Climate change and drought
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Climate change and drought

on

  • 621 views

Presentation made by Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, to the Field Training Centers staff of the I & CAD, Govt of AP.

Presentation made by Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, to the Field Training Centers staff of the I & CAD, Govt of AP.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
621
Views on SlideShare
621
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
23
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Biochar is a part of the solution for cotton crop sustainable cultivation, there is a need to create large scale awareness among the farmers to continue traditional best practices of Biochar application and also adopt appropriate best technologies for improving the fertility of the soils and their sustainability.

Climate change and drought Climate change and drought Presentation Transcript

  • 1900 21002003 2050 The State of the Planet Consequences: Four Earths needed in 2100
  • Present carbon cycle SPEED OF EXCHANGE PROCESS Very fast (less than 1 year) Fast (1 to 10 years) Slow (10 to 100 years) Very slow (more than 100 years) Storage and flux of carbon (in billions of tones)
  • Human activity influence
  • Variation of the temperature on Earth
  • Precipitation trends (1900 to 2000)
  • Source : IPCC/SRESA2 5 degrees = What separates us from the last glacial era (-15 000 BC) Models’ forecasts : +1,4 to +5,8 degrees by 2100. TEMPERATURE PRECIPITATIONS
  • Visual impact of Climate Change
  • Less visual but with major impact > Temperature increase > Sea level rise > More rain Agriculture and food security Crop yields, irrigation demands... Forest Composition, health and productivity... Water resources Water supply, water quality... Coastal areas Erosion, inundation, cost of prevention... Species and natural areas Biodiversity, modification of ecosystems... Human health Infectious diseases, human settlements... Consequences of climate change:
  • Climate Changes in India • Cooling trend in northwest India and parts of South India. • Regional monsoon variations: increased monsoon seasonal rainfall along the west coast, northern Andhra Pradesh and North-western India, decreased monsoon seasonal rainfall over eastern Madhya Pradesh, North-eastern India, and parts of Gujrat and Kerala.
  • Climate Changes in India • Observed trends of multi- decadal periods of more frequent droughts, followed by less severe droughts. • Studies have shown a rising trend in the frequency of heavy rain events and decrease in frequency of moderate events over central India from 1951 to 2000. 12
  • Climate Changes in India • Records of coastal tide gauges in the north Indian ocean for the last 40 years has revealed an estimated sea level rise between 1.06-1.75 mm per year. • The available monitoring data on Himalayan glaciers indicates recession of some glaciers. 13
  • The State of the Planet • Access to water is arguably the world’s most urgent resource issue – Every year about 5 million people die due to lack of access to water & sanitation – Almost 30% of people live in countries suffering moderate-to-high water stress – By 2025 more than 4 billion people will be living in water stressed countries • Between 1900-1995 global freshwater consumption rose six-fold, more than double the population growth rate • More than 20% of the world's freshwater fish species have become extinct, threatened, or endangered in recent decades • In 60% of the European cities with more than 100,000 people, groundwater is being used faster than it can be replenished Resource Depletion - Freshwater
  • Vulnerability & Adaptation
  • Vulnerability Vulnerability to climate change is the risk of adverse things happening Vulnerability is a function of three factors: Exposure Sensitivity Adaptive capacity
  • Exposure •Exposure is what is at risk from climate change, e.g., – Population – Resources – Property •It is also the climate change that an affected system will face, e.g., – Sea level – Temperature – Precipitation – Extreme events
  • Sensitivity • Biophysical effect of climate change – Change in crop yield, runoff, energy demand • It considers the socioeconomic context, e.g., the agriculture system • Grain crops typically are sensitive • Manufacturing typically is much less sensitive
  • Adaptive Capacity • Capability to adapt • Function of: – Wealth – Technology – Education – Institutions – Information – Infrastructure – “Social capital” • Having adaptive capacity does not mean it is used effectively
  • Vulnerability is a Function of … • More exposure and sensitivity increase vulnerability • More adaptive capacity decreases vulnerability • An assessment of vulnerability should consider all three factors
  • Adaptation “adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm of exploits beneficial opportunities” (Third Assessment Report, Working Group II) Includes “actual” (realized) or “expected” (future) changes in climate
  • Adaptation (continued) Two types of adaptation Autonomous adaptation or reactive adaptation tends to be what people and systems do as impacts of climate change become apparent Anticipatory or proactive adaptation are measures taken to reduce potential risks of future climate change
  • In the life of a farmer climate Variability and Extreme events are more important than climate change
  • Rural Livelihoods - Resources The livelihoods of the rural poor are directly dependent on environmental resources. Are vulnerable to weather and climate variability land Water Forests Energy water stress increases groundwater levels recede soil fertility declines forest habitats disappear.
