GHG emissions: total and per capita Source: Climate Data: Insights and Observations, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, December, 2004 % of World GHGs Tons C equiv. Per capita United States 20.6 6.6 China 14.8 1.1 European Union (25) 14.0 2.8 Russia 5.7 3.6 India 5.5 0.5 Japan 4.0 2.9 Germany 2.9 3.2 United Kingdom 2.0 3.1
Forest energy residues Energy efficiency In production: HF, PH3, etc Solar electricity Solar heat Energy crops arable land Straw Energy forest arable land Forest energy tree-stumps Sound/noise Wind-power Hydropower Household waste Peat Oil Coal comments Aesthetic Area Vegetation Fauna Water/sea local Global/ regional Environmental consequences of the various energy sources
Energy in transport 18% Use of CFCs 17% Agriculture 15% Energy in Homes, Business 14% Deforestation 8% Others 3% Energy in Industry 25% WORLD CO2 - EMMISSION
Solar energy: The installed capacity of solar power has increased seven-fold.
Wind energy: capacity has grown by more than a factor of 13.
Although “new renewables” (which exclude large-scale hydropower and traditional biomass) still represent a modest 2-percent share of global energy use, and wind and solar represent less than 1 percent.
Reasons: The immediate effects include rapidly declining costs, impressive technology advances, and growing economic power and broad-based political support, which in turn are leading to further policy reforms and even faster growth.
Investment: The estimated $20.3 billion spent on renewable energy development in 2003 was roughly one-sixth of total world investment in power generation equipment.
BIO MASS : Wood burning, cooking, keeping warm, metallurgy MUSCLE POWER : Agriculture, water lifting, commerce, horse, bullocks, Camels. WIND POWER : Transport, Trade & Commerce, wars & conquests HYDRO POWER : Water wheels, grinding. COAL : Steam power, Industrial revolution, mass & cheap transport. RENEWABLE ENERGY – HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE
The rural population in India relies heavily on traditional biomass-based fuels (fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung) for meeting its energy needs.
Approximately 96% of rural households are estimated to be using biofuels (NSSO 1997).
These fuels dominate the domestic sector and are primarily used for cooking. Fuelwood is the primary energy source for cooking used by rural households (78%) (TERI 1999a).
In actual volumes as well, fuelwood ranks first, at 252.1 million tonnes, followed by dung-cakes, at 106.9 million tonnes and agricultural residue, at 99.2 million tonnes of annual consumption (TERI 1992).
Similarly, the per capita consumption figures are also high for fuelwood at 250 kg, 50 kg for animal dung and 134 kg for crop residues (NSSO 1997).
At the projected growth rate in primary energy demand, India needs to strategically evaluate its
supply options to meet its energy requirements. Coal would continue to be its dominant
However it would have to actively develop non-coal sources to meet its future needs. It is estimated that at a growth rate of 5 percent in coal production, India’s extractable coal reserves would get exhausted in 40 years.
Therefore, from a long-term perspective and in view of growing environmental concerns from use of coal, the country needs to look at developing other sources such as nuclear and renewable energy.
India has vast reserves of the nuclear fuel thorium but technology is not yet developed for its commercial use.
Renewable energy could also contribute usefully to India’s energy requirement given that India is well endowed with solar energy. India’s oil assets are meager but recent discoveries hold promise for India’s gas reserves and coal bed methane.
The estimated energy reserves/ potential for Different supply scenarios have been developed by
India’s Planning Commission to meet the future energy requirements. These scenarios look at
Petroleum products like LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and kerosene form less than two per cent of the total energy consumption in the rural areas. Hence the large imports of petroleum products only marginally benefit the rural populace that constitutes nearly 70% of the population in the country. In rural India, kerosene is mainly used for lighting. According to the 50th round of NSS (NSSO 1996), around 62% of the rural households use kerosene primarily for lighting. Only two per cent of the rural households in India used kerosene as the primary cooking fuel. The total kerosene consumption in India during 2000/01 was estimated at around 11.5 million tonnes, out of which about 60% was for the rural areas. The PCA (per capita allocation) for states ranges between 10 and 24 kg a year. While allocating kerosene for the year 1999/2000, the maximum PCA has been frozen at 24 kg per annum (MoPNG 2000).
