Conservation of wetlands ecosystem


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Conservation of Wetlands, Lecture delivered at Dr. MCR - HRD IAP

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Conservation of wetlands ecosystem

  1. 1. CONSERVATION OF WETLAND ECOSYSTEM<br /> Integrated Coastal Zone Management for Sustainable Development <br />12-14 July 2011<br />Dr. N. SaiBhaskar Reddy, CEO, GEO<br />Center for Climate Change and Environment Advisory (CCCEA)<br />Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP<br />14th July 2011<br />
  2. 2. Why is conservation education important? <br />Effective conservation will not be achieved without public insistence<br />
  3. 3. What Is a Wetland?<br />Although wetlands are often wet, a wetland might not be wet year-round. In fact, some of the most important wetlands are only seasonally wet. Wetlands are the<br />link between the land and the water. They are transition zones where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients, and the energy of the sun meet to produce a unique ecosystem characterized by hydrology, soils, and vegetation<br />
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  5. 5. Wetlands provide fundamental ecological services and are regulators of water regimes and sources of biodiversity at all levels - species, genetic and ecosystem.Wetlands constitute a resource of great economic, scientific, cultural, and recreational value for the community.Wetlands play a vital role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Progressive encroachment on, and loss of, wetlands cause serious and sometimes irreparable environmental damage to the provision of ecosystem services. Wetlands should be restored and rehabilitated, whenever possible. Wetlands should be conserved by ensuring their wise use <br />
  6. 6. The Convention on Wetlands is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. It was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975, and it is the only global environmental treaty that deals with a particular ecosystem. The Convention's member countries cover all geographic regions of the planet.<br />
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  8. 8. Organism examples:<br />Primary Producers: cattail, wild rice, smooth cord grass, sweet flag, blue iris,<br />switch grass<br />Primary Consumers: meadow voles, mice, rabbits, aquatic macroinvertebrates,<br />deer, fish, waterfowl<br />Secondary Consumers: birds of prey, snakes, foxes, fish, humans<br />Tertiary Consumers: turkey vultures, ravens, crabs, humans<br />Decomposers: fungi, bacteria<br />WETLANDS<br />
  9. 9. As well as sequestering net CO2, peatlands may also emit methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the case of peatland drainage, CH4 emissions from peat soils decrease whereas CO2 (and N2O) emissions increase. In case of peatland rewetting, the opposite occurs: CO2 and N2O emissions strongly decrease while CH4 emissions increase.<br />
  10. 10. Wetlands depend on flows from rivers. Dams, diversions and river management have reduced flooding to these wetlands, altering their ecology, and causing the death or poor health of aquatic biota<br />
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  12. 12. Wetlands mitigate impact of tidal surge, cyclones, coastal erosion and tsunamis<br />
  13. 13. The coastal domain from 200 m above to 200m below sea level: <br /> Occupies 18% of the surface of the globe Is the area where around a quarter of global primary productivity occurs Where around 60% of the human population lives Where two thirds of the world cities with population of over 1.6 million people are located Supplies approximately 90% of world fish catch<br />The coastal ocean accounts for:<br /> 8% of the ocean surface < 0.5% of the ocean volume Around 14% of global ocean production Up to 50% of global oceanic denitrification 80% of the global organic matter burial 90% of the global sedimentary mineralisation 75-90% of the global sink of suspended river load and its associated elements/pollutants In excess of 50% of present day global carbonate deposition<br />
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  15. 15. Water storage<br />Surface water holding<br />Groundwater recharge<br />Groundwater discharge<br />Flow regulation<br />Flood mitigation<br />Water quality control<br />Water purification<br />Retention of nutrients<br />Retention of sediments<br />Retention of pollutants<br />Hydrological regulating functions of wetlands (Ramsar, 1999)<br />
  16. 16. Emissions from drained land are disproportionally large. Drained peatlands, covering a mere 0.3% of the global land surface, are responsible for some 6% of total global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from drained peatlands have increased by 25% since 1990.<br />