  • Meteorologically, ± 19% deviation of rainfall from the long-term mean is considered ‘normal’ in India. Deficiency in the range 20– 59% represents ‘moderate’ drought, and more than 60% is ‘severe’ drought. Rainfall, temperature, evaporation, vegetation health, soil moisture, stream flow, etc. are some of the critical parameters that are used in drought risk analysis
  • Meteorological :- • Normal precipitation below 25%. Hydrological :- • Prolonged meteorological drought and drying of reservoirs, lakes, streams and rivers, cessation of spring flows and fall in groundwater levels. Agricultural :- • Depletion of soil moisture during the growing season. A dry situation with 20% probability and rainfall deficiency of more than 25% in drought-prone states of India. Drought classification systems Indian National Commission on Agriculture (1978)
  • DroughtManagementStrategy
  • Drought 2009 cause and what can be done?! The drought is rare of this magnitude and for many people it is a one generation memory. Meteorological and information factors are responsible for this situation. Other cumulative factors are: · Global recession · Increase in commodity prices · Occurrence of diseases · Increase and decrease in real estate prices · Up and down of stock market · Availability of credit is low · National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme – Deviation of labor for indirect natural resources enhancement activities rather contributing to the direct production activities. This has lead to Non availability of labor or uneconomical to hire them. Link
  • The drought-prone areas are confined mainly to the peninsular and western parts of the country. These regions suffer drought mostly due to the cumulative effects of changing precipitation pattern, excessive water utilization and ecologically unsuitable agriculture practices About 107 mha of the country spread over administrative districts in several states is affected by drought
  • Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regions Precipitation is less than potential evapotranspiration. Low annual rainfall of 25 to 60 centimeters and having scrubby vegetation with short, coarse grasses; not completely arid.
  • Andhra Pradesh - Administrative districts frequently affected by drought Ananthapur Chittoor Cuddapah Hyderabad Kurnool Mahaboobnagar Nalgonda Prakasam
  • Freshwater management in India Anupma Sharma Water Conservation Watershed management Water quality conservation Inter basin water transfer GW management Recycle and reuse of water Public involvement and capacity building
  • Reported drought events in India over the past 200 years
  • • Water in the tanks • Conserving the trees • Conserving fodder rather selling • Food grains storage rather selling 1. Conserv ing the resources • Prioritizing the sale in distress • Continue to do any work which provides food or wage • Stop risking through going for borewells / wells • Reduce input costs • Ensure drinking water for people and animals • Food and fodder security 2. Coping • Don’t sell your land • Try avoiding getting credit – the interest rates would swallow you • Stop unnecessary spending on the cultural / social events – festivals, marriages, etc. • Be united rather being in nuclear / dis-jointed families. • Don’t cut / sell trees • Take care of the health, so as to reduce the expenses on health 3. Not to do • Micro-irrigation practices • Go for Sustainable and subsistence crops rather just commercial crops • Social networks are useful be in the groups existing at various levels 4. Prepare for the adaptation
  • Watershed activities focus on vulnerability reduction Livelihood support enforcing rights Productivity of natural resources Enhancement of knowledge
  • Every drop counts
  • Some Illustrations of Benefits of WDPs • -Replacing seasonal/annual crops with agro-silvi, agrohorti, silvi-horti; systems on hill slopes/degraded lands. Benefits: reduce soil erosion; arrest surface run-offs. • -Training water to store excess water run-offs in farm ponds/percolation tanks. Benefits: improve groundwater recharge. • -Construction of earthen or vegetative bunds or barriers to surface run-offs in a watershed. Benefits: help in moisture conservation.
