Climate change and agriculture

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  • Biochar is a part of the solution for cotton crop sustainable cultivation, there is a need to create large scale awareness among the farmers to continue traditional best practices of Biochar application and also adopt appropriate best technologies for improving the fertility of the soils and their sustainability.

Transcript

  • 1. The State of the Planet Consequences: Four Earths needed in 2100 1900 2003 2050 2100
  • 2. Variation of the temperature on Earth
  • 3. Precipitation trends (1900 to 2000)
  • 4. TEMPERATURE PRECIPITATIONS 5 degrees = What separates us from the last glacial era (-15 000 BC) Source : IPCC/SRESA2 Models’ forecasts : +1,4 to +5,8 degrees by 2100.
  • 5. Visual impact of Climate Change
  • 6. Less visual but with major impact Consequences of climate change: Agriculture and food security Crop yields, irrigation demands... Forest Composition, health and productivity... Water resources Water supply, water quality... Coastal areas Erosion, inundation, cost of prevention... > Temperature increase > Sea level rise > More rain Species and natural areas Biodiversity, modification of ecosystems... Human health Infectious diseases, human settlements...
  • 7. Climate Changes in India • Cooling trend in northwest India and parts of South India. • Regional monsoon variations: increased monsoon seasonal rainfall along the west coast, northern Andhra Pradesh and North-western India, decreased monsoon seasonal rainfall over eastern Madhya Pradesh, North-eastern India, and parts of Gujrat and Kerala.
  • 8. Climate Changes in India • Observed trends of multidecadal periods of more frequent droughts, followed by less severe droughts. • Studies have shown a rising trend in the frequency of heavy rain events and decrease in frequency of moderate events over central India from 1951 to 2000. 10
  • 9. Mean annual rainfall (mm) variation in Andhra Pradesh (1960-2009) 1300 1200 1000 900 800 700 600 19 60 19 63 19 66 19 69 19 72 19 75 19 78 19 81 19 84 19 87 19 90 19 93 19 96 19 99 20 02 20 05 20 08 Rainfall (mm) 1100
  • 10. Rainfall (mm) departure in recent twenty five years (1985-09) over past twenty five years (1960-84) in different districts of Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh 150.0 102 Rainfall departure (mm) 100.0 75 50.0 6 WGL KRM -17 MDK MHB NLG -15 HYD 0.0 ADB KMM NZB -24 -50.0 -74 -100.0 -150.0 -99 -60
  • 11. Rural Livelihoods - Resources The livelihoods of the rural poor are directly dependent on environmental resources. land Water Forests Energy Are vulnerable to weather and climate variability water stress increases groundwater levels recede soil fertility declines forest habitats disappear.
  • 12. Drought classification systems Meteorological :• Normal precipitation below 25%. Hydrological :• Prolonged meteorological drought and drying of reservoirs, lakes, streams and rivers, cessation of spring flows and fall in groundwater levels. Agricultural :• Depletion of soil moisture during the growing season. A dry situation with 20% probability and rainfall deficiency of more than 25% in drought-prone states of India. Indian National Commission on Agriculture (1978)
  • 13. Drought 2009 cause and what can be done?! The drought is rare of this magnitude and for many people it is a one generation memory. Meteorological and information factors are responsible for this situation. Other cumulative factors are: · Global recession · Increase in commodity prices · Occurrence of diseases · Increase and decrease in real estate prices · Up and down of stock market · Availability of credit is low · National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme – Deviation of labor for indirect natural resources enhancement activities rather contributing to the direct production activities. This has lead to Non availability of labor or uneconomical to hire them. Link
  • 14. The drought-prone areas are confined mainly to the peninsular and western parts of the country. These regions suffer drought mostly due to the cumulative effects of changing precipitation pattern, excessive water utilization and ecologically unsuitable agriculture practices About 107 mha of the country spread over administrative districts in several states is affected by drought
  • 15. Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regions Precipitation is less than potential evapotranspiration. Low annual rainfall of 25 to 60 centimeters and having scrubby vegetation with short, coarse grasses; not completely arid.
