of drought
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Lecture given by Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy at Dr. MCR HRD IAP to Officer Trainees

Lecture given by Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy at Dr. MCR HRD IAP to Officer Trainees

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  • Biochar is a part of the solution for cotton crop sustainable cultivation, there is a need to create large scale awareness among the farmers to continue traditional best practices of Biochar application and also adopt appropriate best technologies for improving the fertility of the soils and their sustainability.

Management of drought Management of drought Presentation Transcript

  • MANAGEMENT OF DROUGHT 19th December 2012 Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, CEO, GEO http://e-geo.org Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP, India
  • Meteorologically, ± 19% deviation of rainfall from the long-term mean is considered‘normal’ in India. Deficiency in the range 20– 59% represents ‘moderate’ drought, and more than 60% is ‘severe’ drought. Rainfall, temperature, evaporation,vegetation health, soil moisture, stream flow, etc. are some of the critical parameters that are used in drought risk analysis
  • Drought Management System in India
  • Drought Management Strategy
  • Drought 2009 cause and what can be done?!The drought is rare of this magnitude and for many people it is a one generation memory. Meteorological and information factors are responsible for this situation. Other cumulative factors are:· Global recession· Increase in commodity prices· Occurrence of diseases· Increase and decrease in real estate prices· Up and down of stock market· Availability of credit is low· National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme – Deviation of labor for indirect natural resources enhancement activities rather contributing to the direct production activities. This has lead to Non availability of labor or uneconomical to hire them.
  • The drought-prone areas are confined mainly to thepeninsular and western parts of the country.These regions suffer drought mostly due to thecumulative effects of changing precipitation pattern,excessive water utilization and ecologicallyunsuitable agriculture practicesAbout 107 mha of the country spread overadministrative districts in several states is affected bydrought
  • Drought classification systemsMeteorological :-• Normal precipitation below 25%.Hydrological :-• Prolonged meteorological drought and drying of reservoirs, lakes, streams and rivers, cessation of spring flows and fall in groundwater levels.Agricultural :-• Depletion of soil moisture during the growing season. A dry situation with 20% probability and rainfall deficiency of more than 25% in drought-prone states of India. Indian National Commission on Agriculture (1978)
  • Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regionsPrecipitation is less thanpotentialevapotranspiration.Low annual rainfall of 25to 60 centimeters andhaving scrubby vegetationwith short, coarse grasses;not completely arid.
  • Andhra Pradesh - Administrativedistricts frequently affected by drought Ananthapur Chittoor Cuddapah Hyderabad Kurnool Mahaboobnagar Nalgonda Prakasam
  • Reported drought events in India over the past 200 years
  • • a. Water in the tanks1. Conserving • b. Conserving the treesthe resources • c. Conserving fodder rather selling • d. Food grains storage rather selling • a. Prioritizing the sale in distress • b. Continue to do any work which provides food or wage • c. Stop risking through going for borewells / wells 2. Coping • d. Reduce input costs • e. Ensure drinking water for people and animals • f. Food and fodder security • a. Don’t sell your land • b. Try avoiding getting credit – the interest rates would swallow you • c. Stop unnecessary spending on the cultural / social events – festivals, marriages, etc.3. Not to do • d. Be united rather being in nuclear / dis-jointed families. • e. Don’t cut / sell trees • f. Take care of the health, so as to reduce the expenses on health4. Prepare for • a. Micro-irrigation practices the • b. Go for Sustainable and subsistence crops rather just commercial crops adaptation • c. Social networks are useful be in the groups existing at various levels
  • Crop Insurance• A2.1. The National Agriculture Insurance Scheme has been implemented in Andhra Pradesh since 1999-2000. The schemes are a mix of voluntary and compulsory participation. They are voluntary at the state level in terms of specific areas and crops. Once the specific area-crop combinations have been notified, participation is compulsory for farmers in those areas cultivating the specific crops and taking agricultural loans. In the case of loanee farmers the sum insured may be at least equal to the crop loan advanced. All farmers can insure to the value of the threshold yield of the insured crop.• A2.2. Eighteen crops are currently insurable under NAIS during Kharif season (e.g., rice, maize, sunflower, groundnut, sugarcane, and cotton) and ten crops during Rabi season (e.g., rice, maize, sunflower, and groundnut). The standard area yield insurance scheme has recently been extended to farm income insurance and rainfall insurance.• A2.3. The XI Finance Commission noted the need to strengthen the crop insurance scheme as a supplementary measure to what is done by the government for providing relief at the time of natural calamity.
  • Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)• A2.4. This fund was established separately for each state on the basis of recommendations of the IX Finance Commission and has since been approved for continuation by the X and XI Finance Commissions. This fund should be used for meeting the expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood and hailstorm. The table below describes the financial status of this fund over the last 5 years.