  • Crop Insurance • A2.1. The National Agriculture Insurance Scheme has been implemented in Andhra Pradesh since 1999-2000. The schemes are a mix of voluntary and compulsory participation. They are voluntary at the state level in terms of specific areas and crops. Once the specific area-crop combinations have been notified, participation is compulsory for farmers in those areas cultivating the specific crops and taking agricultural loans. In the case of loanee farmers the sum insured may be at least equal to the crop loan advanced. All farmers can insure to the value of the threshold yield of the insured crop. • A2.2. Eighteen crops are currently insurable under NAIS during Kharif season (e.g., rice, maize, sunflower, groundnut, sugarcane, and cotton) and ten crops during Rabi season (e.g., rice, maize, sunflower, and groundnut). The standard area yield insurance scheme has recently been extended to farm income insurance and rainfall insurance. • A2.3. The XI Finance Commission noted the need to strengthen the crop insurance scheme as a supplementary measure to what is done by the government for providing relief at the time of natural calamity. • WEATHER BASED CROP INSURANCE SCHEME [WBCIS]
  • Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) • A2.4. This fund was established separately for each state on the basis of recommendations of the IX Finance Commission and has since been approved for continuation by the X and XI Finance Commissions. This fund should be used for meeting the expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood and hailstorm. The table below describes the financial status of this fund over the last 5 years.
  • Drought Proofing Programs Drought Prone Areas Program (DPAP) • A2.6. DPAP, a centrally sponsored scheme, in operation since 1973, aims at restoring ecological balance in the drought prone areas and mitigation of the adverse effects of drought on crops and livestock through integrated development of natural resources by adoption of appropriate technologies. However, the program fell short of its initial objectives despite large expenditure. • A2.7. DPAP is aimed at developing the drought prone area with an objective of drought proofing by taking up of soil land moisture conservation, water harvesting structures, afforestation and horticulture programs on a comprehensive micro watershed basis. During 1994-95 the program was implemented in 69 blocks of 8 districts. From 1995-96 the program is extended further: 11 districts with 94 blocks under the scheme and Anantapur with 16 blocks under Desert Development Programs (DDP). So far, 3518 watersheds were taken up covering 110 blocks in 12 districts covering an area of 17.6 lakh hectares. Almost 30 percent of the total watersheds in country are located in Andhra Pradesh. Total Rs.507.57 crores are spent towards implementation of the program from 1995-96 to 2002-03. The expenditure for this program is shared by center and state governments in the ratio of 75:25.
  • Joint Forest Management / Community Forest Management • A2.8. The Government of Andhra Pradesh adopted in 1992 the Joint Forest Management program which envisages a strategy for production, improvement and development of forest with the involvement of local communities by forming them into Vana Samrakshana Samithies (VSS). • A2.9. There are 7090 VSS actively involved in protection and development of forests. 8.71 lakh hectares has been treated so far out of 17.40 lakh hectares of forest area under VSS. T he Joint Forest Management program is being supported by the World Bank funded A.P. Community Forest Management Project, NABARD assistant for RIDF schemes and Government of India funded Forest Development agencies.