  17. 17. Wetlands – Kidneys of Earth<br />Wetlands are the kidneys of Earth. They purify the waters that pass through them and distill out poisonous sediments, chemicals and pollutants. Wetlands purify waste matter through a natural process of oxidation, radiation, bio-degradation and pisciculture (fish cultivation). Wetlands also regulate and maintain the planet’s air and water cycles including the levels of oxygen, nitrogen, sulpher, methane and carbon-dioxide.<br />
  18. 18. The remaining area is grown for wetland rice, consisting of irrigated, rainfed, and deepwater rice. The global wetland rice area harvested annually in the early 1980s was about 123.2 million hectares (total harvested area including upland rice is 144 Mha), over 90 per cent of which was in Asia.<br />
  19. 19. Ref: Present state of the coastal environment in IndiaElrich de Sa, Director, National Institute of Oceanography.<br />
  20. 20. Wetlands of Namibia Poster<br />Or <br /><br />
  21. 21. Kinds of Wetlands<br />Vary based on geographic location<br /><ul><li>Bog – peat-accumulating with no inflows or outflows; supports mosses
  22. 22. Bottomland – lowlands along streams and rivers
  23. 23. Fen – ground-water fed; peat accumulating
  24. 24. Marsh – frequently inundated; emergent herbaceous vegetation
  25. 25. Mire – peat-accumulating (Europe)
  26. 26. Moor – peat-accumulating (Europe)
  27. 27. Muskeg – Large expanses of peatlands or bogs (Canada/Alaska)
  28. 28. Peatland – any wetland that accumulates decaying plant matter
  29. 29. Playa – marshlike ponds similar to potholes (southwest U.S.)
  30. 30. Pothole – shallow, marshlike pond; found in Dakotas and Canada
  31. 31. Reedswamp – marsh dominated by common reed (Europe)
  32. 32. Slough – swamp or shallow lake system
  33. 33. Swamp – wetland dominated by trees or shrubs
  34. 34. Vernal Pool – shallow, intermittently flooded wet meadow
  35. 35. Wet Meadow – grassland with waterlogged soil near the surface – without water for most of year
  36. 36. Wet Prairie – similar to marsh but water levels intermediate between marsh and wet meadow</li></ul>Source: Mitsch and Gosselink, 1993.<br />
  37. 37. <ul><li>Salt Marshes: SALTWATER</li></ul>-Atlantic &Gulf coasts<br />-open areas filled with seas of grasses<br />-calm spots away from wind (bays, inlets)<br />-LOTS of wildlife<br /><br />
  38. 38. Mangrove Swamps: SALTWATER<br />-tropical fresh & saltwater<br />-Florida<br />-migrating stop for birds<br />-oysters, mangrove crabs, fish, herons, egrets, storks<br />
  39. 39. <ul><li>Swamp: FRESH WATER</li></ul>-slow-moving streams/rivers<br />-wet during growing season, dry during summer<br />-inches to feet of water<br />-huge trees & shrubs<br />
  40. 40. Marsh: FRESH WATER<br />-perennial grasses, NO trees<br />-wet areas,<br />-muskrats important<br />-migratory birds need<br /><br />
  41. 41. <ul><li>Bogs: FRESHWATER</li></ul>-Lots of peat (40 ft or more!)<br />-colder regions b/c little water flows in or out<br />-too much rain or snow<br /><br />
  42. 42. Wetland Values<br /><ul><li> Maintain biodiversity
  43. 43. Maintain water quality
  44. 44. Support commercial fishing
  45. 45. Reduce flood damage
  46. 46. Bird watching, Boating
  47. 47. Aesthetic value</li></li></ul><li>Wetland Values<br />Habitat : Nesting, spawning, rearing and resting sites for aquatic and land species, food chain production<br />Hydrology: Protection of other areas from wave action and erosion, storage areas for storm water and flood water, ground and surface water aquifer recharge<br />Water: Water quality protection<br />
  48. 48. Types of Monitoring<br />Biological quality elements (diatoms, macro-invertebrates, fish,etc)<br />Hydromorphological quality elements (water flow, bed structure, etc)<br />Physico-chemical quality elements (temperature, salinity, conductivity, N, P, etc)<br />
  49. 49. Field Measurements<br /><ul><li>Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
  50. 50. Water Temperature
  51. 51. pH
  52. 52. Conductivity
  53. 53. Turbidity (NTUs)
  54. 54. Transparency (cm)</li></li></ul><li>Factors that affect life in the wetland ecosystem.<br />Abiotic factors<br />Water<br />Soil <br />Light<br />Temperature<br />Biotic factors<br />Mangroves<br />Algae<br />Birds<br />Turtles<br />fish<br />
  55. 55. Wetlands and Wildlife:<br /><ul><li>Migration: between winter & summer homes, birds “refuel”(egrets, herons, geese, sandpipers, plovers)
  56. 56. Natural Nurseries: hatch & hide!
  57. 57. Habitat & breeding grounds: animals live here and breed esp. (WATERFOWL, moose, frogs, raccoon, turtles, opossum, snakes, insects, fish)
  58. 58. Rare species: 1/2 US endangered species live here: (wood stork, nail kites, whooping cranes, American crocodile)</li></li></ul><li>Plant Life: Emergents: plants that grow out of the water<br />
  59. 59. Floating plants: float on the surface, roots floating as well<br />
  60. 60. Plant Life: Submergents: grow under the water<br />
  61. 61. Thank you…<br />Ref:<br />http://....<br /><br />Majority of photos are by Presenter<br /><br />