  • Drought Proofing ProgramsDrought Prone Areas Program (DPAP)• A2.6. DPAP, a centrally sponsored scheme, in operation since 1973, aims at restoring ecological balance in the drought prone areas and mitigation of the adverse effects of drought on crops and livestock through integrated development of natural resources by adoption of appropriate technologies. However, the program fell short of its initial objectives despite large expenditure.• A2.7. DPAP is aimed at developing the drought prone area with an objective of drought proofing by taking up of soil land moisture conservation, water harvesting structures, afforestation and horticulture programs on a comprehensive micro watershed basis. During 1994-95 the program was implemented in 69 blocks of 8 districts. From 1995-96 the program is extended further: 11 districts with 94 blocks under the scheme and Anantapur with 16 blocks under Desert Development Programs (DDP). So far, 3518 watersheds were taken up covering 110 blocks in 12 districts covering an area of 17.6 lakh hectares. Almost 30 percent of the total watersheds in country are located in Andhra Pradesh. Total Rs.507.57 crores are spent towards implementation of the program from 1995-96 to 2002-03. The expenditure for this program is shared by center and state governments in the ratio of 75:25.
  • Joint Forest Management / Community Forest Management• A2.8. The Government of Andhra Pradesh adopted in 1992 the Joint Forest Management program which envisages a strategy for production, improvement and development of forest with the involvement of local communities by forming them into Vana Samrakshana Samithies (VSS).• A2.9. There are 7090 VSS actively involved in protection and development of forests. 8.71 lakh hectares has been treated so far out of 17.40 lakh hectares of forest area under VSS. T he Joint Forest Management program is being supported by the World Bank funded A.P. Community Forest Management Project, NABARD assistant for RIDF schemes and Government of India funded Forest Development agencies.
  • • Water Harvesting Structures• Micro Irrigation Project• Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihood Project (APRLP)• Watershed Development• Integrated Wastelands Development Program (IWDP)• Rural Infrastructure Development• Employment Programs - MGNREGA
  • TEMPERATURE PRECIPITATIONS5 degrees = What separates us from the last glacial era (-15 000 BC) Models’ forecasts : +1,4 to +5,8 degrees by 2100. Source : IPCC/SRESA2
  • Indian poverty• Poverty is widespread in India, with the nation estimated to have a third of the worlds poor. According to a 2005 World Bank estimate, 41.6% of the total Indian population falls below the international poverty line of US$ 1.25 a day (PPP, in nominal terms 21.6 a day in urban areas and 14.3 in rural areas).[1] A recent report by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative states that 8 Indian states have more poor than 26 poorest African nations combined which totals to more than 410 million poor in the poorest African countries.[2]
  • Capitals
  • Watershed activities focus on vulnerability reduction Livelihood enforcing support rightsProductivity of Enhancement natural of knowledge resources
  • Every drop counts
  • The Barefoot College, Tilonia
  • Freshwater management in IndiaWater ConservationWatershed managementWater quality conservationInter basin water transferGW managementRecycle and reuse of waterPublic involvement and capacity building Anupma Sharma
  • Condensation Let’s take a look at Precipitation The Water Cycle Evapotranspiration EvaporationInfiltration Surface Runoff Consumption Surface Water .ppt (40) Sea water intrusion
  • WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (WDP)Improve and sustain productivity and production potentials of the dry/semi-arid regions of India through adoption of appropriate production and conservation technologies.Meet the needs of local rural communities for food, fuel, fodder and timber. Improve all types of lands, i.e., Government, Forest, Community and Private Lands falling within a watershed.
  • WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (WDP)WDPs, in short: A holistic approach to improve and develop the economic and natural resource base of dry/semi-arid/fragile regions. In a watershed development program the watershed is the unit for development rather than political or administrative boundaries
  • WDP Activities• i)Land Development: Levelling and terracing, improving soil quality and productivity; and watershed reclamation.• ii)Water Development: Promote in situ water harvesting and conservation, establish percolation ponds and open wells, tanks, small reservoirs, and improving water quality.
  • WDP Activities• iii)Enterprises/Activities: Evolve appropriate farming systems, encourage a crop mix of high value/high yield crops, social/agro- forestry, other income-generating activities like dairying, poultry-keeping, etc.
  • Some Illustrations of Benefits of WDPs• -Replacing seasonal/annual crops with agro-silvi, agrohorti, silvi-horti; systems on hill slopes/degraded lands. Benefits: reduce soil erosion; arrest surface run-offs.• -Training water to store excess water run-offs in farm ponds/percolation tanks. Benefits: improve groundwater recharge.• -Construction of earthen or vegetative bunds or barriers to surface run-offs in a watershed. Benefits: help in moisture conservation.