  • Other methods • Water Harvesting Structures • Micro Irrigation Project • Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihood Project (APRLP) • Watershed Development • Integrated Wastelands Development Program (IWDP) • Rural Infrastructure Development • Employment Programs - MGNREGA
  • Government departments (AP) • Agriculture and Co-Operation • Animal Husbandry and Fisheries • Backward Classes Welfare • Consumer Affairs Food & Civil Supplies • Energy • Environment, Forests, Science and Technology • FinanceFinance (PMU)Finance (Project Wing) • General Administration • Health, Medical and Family Welfare • Higher Education • Home • Housing • Industries and Commerce • Information Technology and Communications • Infrastructure and Investment • Irrigation • Labour, Employment Training and Factories • Law • Minorities Welfare • Municipal Administration and Urban Development • Panchayat Raj and Rural Development • Planning • Public Enterprises • Rain Shadow Areas Development • Revenue • School Education (SE Wing) • School Education (SSA Wing) • Social Welfare • Transport, Roads and Buildings • Women Development, Child Welfare and Disabled Welfare • Youth Advancement, Tourism and Culture http://www.aponline.gov.in/apportal/departments/portallistoforgsbydepts.aspx?i=3
  • MGNREGA 'National Rural Employment Guarantee Act'2005 (NREGA) Act guarantees 100 days of employment in a financial year to every household a social safety net for the vulnerable groups and an opportunity to combine growth with equity Structured towards harnessing the rural work-force, not as recipients of doles, but as productive partners in our economic process assets created result in sustained employment for the area for future growth employment and self-sufficiency Operationalised from 2nd February, 2006 in 200 selected districts, extended to 130 more districts in 2007-08. The remaining districts (around 275) of the country under the ambit of NREGA from 1st of April, 2008
  • Agriculture India ‘s population is 1.21 billion in 2011. 67% are rural. Majority are in agriculture. Importance of agriculture in Indian economy. Although it contributes only 15% of GDP, the share of workers is about 55%. Marginal and small farmers dominate Major crops are rice, wheat, maize, coarse cereals, groundnut, cotton, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables 60% of cultivated area is rainfed as only 40% of area is under irrigation. Rural poverty is 41%in 2004-05. Agriculture is a ‘State Subject’. In other words, the policies of provinces are also important
  • Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regions Climate Variability and extremes are an expected characteristic of semi-arid lands. The people vulnerable to droughts, which trigger frequent subsistence crises Increasing crop failures, dislocation, famine, poverty, increases stratification and the social inequities.
  • Major challenges of Agriculture Climate change - variability - extremes Soil fertility Water management Impact of hazardous pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers Burning of crop residue Alkalinity of soils
  • Vulnerability of poor in rural areas Two-thirds of households derive income directly from natural sources Natural resources are threatened by stresses Biotic & Abiotic Agriculture & natural resource based livelihoods at immediate risk Rural poor do not have resources to cope
  • Nature of Works Water based • » Water conservation • » Water harvesting • » Micro and minor irrigation works • » Provision of irrigation facilities • » Desilting of tanks • » Renovation of traditional water bodies • » Flood control and protection works Land based • » Land development Forest/ Agro--Forestry • » Afforestation • » Horticulture Infrastructure • » Rural roads
  • Conservation technologies Stress-tolerant, climate-resilient varieties of seeds, drip irrigation, zero-tillage, raised-bed planting, laser-levelling, Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI), can build adaptive capacities to cope with increasing water stress, providing “more crop per drop”.
