Biochar is a part of the solution for cotton crop sustainable cultivation, there is a need to create large scale awareness among the farmers to continue traditional best practices of Biochar application and also adopt appropriate best technologies for improving the fertility of the soils and their sustainability.
1. Climate Change and Water Resources Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, CEO, GEO http://e-geo.org 16th August 2012Center for Climate Change and Environment Advisory (CCCEA) Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP, India
2. Present carbon cycle Storage and flux of carbon (in billions of tones)SPEED OF EXCHANGE PROCESS Very fast (less than 1 year) Fast (1 to 10 years) Slow (10 to 100 years) Very slow (more than 100 years)
3. Human activity influence
4. Variation of the temperature on Earth
5. Temperature trends (1976 to 2000)
6. Precipitation trends (1900 to 2000)
7. TEMPERATURE PRECIPITATIONS5 degrees = What separates us from the last glacial era (-15 000 BC) Models’ forecasts : +1,4 to +5,8 degrees by 2100. Source : IPCC/SRESA2
8. Visual impact of Climate Change
9. Impact of Climate Change on society…Katrina, Rita, Stan, Wilma… Climate change will cause heavier tropical cyclones.
10. Cost of extreme weather events
11. Less visual but with major impact Agriculture and food security Consequences of Crop yields, irrigation demands... climate change: Forest Composition, health and productivity... Water resources Water supply, water quality... Coastal areas Erosion, inundation, cost of prevention... Species and natural areas> Temperature increase Biodiversity, modification of ecosystems...> Sea level rise> More rain Human health Infectious diseases, human settlements...
12. VulnerabilityVulnerability to climate change is the risk of adverse things happeningVulnerability is a function of three factors: Exposure Sensitivity Adaptive capacity
13. Exposure•Exposure is what is at risk from climatechange, e.g., – Population – Resources – Property•It is also the climate change that anaffected system will face, e.g., – Sea level – Temperature – Precipitation – Extreme events
14. Sensitivity• Biophysical effect of climate change – Change in crop yield, runoff, energy demand• It considers the socioeconomic context, e.g., the agriculture system• Grain crops typically are sensitive• Manufacturing typically is much less sensitive
15. Adaptive Capacity• Capability to adapt• Function of: – Wealth – Technology – Education – Institutions – Information – Infrastructure – “Social capital”• Having adaptive capacity does not mean it is used effectively
16. Vulnerability is a Function of …• More exposure and sensitivity increase vulnerability• More adaptive capacity decreases vulnerability• An assessment of vulnerability should consider all three factors
17. Adaptation“adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm of exploits beneficial opportunities”(Third Assessment Report, Working Group II)Includes “actual” (realized) or “expected” (future) changes in climate
18. Adaptation (continued)Two types of adaptationAutonomous adaptation or reactive adaptation tends to be whatpeople and systems do as impacts of climate change becomeapparentAnticipatory or proactive adaptation are measures taken toreduce potential risks of future climate change
19. SL framework: Determinants of adaptive capacityLivelihood ExamplesresourcesHuman Knowledge, SkillsSocial Women’s savings and loans groups, farmer- CBOsPhysical Irrigation infrastructure, seed and grain storage facilitiesNatural Reliable water source, productive landFinancial Micro-insurance, diversified income sources Policies, institutions and power structures
21. Indian poverty• Poverty is widespread in India, with the nation estimated to have a third of the worlds poor. According to a 2005 World Bank estimate, 41.6% of the total Indian population falls below the international poverty line of US$ 1.25 a day (PPP, in nominal terms 21.6 a day in urban areas and 14.3 in rural areas). A recent report by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative states that 8 Indian states have more poor than 26 poorest African nations combined which totals to more than 410 million poor in the poorest African countries.
22. What is being done and how effective is it?1. Communities continuously finding better options to reduce their vulnerability2. Few responses decrease the sensitivity of the system3. Majority are short-term fixes - reduce vulnerability temporarily but decreases the resilience of the system
23. Climate Changes in India• Increase in surface temperature by 0.4 degree C over the past century.• Warming trend along the west coast, in central India, the interior peninsula, and northeastern India.