  • In the life of a farmer climate Variability and Extreme events are more importantthan climate change
  • Government departments (AP) • Agriculture and Co-Operation • Labour, Employment Training and Factories • Animal Husbandry and Fisheries • Law • Backward Classes Welfare • Minorities Welfare • Consumer Affairs Food & Civil Supplies • Municipal Administration and Urban • Energy Development • Environment, Forests, Science and • Panchayat Raj and Rural Development Technology • Planning • FinanceFinance (PMU)Finance (Project Wing) • Public Enterprises • General Administration • Rain Shadow Areas Development • Health, Medical and Family Welfare • Revenue • Higher Education • School Education (SE Wing) • Home • School Education (SSA Wing) • Housing • Social Welfare • Industries and Commerce • Transport, Roads and Buildings • Information Technology and Communications • Women Development, Child Welfare and • Infrastructure and Investment Disabled Welfare • Irrigation • Youth Advancement, Tourism and Culturehttp://www.aponline.gov.in/apportal/departments/portallistoforgsbydepts.aspx?i=3
  • MGNREGA• National Rural Employment Guarantee Act2005 (NREGA)• Act guarantees 100 days of employment in a financial year to every household• a social safety net for the vulnerable groups and an opportunity to combine growth with equity• Structured towards harnessing the rural work-force, not as recipients of doles, but as productive partners in our economic process• assets created result in sustained employment for the area for future growth employment and self-sufficiency• Operationalised from 2nd February, 2006 in 200 selected districts, extended to 130 more districts in 2007-08.• The remaining districts (around 275) of the country under the ambit of NREGA from 1st of April, 2008
  • Agriculture• India ‘s population is 1.21 billion in 2011. 67% are rural. Majority are in agriculture.• Importance of agriculture in Indian economy. Although it contributes only 15% of GDP, the share of workers is about 55%.• Marginal and small farmers dominate• Major crops are rice, wheat, maize, coarse cereals, groundnut, cotton, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables• 60% of cultivated area is rainfed as only 40% of area is under irrigation.• Rural poverty is 41%in 2004-05.• Agriculture is a ‘State Subject’. In other words, the policies of provinces are also important
  • Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regionsClimate Variability and extremes arean expected characteristic of semi-aridlands.The people vulnerable to droughts,which trigger frequent subsistencecrisesIncreasing crop failures, dislocation,famine, poverty, increasesstratification and the social inequities.
  • Major challenges of Agriculture Climate change - Soil fertility Water variability - management extremes Impact of Burning of crop Alkalinity of soils hazardous residue pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers
  • Vulnerability of poor in rural areasTwo-thirds of households derive income directly from natural sourcesNatural resources are threatened by stresses Biotic & AbioticAgriculture & natural resource based livelihoods at immediate riskRural poor do not have resources to cope
  • Nature of WorksWater based Land based• » Water conservation • » Land development• » Water harvesting• » Micro and minor Forest/ Agro--Forestry irrigation works• » Provision of irrigation • » Afforestation facilities • » Horticulture• » Desilting of tanks Infrastructure• » Renovation of traditional water bodies • » Rural roads• » Flood control and protection works
  • Conservation technologiesStress-tolerant, climate-resilient varieties of seeds, drip irrigation, zero-tillage, raised-bed planting, laser-levelling, Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI), can build adaptive capacities to cope with increasing water stress, providing “more crop per drop”.
  • “VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND ENHANSING ADAPTIVE CAPACITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN SEMI-ARID AREAS OF INDIA” Policies/Structures Vulnerability Adaptability Rural Poverty Livelihoods DiversificationCommunity Empowerment Energy Bio Diversity Agriculture Production Water Resources Climate Change Appropriate Skills Water Management SCENARIO 1 Human / Social Natural / Environmental / Physical Economic / Political AFPRO 60
  • GSBC PROJECTINTEGRATED APPROACH
