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Climate Change and Sustainable Development Strategies 20thMarch – 22nd March, 2012Centre for Climate Change and Environment Advisory; DR. MCR HRD Institute Campus, Hyderabad Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy Chief Executive Officer [CEO], GEOECOLOGY ENERGY ORGANISATION [GEO] http://e-geo.org
VulnerabilityVulnerability to climate change is the risk of adverse things happeningVulnerability is a function of three factors: Exposure Sensitivity Adaptive capacity
Adaptation“adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm of exploits beneficial opportunities”(Third Assessment Report, Working Group II)Includes “actual” (realized) or “expected” (future) changes in climate
Adaptation (continued)Two types of adaptationAutonomous adaptation or reactive adaptation tends to bewhat people and systems do as impacts of climate changebecome apparentAnticipatory or proactive adaptation are measures taken toreduce potential risks of future climate change
PROSOPIS JULIFLORA - CAUSE AND USE Decrease in rainfall SEMI-ARID Climate change / variability High temperatures ENVRIONMENT Increase in intensity of cultivation -Energy Needs -Charcoal Making Groundwater use + Contribution of salts - Biochar -Use of complex fertilizers - Wood for utility -Surfacing of natural salts -Pods / leaves as from deep inside the ground livestock feed through groundwater ALKALINE SOILS Poor germination, Fallow Suitable for Non-availability of soil minerals lands growth of Decrease in yield Prosopis Juliflora
Climate Changes in India Increase in surface temperature by 0.4 degree C over the past century. Warming trend along the west coast, in central India, the interior peninsula, and northeastern India.
Climate Changes in India Cooling trend in northwest India and parts of South India. Regional monsoon variations: increased monsoon seasonal rainfall along the west coast, northern Andhra Pradesh and North- western India, decreased monsoon seasonal rainfall over eastern Madhya Pradesh, North- eastern India, and parts
Climate Changes in India Observed trends of multi- decadal periods of more frequent droughts, followed by less severe droughts. Studies have shown a rising trend in the frequency of heavy rain events and decrease in frequency of moderate events over central India from 1951 to 2000. 8
Climate Changes in India Records of coastal tide gauges in the north Indian ocean for the last 40 years has revealed an estimated sea level rise between 1.06- 1.75 mm per year. The available monitoring data on Himalayan glaciers indicates recession of some glaciers. 9
Per-capita Carbon –dioxide emission (Metric Tons)25 20.012015 11.71 9.4 9.8710 5 3.6 4.25 1.020 USA Europe Japan China Russia India World average
Impacts of Climate Changes Water resources Agriculture and food production Health Forests Coastal areas Vulnerability to extreme events Bioenergy Livelihoods Environment Economy Ecology 11
National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) Protecting the poor and vulnerable sections of society through sustainable development sensitive to climate change Achieving national growth objectives through a qualitative change in direction, ecological sustainability, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. 12
National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) Efficient and cost effective strategies for end use Demand side Management. Technologies for adaptation and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions. Promote sustainable development - Regulatory and voluntary mechanisms 13
Core of NAPCC - NationalMissions National Solar Mission:The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency: Current initiatives are expected to yieldThese National Missions are being institutionalized by therespective Ministries/ Departments.2012. savings of 10,000 MW by
Core of NAPCC - NationalMissions National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning. National Water Mission: With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures.
Core of NAPCC - NationalMissions for Sustaining the National Mission Himalayan Ecosystem: The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of India’s water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming. National Mission for a “Green India”: Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.
Core of NAPCC - National Missionsfor Sustainable National Mission Agriculture: The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased international collaboration. It also encourage private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.
Rural Livlihoods - ResourcesThe livelihoods of the rural poor are directly dependent on environmental resources. land Water Forests EnergyAre vulnerable to weather and climate variability forestwater stress groundwater soil fertility habitats increases levels recede declines disappear.
Paying themostClimate change will only exacerbate the vulnerabilities of the rural poor. As climate- sensitive, natural ecosystems deteriorate, subsis tence will slip further out of reach.
India’s rural poor, whohave least contributedto ClimateChange, will pay someof the problem’sheaviest tolls.
In the life of a farmer climate Variability andExtreme events are more important than climate change
Climate Change / Variability inSemi-arid regionsPrecipitation is less thanpotential evapo-transpiration.Low annual rainfall of 25to 60 centimeters andhaving scrubby vegetationwith short, coarse grasses;not completely arid.
Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regionsClimate Variability and extremes are anexpected characteristic of semi-arid lands.The people vulnerable to droughts, which triggerfrequent subsistence crises In Andhra PradeshIncreasing cropfailures, dislocation, famine, poverty, increases 2009 witness tostratification and the social inequities. • 50 years old drought • 100 years old flood
“VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND ENHANSING ADAPTIVE CAPACITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN SEMI-ARID AREAS OF INDIA” Policies/Structures Vulnerability Adaptability Rural Poverty Livelihoods DiversificationCommunity Empowerment Energy Bio Diversity Agriculture Production Water Resources Climate Change Appropriate Skills Water Management SCENARIO 1 Human / Social Natural / Environmental / Physical Economic / Political AFPRO 26
Field levelinterventions ACTIVITY CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FACILITATION RESEARCH
INCREASE D PRODUC SOIL SPIRITU CARBON TEMPERA AL TION SEQUEST TURE RATION REGULAT ED CREMATI BELIEFS ON TERMITE MOISTUR S / ANTS E CULTUR REPULSIO RETENTI AL N ON ALTARS RITUALS ENER GY EARTHW WATER SOIL FESTIVA ORMS CONSERV AMENDMENT LS INCREASE ATION BIOC HAR NITROGE N/ BIOMASS BIOCHAR PHOSPH COMPOS OROUS T FOOD RETENTI INSECT PRESER ON REPELL VING ENT FOOD SOIL MICROBE NURSERI FILTERI S CLEANI PESTICID ES NG DENSITY NG INCREASE ES MEDIA ADBSORB TION GOOD STOVESSOAK MEDICI • TLUDs PITS NE • Other POULTRY - stoves CH4 PRACTICES REDUCTIO NBIOCH AR MATTR WASTEURINAL ESS MANAGE SOURCES CROP S MENT (BIOMAS RESIDUE S) • Sludge BIOCH TOOTH ANIMALS AR POWDE BRICKS R AIR AQUAR LIVESTOC QUALIT POULTRY IUM / Y FYM / K - URINE LITTER TERRA WATER COMPOST AND • CO2 / RIUMS TREAT DUNG MENT CH4 Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, GEO http://e-geo.org | http://biocharculture.com
RITUAL / SPIRITUAL AGRICUTU SANITATIO / SOIL ANIMALS ENERGY HABITAT HEALTH WATER RE N RELIGIOUS / PRACTICES APPLICATIO PADDY N IN ANIMAL BIOCHAR SOURCE FIRE / ALTAR METHANE PLACES TO BIOCHAR URINALS FROM / YAGNAS / EMISSIONS TAP BRICKS CLEANING EFFICIENT AGNIHOTRA REDUCTION URINE, SANIT TEETH TLUD COOK ATION AND STOVESBIOCHAR EMISSIONS REDUCTION BIOCHAR PESTICIDE & TOILETS COMPLEX BIOCHAR IN FIRE DURING CHEMICALS AQUARIUMS WATER FESTIVALS AFFECTS RUMINANT AS BY PURIFICATIO MITIGATION ANIMALS PRODUCT N– METHANE BIOCHAR IN FROM BIOCHAR COLOR, ODO EMISSIONS CATTLE GASIFIER TABLETS R, REMOVAL EMMISIONS REDUCTION SHEDS STOVES, BOIL OF HARMFUL REDUCTION AS FEED ERS ETC ELEMENTS, E FROM FARM ADDITIVE BIOCHAR IN TC. YARD POULTRY CREMATIONS MANURES FARMS CLEANING AND PLATES / COMPOSTS UTENSILSBIOCHAR SOAKING IN CHARCOAL BIOCHAR INCOMPOST WITH PRODUCTIO FOOD AS ANIMALS N FROM NATURAL / CROP BIOCHAR IN PART OF URINE AND BIOMASS / ARTIFICIAL RESIDUE FRIDGES, MA FOOD EXCRETA - WASTE FIRES IN MANAGEMEN TTRESSES, ET BATHING PREPARATIO VALUE MANAGEMEN FORESTS / T C. NS ADDITION T FIELDS, ETC.
Biocharculture Biocharculture is the process of using Biochar, including for cultivation of crops• Biochar is the charcoal produced from carbonaceous source material. Sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems• Biocharculture is one of the means to integrate for sustainable cultivation and carbon sequestration.• Biochar is usually produced at around temperatures 300 to 600 degrees centigrade for example as found in the common biomass cook stoves.• Because of its macromolecular structure dominated by aromatic C, Biochar is more recalcitrant to microbial decomposition than uncharred organic matter
Biocharculture Adaptation benefits Lessen the impact of hazardousSecuring the crop Reclaim the water pesticides andfrom drought and degraded soils, conservation, complex chemicalsclimate variabiiity & to reduce plant uptake. Conversion of crop reducing residue into increases in emissions and Biochar an option Increase in crop C, N, pH, and increasing the and address yield available P to the sequestration of carbon plantsgreenhouse gases sequestration Reduction in Increase in the soilImpacts of Biochar Temperature leaching of the bio microbes / worms last more than regulation in the / chem fertilizers at the biochar and 1000 years. soil applied soil interface
CONTROL AND BIOCHAR - OKRA Farmers focus 80% ON CROP 20% ON SOIL
Adaptation Initiatives Requirement Objective1 Better SMC conservation - Support for management of Addition of OM (compost, Labor Cost soil moisture manures, GM,GLM) Cover crop, mulching, - Biomass residue incorporation availability2 Efficient use of Minimising the ground - Credit support Ground water water usage for critical irrigation. - Community Social regulations to support control competitive digging of bore wells Increasing SRI under borewell and - Comm.support efficiency of tanks - Technical water use support Micro-irrigation methods - Credit/financial (drips, spriklers) support
Adaptation Initiatives Requirement Objectives3 Diversify crop Crop diversification from - Drought , stress r / farm wheat, paddy to resistant varieties systems millets, Maize, Sorghum - Timely availability of Mono cropping to seeds, contingency intercropping, mixed seeds cropping - Credit for seeds Soil fertility improvement through cropping systems - CB on technology Encouraging horticulture - Good planting material Biomass improvement/ - Timely availability of integration of Multi-Purpose implements Trees Improved implements - Timely availability of drought power Easing bullock constraint - Marketing support
Adaptation Initiatives Requirement Objectivr4 Strengthening Health care system for - Support for man livestock preventive diseases power production system Strengthening sheep and goat systems - Technical through CIG concept. support Strengthening Fisheries production5 Promoting alternate Promoting back yard - Credit support livelihood activities poultry for income Heifer rearing - Technical Ram lamb rearing support actvity6 Creating Buffers Community managed - Infrastructure fodder banks Seed Banks to maintain - Capacity buffer seed and seeds of Building contingent crops - Manpower
BIOCHARRESULTSGSBC PROJECT, 2009 (DORUGHTPREVAILED DURING THEGROWING SEASON)