24. Climate Changes in India• Cooling trend in northwest India and parts of South India.• Regional monsoon variations: increased monsoon seasonal rainfall along the west coast, northern Andhra Pradesh and North- western India, decreased monsoon seasonal rainfall over eastern Madhya Pradesh, North-
25. Climate Changes in India• Observed trends of multi- decadal periods of more frequent droughts, followed by less severe droughts.• Studies have shown a rising trend in the frequency of heavy rain events and decrease in frequency of moderate events over central India from 1951 to 2000. 26
26. Climate Changes in India• Records of coastal tide gauges in the north Indian ocean for the last 40 years has revealed an estimated sea level rise between 1.06-1.75 mm per year.• The available monitoring data on Himalayan glaciers indicates recession of some glaciers. 27
27. Per-capita Carbon –dioxide emission (Metric Tons)25 20.012015 11.71 9.4 9.87105 3.6 4.25 1.020 USA Europe Japan China Russia India World average
28. Watershed activities focus on vulnerability reduction Livelihood enforcing support rightsProductivity of Enhancement natural of knowledge resources
29. Every drop counts
30. The Barefoot College, Tilonia
31. Freshwater management in IndiaWater ConservationWatershed managementWater quality conservationInter basin water transferGW managementRecycle and reuse of waterPublic involvement and capacity building Anupma Sharma
32. Condensation Let’s take a look at Precipitation The Water Cycle Evapotranspiration EvaporationInfiltration Surface Runoff Consumption Surface Water .ppt (36) Sea water intrusion
33. WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (WDP)Improve and sustain productivity and production potentials of the dry/semi-arid regions of India through adoption of appropriate production and conservation technologies.Meet the needs of local rural communities for food, fuel, fodder and timber. Improve all types of lands, i.e., Government, Forest, Community and Private Lands falling within a watershed.
34. WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (WDP)WDPs, in short: A holistic approach to improve and develop the economic and natural resource base of dry/semi-arid/fragile regions. In a watershed development program the watershed is the unit for development rather than political or administrative boundaries
35. WDP Activities• i)Land Development: Levelling and terracing, improving soil quality and productivity; and watershed reclamation.• ii)Water Development: Promote in situ water harvesting and conservation, establish percolation ponds and open wells, tanks, small reservoirs, and improving water quality.
36. WDP Activities• iii)Enterprises/Activities: Evolve appropriate farming systems, encourage a crop mix of high value/high yield crops, social/agro- forestry, other income-generating activities like dairying, poultry-keeping, etc.
37. Some Illustrations of Benefits of WDPs• -Replacing seasonal/annual crops with agro- silvi, agrohorti, silvi-horti; systems on hill slopes/degraded lands. Benefits: reduce soil erosion; arrest surface run-offs.• -Training water to store excess water run-offs in farm ponds/percolation tanks. Benefits: improve groundwater recharge.• -Construction of earthen or vegetative bunds or barriers to surface run-offs in a watershed. Benefits: help in moisture conservation.
38. In the life of a farmer climate Variability and Extreme events are more importantthan climate change
39. Government departments (AP) • Agriculture and Co-Operation • Labour, Employment Training and Factories • Animal Husbandry and Fisheries • Law • Backward Classes Welfare • Minorities Welfare • Consumer Affairs Food & Civil Supplies • Municipal Administration and Urban • Energy Development • Environment, Forests, Science and • Panchayat Raj and Rural Development Technology • Planning • FinanceFinance (PMU)Finance (Project Wing) • Public Enterprises • General Administration • Rain Shadow Areas Development • Health, Medical and Family Welfare • Revenue • Higher Education • School Education (SE Wing) • Home • School Education (SSA Wing) • Housing • Social Welfare • Industries and Commerce • Transport, Roads and Buildings • Information Technology and Communications • Women Development, Child Welfare and • Infrastructure and Investment Disabled Welfare • Irrigation • Youth Advancement, Tourism and Culturehttp://www.aponline.gov.in/apportal/departments/portallistoforgsbydepts.aspx?i=3
40. MGNREGA• National Rural Employment Guarantee Act2005 (NREGA)• Act guarantees 100 days of employment in a financial year to every household• a social safety net for the vulnerable groups and an opportunity to combine growth with equity• Structured towards harnessing the rural work-force, not as recipients of doles, but as productive partners in our economic process• assets created result in sustained employment for the area for future growth employment and self-sufficiency• Operationalised from 2nd February, 2006 in 200 selected districts, extended to 130 more districts in 2007-08.• The remaining districts (around 275) of the country under the ambit of NREGA from 1st of April, 2008
41. Agriculture• India ‘s population is 1.21 billion in 2011. 67% are rural. Majority are in agriculture.• Importance of agriculture in Indian economy. Although it contributes only 15% of GDP, the share of workers is about 55%.• Marginal and small farmers dominate• Major crops are rice, wheat, maize, coarse cereals, groundnut, cotton, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables• 60% of cultivated area is rainfed as only 40% of area is under irrigation.• Rural poverty is 41%in 2004-05.• Agriculture is a ‘State Subject’. In other words, the policies of provinces are also important
42. Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regionsPrecipitation is less thanpotentialevapotranspiration.Low annual rainfall of 25to 60 centimeters andhaving scrubby vegetationwith short, coarse grasses;not completely arid.
43. Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regionsClimate Variability and extremes are anexpected characteristic of semi-arid lands.The people vulnerable to droughts, whichtrigger frequent subsistence crisesIncreasing cropfailures, dislocation, famine, poverty, increasesstratification and the social inequities.
44. Major challenges of Agriculture Climate change - Soil fertility Water variability - management extremes Impact of Burning of crop Alkalinity of soils hazardous residue pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers
45. Crop Water Soil ClimateEnergy Environment
46. Vulnerability of poor in rural areasTwo-thirds of households derive income directly from natural sourcesNatural resources are threatened by stresses Biotic & AbioticAgriculture & natural resource based livelihoods at immediate riskRural poor do not have resources to cope
47. Nature of WorksWater based Land based• » Water conservation • » Land development• » Water harvesting• » Micro and minor Forest/ Agro--Forestry irrigation works• » Provision of irrigation • » Afforestation facilities • » Horticulture• » Desilting of tanks Infrastructure• » Renovation of traditional water bodies • » Rural roads• » Flood control and protection works
48. Conservation technologiesStress-tolerant, climate-resilient varieties of seeds, drip irrigation, zero-tillage, raised-bed planting, laser-levelling, Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI), can build adaptive capacities to cope with increasing water stress, providing “more crop per drop”.
49. “VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND ENHANSING ADAPTIVE CAPACITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN SEMI-ARID AREAS OF INDIA” Policies/Structures Vulnerability Adaptability Rural Poverty Livelihoods DiversificationCommunity Empowerment Energy Bio Diversity Agriculture Production Water Resources Climate Change Appropriate Skills Water Management SCENARIO 1 Human / Social Natural / Environmental / Physical Economic / Political AFPRO 59
50. GSBC PROJECTINTEGRATED APPROACH
51. Major challenges of Agriculture Climate change - Soil fertility Water variability - management extremes Impact of Burning of crop Alkalinity of soils hazardous residue pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers
53. Field level interventions ACTIVITY CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FACILITATION RESEARCH
54. INCREASED PRODUCTI SOIL SPIRITUAL CARBON ON TEMPERAT SEQUESTR URE ATION REGULATE D CREMATIO BELIEFS N TERMITES / MOISTURE ANTS RETENTION CULTURAL REPULSION ALTARS RITUALS ENERG Y EARTHWO WATER SOIL RMS CONSERVA FESTIVALS AMENDMENT INCREASE TION BIOCH AR NITROGEN BIOMASS BIOCHAR / PHOSPHOR COMPOST OUS INSECT FOOD PRESERV RETENTION REPELLE ING NT FOOD SOIL MICROBES NURSERIES FILTERIN CLEANIN DENSITY INCREASE PESTICIDES G MEDIA G ADBSORBTI ON GOOD STOVES SOAK MEDICIN •TLUDs PITS E •Other stoves POULTRY - PRACTICES CH4 REDUCTIONBIOCHAR MATTRE WASTEURINALS SS MANAGEM SOURCES CROP ENT (BIOMASS) RESIDUE •Sludge BIOCHAR TOOTH ANIMALS BRICKS POWDER AQUARI AIR POULTRY QUALITY LIVESTOCK - UM / LITTER FYM / WATER URINE AND TERRARI • CO2 / COMPOST TREATM DUNG UMS CH4 ENT Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, GEO http://e-geo.org | http://biocharculture.com