In case of LPG, since 1985, the consumption has grown
Electricity demand in India is increasing at the rate of 7% per annum. This is the result of an increased rate of industrialisation, urbanisation and agricultural activities. At present, the energy and peaking shortages are about 8% and 19% respectively. These shortages can be supplemented by renewable energy sources. There are two kinds of energy generation and distribution systems-centralised and decentralised. The concept of a centralised system is harnessing energy at a centralised centre and then redistributing the same to a wide area around it. Power transmission losses, high investment on laying transmission lines and on repair and maintenance are some of the limitations of the centralised power generating systems. In India, centralised energy distribution systems are predominant and energy sources mostly conventional-70% through coal-fired thermal power plants. Not only is this system expensive in monetary terms, the environmental costs of generating conventional energy are also very high, when compared with nonconventional energy systems. Decentralised energy systems emerge from small-scale systems catering to the needs of small groups of people. This is especially applicable in remote rural areas where the cost of conventional energy systems would be higher and difficult to supply. Nonconventional solar, wind and biomass energy can be harnessed locally and distributed through both centralised and decentralised systems.
ADVANTAGES TO USING BIOMASS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Biomass has many environmental and social/economic advantages for a developing community.
It is an appealing alternative to fossil fuels as it can be run by locally by local people as opposed to other energy resources which often need highly trained operators and be run away from populated areas.
This means that community members can build on skills; boosting moral and making them more employable. It also creates jobs and business opportunities for people which can boost the economy of the area.
Also, as biomass uses organic matter, fuelling biomass generators means that waste products from a community; anything ranging from food scrapes, fibres or surplus waste from agriculture, can be used to create energy. This is handy not only because its cheap but it also it minimizes cost involved with waste disposal and it also reduces waste going to landfill. This again, can generate money for the community.
As a community becomes more reliable on biomass, it can loosen any dependence on fossil fuels and their outside operators; making the society more self sufficient and forgoing possible future debt.
Environmental effects of using a biomass as a fuel source.
Biomass is renewable.
This is particularly important in a developing community where it is costly to be involved in unsustainable practices.
Biofuel systems are also credited to releasing much less sulphur than their fossil fuel counterparts. This is important for an improved air quality especially as biomass fuels are credited to releasing minimal amounts of methane and carbon dioxide.
The bit that makes biomass a better alternative then wind power or solar energy is that it runs of excess waste. Very effective for the aesthetics, the smell and the economy!
Because much of the waste used in a biomass operation is likely to release CO2 through decomposing, biomass generators actually are able to reduce CO2 emissions!
Although carbon dioxide release is minimal, biomass combustion has been reported to releasing carbon monoxide , which we all know is highly toxic, and particularly dangerous to women and children (who will probably be the ones most exposed to it in a kitchen situation) The problem of most concern is that of deforestation caused from wood combustion. Apart from the general effects that this practice has (erosion, salinity, loss of biodiversity, cleaner water and air etc.) this can have very specific effects on a developing rural community.
Even if a sustainable practice concerning growing and cultivating bio-crops is implemented, the constant harvesting and re-harvesting of crops means a gradual stripping of soil nutrients . Fertile soil is vital for rural communities who depend upon crops for their income; unproductive soils could spell the end to an agriculturally based community.
Bio-crops also take up valuable land space , which could otherwise be used for food crops or livestock, in order to have year long fuel available several crops must be planted so that one area can be used while another grows.
Majority of people living in the villages are still using three stone stoves and other traditional stoves, which are less efficient and release large quantity of smoke.