  • 16. Freshwater management in India Water Conservation Watershed management Water quality conservation Inter basin water transfer GW management Recycle and reuse of water Public involvement and capacity building Anupma Sharma
  • 17. Watershed activities focus on vulnerability reduction Livelihood support enforcing rights Productivity of natural resources Enhancement of knowledge
  • 18. MGNREGA 'National Rural Employment Guarantee Act'2005 (NREGA) Act guarantees 100 days of employment in a financial year to every household a social safety net for the vulnerable groups and an opportunity to combine growth with equity Structured towards harnessing the rural work-force, not as recipients of doles, but as productive partners in our economic process assets created result in sustained employment for the area for future growth employment and self-sufficiency Operationalised from 2nd February, 2006 in 200 selected districts, extended to 130 more districts in 2007-08. The remaining districts (around 275) of the country under the ambit of NREGA from 1st of April, 2008
  • 19. Nature of Works Water based • » Water conservation • » Water harvesting • » Micro and minor irrigation works • » Provision of irrigation facilities • » Desilting of tanks • » Renovation of traditional water bodies • » Flood control and protection works Land based • » Land development Forest/ Agro--Forestry • » Afforestation • » Horticulture Infrastructure • » Rural roads
  • 20. Agriculture India ‘s population is 1.21 billion in 2011. 67% are rural. Majority are in agriculture. Importance of agriculture in Indian economy. Although it contributes only 15% of GDP, the share of workers is about 55%. Marginal and small farmers dominate Major crops are rice, wheat, maize, coarse cereals, groundnut, cotton, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables 60% of cultivated area is rainfed as only 40% of area is under irrigation. Rural poverty is 41%in 2004-05. Agriculture is a ‘State Subject’. In other words, the policies of provinces are also important
  • 21. Area ( '000' ha ) under different pulse crops in Andhra Pradesh (2000-01 to 2010-11) Area ('000' ha) under cotton and jowar in Andhra Pradesh (2000-01 to 2010-11) 2000 800 1800 700 Area {'000 ha) 1600 Area {'000 ha) 600 1400 500 1200 1000 400 300 200 Cotton Jowar Greengram Redgram Blackgram 800 600 400 100 200 0 0 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07--08 08-09 09-10 10-11 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07--08 08-09 09-10 10-11 Years Years Area ('000 ha) under groundnut in Andhra Pradesh (2000-01 to 2010-11) 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 900 Area ('000 ha) under Maize in Andhra Pradesh (2000-01 to 2010-11) 800 700 Area {'000 ha) Area {'000 ha) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07--08 08-09 09-10 10-11 Years 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07--08 08-09 09-10 10-11 Years Source: Dr. D. Raji Reddy, ANGRAU
  • 22. Assessment of Vulnerability of Agriculture to climate change Climate Change Direct effects on crop growth •Physiology •Phenology •Morphology Indirect effects Socio economic •Soil fertility •Irrigation availability •Pests •Floods and droughts •Sea level rise •Food demand •Costs and benefits •Policy •Trade •Farmers response •Human intervention •Adaptation strategies •Mitigation strategies Agricultural production and vulnerability Source: Dr. D. Raji Reddy, ANGRAU
  • 23. Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regions Climate Variability and extremes are an expected characteristic of semi-arid lands. The people vulnerable to droughts, which trigger frequent subsistence crises Increasing crop failures, dislocation, famine, poverty, increases stratification and the social inequities.
  • 24. Major challenges of Agriculture Climate change variability extremes Soil fertility Water management Impact of hazardous pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers Burning of crop residue Alkalinity of soils
  • 25. Vulnerability of poor in rural areas Two-thirds of households derive income directly from natural sources Natural resources are threatened by stresses Biotic & Abiotic Agriculture & natural resource based livelihoods at immediate risk Rural poor do not have resources to cope
  • 26. Adaptation Practices • • Diversifying the livelihood sources Changing cropping patterns – – – – – Stress-tolerant, climate-resilient varieties of seeds, drip irrigation zero-tillage raised-bed planting laser-levelling, Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI), can build adaptive capacities to cope with increasing water stress, providing “more crop per drop”. • • • • • Planting more drought tolerant crops Increased share of non-agricultural activities Increased Agro-forestry practices Improved on farm soil & water conservation Change to a mixed cropping pattern • Access to information