  • CULTURAL SPIRITUAL BELIEFS RITUALS FESTIVALS ALTARS CREMATIO N SOURCES (BIOMASS) GOOD STOVES •TLUDs •Other stoves CROP RESIDUE POULTRY LITTER WASTE MANAGEM ENT •Sludge PRACTICES FOOD PRESERV ING FOOD CLEANIN G MEDICIN E MATTRE SS TOOTH POWDER AIR QUALITY • CO2 / CH4 WATER TREATM ENT AQUARI UM / TERRARI UMS BIOCHAR BRICKS BIOCHAR URINALS SOAK PITS FILTERIN G MEDIA INSECT REPELLE NT SOIL AMENDMENT INCREASED PRODUCTI ON SOIL TEMPERAT URE REGULATE D MOISTURE RETENTION WATER CONSERVA TION NITROGEN / PHOSPHOR OUS RETENTION NURSERIES PESTICIDES ADBSORBTI ON SOIL MICROBES DENSITY INCREASE BIOCHAR COMPOST EARTHWO RMS INCREASE TERMITES / ANTS REPULSION CARBON SEQUESTR ATION ANIMALS POULTRY - CH4 REDUCTION LIVESTOCK - URINE AND DUNG FYM / COMPOST BIOMASS BIOCH AR ENERG Y Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, GEO http://e-geo.org | http://biocharculture.com
  • SOIL BIOCHAR BIOCHAR COMPOST AGRICUTURE PADDY METHANE EMISSIONS REDUCTION PESTICIDE& COMPLEX CHEMICALS AFFECTS MITIGATION EMMISIONS REDUCTION FROM FARM YARD MANURES AND COMPOSTS CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT ANIMALS APPLICATIONIN ANIMAL PLACES TO TAP URINE, SANITATION AND EMISSIONS REDUCTION RUMINANT ANIMALS METHANE EMISSIONS REDUCTIONAS FEED ADDITIVE SOAKINGIN WITH ANIMALS URINE AND EXCRETA - VALUE ADDITION ENERGY SOURCE FROM EFFICIENT TLUD COOK STOVES AS BY PRODUCT FROM GASIFIER STOVES, BOILERS ETC CHARCOAL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS / WASTE MANAGEMENT HABITAT BIOCHAR BRICKS BIOCHAR IN AQUARIUMS BIOCHAR IN POULTRY FARMS BIOCHAR IN FRIDGES, MATTRESSES, ETC. SANITATION BIOCHAR URINALS BIOCHAR TOILETS BIOCHAR IN CATTLE SHEDS CLEANING PLATES / UTENSILS BATHING HEALTH CLEANING TEETH BIOCHAR TABLETS BIOCHAR IN FOOD AS PART OF FOOD PREPARATIONS WATER WATER PURIFICATION – COLOR, ODOR, REMOVAL OF HARMFUL ELEMENTS, ETC. RITUAL / SPIRITUAL / RELIGIOUS / PRACTICES FIRE / ALTAR / YAGNAS / AGNIHOTRA FIRE DURING FESTIVALS CREMATIONS NATURAL / ARTIFICIAL FIRES IN FORESTS / FIELDS, ETC.
  • Biocharculture Biocharculture is the process of using Biochar, including cultivation of crops • Biochar is the charcoal produced from carbonaceous source material. Sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems • Biocharculture is one of the means to integrate for sustainable cultivation and carbon sequestration. • Biochar is usually produced at around temperatures 300 to 600 degrees centigrade for example as found in the common biomass cook stoves. • Because of its macromolecular structure dominated by aromatic C, Biochar is more recalcitrant to microbial decomposition than uncharred organic matter
  • Biocharculture Adaptation benefits Securing the crop from drought and climate variabiiity Reclaim the degraded soils, water conservation, Lessen the impact of hazardous pesticides and complex chemicals & to reduce plant uptake. reducing emissions and increasing the sequestration of greenhouse gases Conversion of crop residue into Biochar an option and address carbon sequestration Increase in crop yield increases in C, N, pH, and available P to the plants Impacts of Biochar last more than 1000 years. Temperature regulation in the soil Reduction in leaching of the bio / chem fertilizers applied Increase in the soil microbes / worms at the biochar and soil interface
  • CONTROL AND BIOCHAR - OKRA Farmers focus 80% ON CROP 20% ON SOIL
  • BIOCHAR COMPOST
  • APPLICATION IN THE FIELDS
  • OKRA - CONTROL AND BIOCHAR PLOTS CONTROL BIOCHAR COMPOST 4 KGS 8 KGS 12 KGS
  • 1.5 FEET 6 FEET CONTROL BIOCHAR
  • BIOCHAR RESULTS GSBC PROJECT, 2009 (DORUGHT PREVAILED DURING THE GROWING SEASON)
  • Methane Emissions from paddy fields
  • Biochar – livestock urine
  • Ref: http://...