Routinely they make Rotis, Cook Rice, Ragi, Dal and Vegetables.
The people living in the semi-arid areas are poor and vulnerable, they are affected by climate variability / change, some of them migrate to other parts of the country for livelihoods. The literacy is low, natural resources are degrading and parts of these semi-arid areas are getting converted into arid.
AWARENESS : Intensive awareness on the need to adopt efficient stoves to be created through local folk plays, wall writings and paintings, film shows. Live demonstration of Good Stoves through community workshops, Motivation meetings with community, experience sharing by pilot women with women still using traditional stoves.
DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION: Designing appropriate stoves to meet the community needs. Village Level demonstration workshops of Good Stoves for community participation and awareness.
PILOTING: Few households in each village to be provided Good Stoves on demand basis replacing traditional stoves. Receive continuous feed back and improved the design as per peoples need.
SCALING UP and SUSTAINABILITY: Women, youth and local masons should be trained on construction and maintenance of these clean and efficient stoves.
RECOGNISING COMMUNITY: “Appreciation Certificate” to each woman who has adopted Good Stove. Wall writing on each house wall that they have adopted “Good Stove”.
Awareness: It was found that women who were ready for adopting the Good stoves were literate and were young. Especially in one village as there was shortage of fuel wood the willingness was more. Initially illiterate and old women were not convinced for adoption of efficient stoves, which was overcome through intensive awareness.
Technology adaptation: Three months was the pilot field testing phase during this period improvement in the design was made based on the continuous feed back from the women. People requested for reduction of the stove height, which was created for the chimney effect and to improve efficiency, but as they make Jowar Roti, which is less elastic, it was breaking while lifting on to the pan. Keeping in view the peoples needs, two inches height of the good stove was reduced (compromising on reducing the chimney effect to some extent). With this change almost all the families in these villages were willing to adopt Good Stoves.
Sustainability and Scaling up: Earlier government sponsored improved stoves did not sustain as the stove cost was high and the women and youth were not trained on how to construct, moreover they were provided under grant / subsidy. The women / youth and few masons in the village were trained on construction and maintenance.
This experience shows that however efficient our technology could be, but for sustainable implementation of the community level interventions, Intensive Awareness and Participatory Technology Development processes are necessary.
SWOT analysis – fossil power Strengths Decentralised; Established technology, Significant research input to meet various end use, Centrally processed fuel available; Sales, service and other support network well established; Energy cost (was) a small fraction of the product cost; Ideal fuel for transport Weakness Fuel price linked to international market (now); Driven by governmental subsidy pattern; Global warning (now) ; Competition in product line – establish to reduce the fuel cost (now) Opportunities Small scale industries growing rapidly; Gestation period nearly zero; Energy costs (was) lower than grid cost Threats Environmental ; Governmental dependence on the pricing
SWOT analysis – Biomass power Strengths Decentralised; Strengthens self-reliance; Environmentally sound; Locally available fuel; Potentially adequate to replace fossil fuelled energy conversion Weakness Replicability not yet proven (Low visibility) ; Capital cost may (claimed) be too high; Fuel dispersed; Standardization of technology package with services, etc Opportunities Costs are declining; Gestation period low; Power generation costs lower than fossil fuel system; Fossil fuel substitution very high; Potential very high ; Available for continuous duty operation Threats Power sector reforms may under emphasize biomass based systems
Basic energy needs in a rural scenario Sl no Item At present 1 Energy for domestic cooking - Wood / biomass stoves - LPG 2
Agro processing( heat and electricity)
kerosene or other oils, Fossil fuel based Biomass and fossil fuel based 3 Energy for rural transport
fossil fuel based vehicles
Possible options using bioenergy Sl no Item Possible options 1 Energy for cooking
Improved Wood / biomass
Agro processing( heat and electricity)
- biogas - Biomass gasification - non-edible oils 3 Energy for rural transport
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