  • 27. Crop Insurance • • • • A2.1. The National Agriculture Insurance Scheme has been implemented in Andhra Pradesh since 1999-2000. The schemes are a mix of voluntary and compulsory participation. They are voluntary at the state level in terms of specific areas and crops. Once the specific area-crop combinations have been notified, participation is compulsory for farmers in those areas cultivating the specific crops and taking agricultural loans. In the case of loanee farmers the sum insured may be at least equal to the crop loan advanced. All farmers can insure to the value of the threshold yield of the insured crop. A2.2. Eighteen crops are currently insurable under NAIS during Kharif season (e.g., rice, maize, sunflower, groundnut, sugarcane, and cotton) and ten crops during Rabi season (e.g., rice, maize, sunflower, and groundnut). The standard area yield insurance scheme has recently been extended to farm income insurance and rainfall insurance. A2.3. The XI Finance Commission noted the need to strengthen the crop insurance scheme as a supplementary measure to what is done by the government for providing relief at the time of natural calamity. WEATHER BASED CROP INSURANCE SCHEME [WBCIS]
  • 28. CARBON SEQUESTR ATION SPIRITUAL CREMATIO N INCREASED PRODUCTI ON SOIL TEMPERAT URE REGULATE D BELIEFS TERMITES / ANTS REPULSION CULTURAL ALTARS ENERG Y RITUALS MOISTURE RETENTION EARTHWO RMS INCREASE FESTIVALS WATER CONSERVA TION SOIL AMENDMENT BIOCH AR BIOMASS INSECT REPELLE NT FOOD BIOCHAR COMPOST PRESERV ING FOOD FILTERIN G MEDIA NITROGEN / PHOSPHOR OUS RETENTION SOIL MICROBES DENSITY INCREASE CLEANIN G NURSERIES PESTICIDES ADBSORBTI ON GOOD STOVES SOAK PITS MEDICIN E •TLUDs •Other stoves POULTRY CH4 REDUCTION PRACTICES BIOCHAR URINALS MATTRE SS WASTE MANAGEM ENT SOURCES (BIOMASS) CROP RESIDUE •Sludge BIOCHAR BRICKS TOOTH POWDER AQUARI UM / TERRARI UMS AIR QUALITY WATER TREATM ENT • CO2 / CH4 ANIMALS POULTRY LITTER Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, GEO http://e-geo.org | http://biocharculture.com FYM / COMPOST LIVESTOCK URINE AND DUNG
  • 29. SOIL AGRICUTURE ANIMALS ENERGY PADDY METHANE EMISSIONS REDUCTION APPLICATION IN ANIMAL PLACES TO TAP URINE, SANITAT ION AND EMISSIONS REDUCTION SOURCE FROM EFFICIENT TLUD COOK STOVES BIOCHAR PESTICIDE & COMPLEX CHEMICALS AFFECTS MITIGATION EMMISIONS REDUCTION FROM FARM YARD MANURES AND COMPOSTS BIOCHAR COMPOST CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT HABITAT BIOCHAR BRICKS SANITATION HEALTH WATER BIOCHAR URINALS RITUAL / SPIRITUAL / RELIGIOUS / PRACTICES FIRE / ALTAR / YAGNAS / AGNIHOTRA CLEANING TEETH BIOCHAR TOILETS BIOCHAR IN AQUARIUMS RUMINANT ANIMALS METHANE EMISSIONS REDUCTION AS FEED ADDITIVE SOAKING IN WITH ANIMALS URINE AND EXCRETA VALUE ADDITION AS BY PRODUCT FROM GASIFIER STOVES, BOILER S ETC BIOCHAR IN CATTLE SHEDS BIOCHAR IN POULTRY FARMS CHARCOAL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS / WASTE MANAGEMENT FIRE DURING FESTIVALS BIOCHAR IN FRIDGES, MATT RESSES, ETC. BIOCHAR TABLETS WATER PURIFICATION – COLOR, ODOR, REMOVAL OF HARMFUL ELEMENTS, ETC. CREMATIONS CLEANING PLATES / UTENSILS BATHING BIOCHAR IN FOOD AS PART OF FOOD PREPARATIONS NATURAL / ARTIFICIAL FIRES IN FORESTS / FIELDS, ETC.
  • 30. Biocharculture Biocharculture is the process of using Biochar, including cultivation of crops • Biochar is the charcoal produced from carbonaceous source material. Sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems • Biocharculture is one of the means to integrate for sustainable cultivation and carbon sequestration. • Biochar is usually produced at around temperatures 300 to 600 degrees centigrade for example as found in the common biomass cook stoves. • Because of its macromolecular structure dominated by aromatic C, Biochar is more recalcitrant to microbial decomposition than uncharred organic matter
  • 31. Biocharculture Adaptation benefits water conservation, Lessen the impact of hazardous pesticides and complex chemicals & to reduce plant uptake. Conversion of crop residue into Biochar an option and address carbon sequestration Increase in crop yield increases in C, N, pH, and available P to the plants Temperature regulation in the soil Reduction in leaching of the bio / chem fertilizers applied Increase in the soil microbes / worms at the biochar and soil interface Securing the crop from drought and climate variabiiity Reclaim the degraded soils, reducing emissions and increasing the sequestration of greenhouse gases Impacts of Biochar last more than 1000 years.
  • 32. CONTROL AND BIOCHAR - OKRA Farmers focus 80% ON CROP 20% ON SOIL
  • 33. BIOCHAR COMPOST
  • 34. APPLICATION IN THE FIELDS
  • 35. OKRA - CONTROL AND BIOCHAR PLOTS CONTROL 4 KGS BIOCHAR COMPOST 8 KGS 12 KGS
  • 36. BIOCHAR CONTROL 1.5 FEET 6 FEET
  • 37. BIOCHAR RESULTS GSBC PROJECT, 2009 (DORUGHT PREVAILED DURING THE GROWING SEASON)
  • 38. Methane Emissions from paddy fields
  • 39. Biochar – livestock urine
  • 40. Ref: http://...