  • Major challenges of Agriculture Climate change - Soil fertility Water variability - management extremes Impact of Burning of crop Alkalinity of soils hazardous residue pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers
  • 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0 195152 195253 195354 195455 195556 195657 195758 195859 195960 196061 196162 196263 196364 196465 196566 196667 196768 196869 196970 197071 197172 197273 197374 197475 197576 197677 197778 197879 197980 198081 198182 198283 198384 198485 198586 198687 198788 198889 198990 199091 199192 199293 199394 199495 199596 199697 199798 199899 199900 200001 200102 200203Mahabubnagar District Rainfall Pattern 200304 200405 200506 200607 R2 = 0.1374 200708 200809 200910 y = -4.6207x + 851.14 201011 201112 201213 201314
  • Field level interventions ACTIVITY CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FACILITATION RESEARCH
  • INCREASED PRODUCTI SOIL SPIRITUAL CARBON ON TEMPERAT SEQUESTR URE ATION REGULATE D CREMATIO BELIEFS N TERMITES / MOISTURE ANTS RETENTION CULTURAL REPULSION ALTARS RITUALS ENERG Y EARTHWO WATER SOIL RMS CONSERVA FESTIVALS AMENDMENT INCREASE TION BIOCH AR NITROGEN BIOMASS BIOCHAR / PHOSPHOR COMPOST OUS INSECT FOOD PRESERV RETENTION REPELLE ING NT FOOD SOIL MICROBES NURSERIES FILTERIN CLEANIN DENSITY INCREASE PESTICIDES G MEDIA G ADBSORBTI ON GOOD STOVES SOAK MEDICIN •TLUDs PITS E •Other stoves POULTRY - PRACTICES CH4 REDUCTIONBIOCHAR MATTRE WASTEURINALS SS MANAGEM SOURCES CROP ENT (BIOMASS) RESIDUE •Sludge BIOCHAR TOOTH ANIMALS BRICKS POWDER AQUARI AIR POULTRY QUALITY LIVESTOCK - UM / LITTER FYM / WATER URINE AND TERRARI • CO2 / COMPOST TREATM DUNG UMS CH4 ENT Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, GEO http://e-geo.org | http://biocharculture.com
  • RITUAL / SPIRITUAL / SOIL AGRICUTURE ANIMALS ENERGY HABITAT SANITATION HEALTH WATER RELIGIOUS / PRACTICES PADDY APPLICATION IN ANIMAL PLACES BIOCHAR FIRE / ALTAR / METHANE BIOCHAR URINALS TO TAP URINE, SOURCE FROM YAGNAS / EMISSIONS BRICKS CLEANING SANITATION EFFICIENT TLUD AGNIHOTRA REDUCTION TEETH AND COOK STOVES EMISSIONSBIOCHAR REDUCTION BIOCHAR PESTICIDE & TOILETS COMPLEX BIOCHAR IN FIRE DURING CHEMICALS AQUARIUMS FESTIVALS AFFECTS RUMINANT WATER MITIGATION ANIMALS AS BY PRODUCT PURIFICATION – METHANE FROM GASIFIER BIOCHAR IN BIOCHAR COLOR, ODOR, EMISSIONS STOVES, CATTLE SHEDS TABLETS REMOVAL OF EMMISIONS REDUCTION AS BOILERS ETC HARMFUL REDUCTION FEED ADDITIVE ELEMENTS, ETC. BIOCHAR IN FROM FARM POULTRY CREMATIONS YARD FARMS CLEANING MANURES AND COMPOSTS PLATES /BIOCHAR UTENSILS SOAKING INCOMPOST CHARCOAL WITH ANIMALS BIOCHAR IN PRODUCTION NATURAL / URINE AND BIOCHAR IN FOOD AS PART FROM BIOMASS ARTIFICIAL CROP RESIDUE EXCRETA - FRIDGES, OF FOOD / WASTE FIRES IN MANAGEMENT VALUE MATTRESSES, BATHING PREPARATIONS MANAGEMENT FORESTS / ADDITION ETC. FIELDS, ETC.
  • Biocharculture Biocharculture is the process of using Biochar, including cultivation of crops• Biochar is the charcoal produced from carbonaceous source material. Sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems• Biocharculture is one of the means to integrate for sustainable cultivation and carbon sequestration.• Biochar is usually produced at around temperatures 300 to 600 degrees centigrade for example as found in the common biomass cook stoves.• Because of its macromolecular structure dominated by aromatic C, Biochar is more recalcitrant to microbial decomposition than uncharred organic matter
  • Biocharculture Adaptation benefits Lessen the impact of hazardous Securing the crop Reclaim the pesticides and from drought and water conservation, degraded soils, complex chemicals climate variabiiity & to reduce plant uptake. Conversion of cropreducing emissions residue into Biochar increases in C, N,and increasing the Increase in crop an option and pH, and available P sequestration of yield address carbon to the plants greenhouse gases sequestration Reduction in Increase in the soil Impacts of Biochar Temperature leaching of the bio / microbes / wormslast more than 1000 regulation in the chem fertilizers at the biochar and years. soil applied soil interface
  • CONTROL AND BIOCHAR - OKRA Farmers focus 80% ON CROP 20% ON SOIL
  • BIOCHAR COMPOST
  • APPLICATION IN THE FIELDS
  • OKRA - CONTROL AND BIOCHAR PLOTSCONTROL BIOCHAR COMPOST 4 KGS 8 KGS 12 KGS
  • BIOCHAR CONTROL1.5 FEET 6 FEET
  • BIOCHAR RESULTSGSBC PROJECT, 2009 (DORUGHTPREVAILED DURING THE GROWINGSEASON)
  • Methane Emissions from paddy fields
  • Biochar – livestock urine
  • Ref: http://...