55. RITUAL / SPIRITUAL / SOIL AGRICUTURE ANIMALS ENERGY HABITAT SANITATION HEALTH WATER RELIGIOUS / PRACTICES PADDY APPLICATION IN ANIMAL PLACES BIOCHAR FIRE / ALTAR / METHANE BIOCHAR URINALS TO TAP SOURCE FROM YAGNAS / EMISSIONS BRICKS CLEANING URINE, SANITAT EFFICIENT TLUD AGNIHOTRA REDUCTION TEETH ION AND COOK STOVES EMISSIONSBIOCHAR REDUCTION BIOCHAR PESTICIDE & TOILETS COMPLEX BIOCHAR IN FIRE DURING CHEMICALS AQUARIUMS FESTIVALS AFFECTS RUMINANT WATER MITIGATION ANIMALS AS BY PRODUCT PURIFICATION – METHANE FROM GASIFIER BIOCHAR IN BIOCHAR COLOR, ODOR, EMISSIONS STOVES, BOILER CATTLE SHEDS TABLETS REMOVAL OF EMMISIONS REDUCTION AS S ETC HARMFUL REDUCTION FEED ADDITIVE ELEMENTS, ETC. BIOCHAR IN FROM FARM POULTRY CREMATIONS YARD FARMS CLEANING MANURES AND COMPOSTS PLATES /BIOCHAR UTENSILS SOAKING INCOMPOST CHARCOAL WITH ANIMALS BIOCHAR IN PRODUCTION NATURAL / URINE AND FOOD AS PART FROM BIOMASS BIOCHAR IN ARTIFICIAL CROP RESIDUE EXCRETA - OF FOOD / WASTE FRIDGES, MATT FIRES IN MANAGEMENT VALUE BATHING PREPARATIONS MANAGEMENT RESSES, ETC. FORESTS / ADDITION FIELDS, ETC.
56. Biocharculture Biocharculture is the process of using Biochar, including cultivation of crops• Biochar is the charcoal produced from carbonaceous source material. Sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems• Biocharculture is one of the means to integrate for sustainable cultivation and carbon sequestration.• Biochar is usually produced at around temperatures 300 to 600 degrees centigrade for example as found in the common biomass cook stoves.• Because of its macromolecular structure dominated by aromatic C, Biochar is more recalcitrant to microbial decomposition than uncharred organic matter
57. Biocharculture Adaptation benefits Lessen the impact of hazardous Securing the crop Reclaim the pesticides and from drought and water conservation, degraded soils, complex chemicals climate variabiiity & to reduce plant uptake. Conversion of cropreducing emissions increases in residue into Biocharand increasing the Increase in crop C, N, pH, and an option and sequestration of yield available P to the address carbon greenhouse gases plants sequestration Reduction in Increase in the soil Impacts of Biochar Temperature leaching of the bio / microbes / wormslast more than 1000 regulation in the chem fertilizers at the biochar and years. soil applied soil interface
58. CONTROL AND BIOCHAR - OKRA Farmers focus 80% ON CROP 20% ON SOIL
59. BIOCHAR COMPOST
60. APPLICATION IN THE FIELDS
61. OKRA - CONTROL AND BIOCHAR PLOTSCONTROL BIOCHAR COMPOST 4 KGS 8 KGS 12 KGS
62. BIOCHAR CONTROL1.5 FEET 6 FEET
63. BIOCHAR RESULTSGSBC PROJECT, 2009 (DORUGHTPREVAILED DURING THE GROWINGSEASON)
64. Methane Emissions from paddy fields
65. Biochar – livestock urine
66. BIOCHAR URINALS TAPPING NITROGEN FROM URINE OF ANIMALS AND PEOPLE USING BIOCHAR
67. OTHER BIOCHAR APPLICATIONSBIOCHAR BRICKS, GREEN BUILDINGS